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MAY 15, 1915
160 H.P. Model
Curtiss Motor Co.
The output of this model is sold for some weeks to come. Those desiring motors of this type should communicate with the factory at Hammondsport for the necessary arrangements for future deliveries.
All the important American records are held by the Curtiss Motor.
Modern factory methods and large facilities have developed Curtiss Motors to the highest degree of efficiency.
Simplicity of design and construction permit overhauling or repairing by any good mechanic, no special knowledge being required.
Light in weight, yet not so light that durability and strength are sacrificed. The factor of safety is large in Curtiss Motors.
AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 7
TRADE DIRECTORY (Cont'd)
American Car & Ship Hardware Mfg. Co., New Castle, Pa.
(Aluminum, brass and bronze.) Atkinson Co., The, Rochester, N, Y. (Brass, bronze and
aluminum. > Bethlehem Steel Co., South Bethlehem. Pa.
Cramp, William, & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co., The, Beach and Ball Sts., Philadelphia. Pa. (Brٮss and bronze.) Crayen, G. A., * Co., 81 New St., New York. (Magnalium,) Empire Foundry Co., New Brunswick, N. J. (Cylinder and pistons.)
Fore River Ship Building Corp., Quincy, Mass (Aluminum.) General Castings Co., 326 Fort Bldg., Detroit. .Mich. Levett, Walker M., Co., 10th Ave. and 30th St., New York.
("Magnalight" and "Magnalium.") Martin, Glenn I-.., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles,
Cal. (Brass and bronze.) Sturtevant P. P., Co., Hyde Park, Mass. (Aluminum, brass,
bronze and semi-steel.) U. S. Brass & Aluminum Foundry Co., Waukesha, Wis. P. S. McAdamite Metal Co., Isabella Ave., M. C. Ry., Detroit,
American Emaillite Co., Er>.ri W. Washington St., Chicago, 111. Ambroid Co., 350 Broadway, New York. Conover, C. E., Co., 101 Franklin St., New York. Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co.. Ithaca, N. Y.
ENGINEERS AND DESIGNERS
C. M. <>. Physical Laboratory, Buffalo, N. Y. Compton, Lewis R., 50 Church St.. New York. (Consulting Engineer.)
Manly. Charles M„ 250 W. 54th St., New Y'ork. (Experimental and development work.)
Motor Engineering Co., 16S0 \V. Third St., Cleveland, O. (Designing and building aeroplane motors.)
Tracy, Joseph, 17S6 Broadway, New York. (Motor Engineer.) (Steel cylinders.)
CHAINS AND SPROCKETS
Baldwin Chain & Mfg. Co., Worcester, Mass. Diamond Chain & Mfg. Co., 260 W. Georgia St., Indianapolis, Ind.
Frasse, Peter, it Co., 417 Canal St., New York. Miller. Chas. E., !i" Reade St.. New York. Whitney Mfg. Co., Hartford, Conn.
Baldwin, Capt. Tlios. S., P. O. Box 7S, Madison Sq. P. O., New York.
Boyle, Jno., K- Co,, 112 Duane St., New York. (Untreated cotton fabrics.)
Brown. John S., & Sons, Ltd., 21 White St., New Y'ork.
Catoir Silk Co., 257 Fourth Ave., New York. Conover, C. E., Co., 101 Franklin St., New Y'ork. Curtin. John, Inc., 2 South St., New York. (Canvas.) Gary. Theo. II., Co., gy living Place, New York. ("Metzeler" fabrics.)
Goodrich, B. F., Co., Akron, O. ("Lumina" cloth.)
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, O.
Hutchinson-Scott Co.. 17 Battery Place. New York.
Rose & Prank Co.. 136 W. 21st St., New York.
White, James P., & Co., 56 Worth St., New Y'ork. (Linen.)
Wilson, Robert N., Port Jefferson, N. Y.
Wilson & Silsbe, Rowe's Wharf, Boston, Mass.
Warren Featherbone Co.. Room 206, 44 E. 23d St., New Y'ork.
H. W. Johns-Manville Co., 41st St. and Madison Ave., New York.
Pyrene Mfg. Co., 135S Broadway, New York.
AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 8
TRADE DIRECTORY (Cont'd)
Brown & Sharpe, Providence, R. I.
Nilson-.Miller Co., 13th and Hudson Sts., Hohoken, N. J.
Smith, W. R., & Co., 306 W. 52d St., New York. GASOLINE FEED SYSTEMS
Stewart-Warner Speedometer Corp., 1826 Diversey Blvd., Chicago, 111. (Stewart vacuum gasoline system.) GLOVES
Auto Supply Co., 59th St. and Broadway, New York, GLUE
Ambroid Co., 350 Broadway, New York.
Ferdinand, L. W.. & Co.. 201 South St., Boston, Mass.
Westall, A. H., "Los Angeles, Cal.
Wisdom Glue Co.. The, 217 W. Lake St.. Chicago, 111. GOGGLES
Auto Supply Co., Broadway and 59th St., New Y'ork. Featherstone, E. A., Los Angeles, Cal. Meyrowitz, E. B., 237 Fifth Ave., New York.
International Oxygen Co., 68 Nassau St., New York. (Hydrogen, and hydrogen plants, oxygen.") Honeywell Balloon Co., 4460 Chouteau Ave., St. Louis, Mo. Stevens. A. Leo, 282 Ninth Ave., New York, (Generators.)
lmVlvler. Ernest II.. 30 Church St., New York. (Richard barometers, statoscopes. anemometers, manometers, etc.)
Elliott Bros., 1 Central Bldgs., Westminster, London, S. W., England. (Air speed indicators.)
General Acoustic Co., 220 W. 42d St., New Y'ork. (Avia-phone.)
llasler Telegraph Works, 2(i Victoria St., London, S. W., England.
Queen Gray Co., 616 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. (Aneroids, compasses, ascent indicators.)
Sperry Gyroscope Co., 126 Nassau St.. Brooklyn, N. Y. (Sperry stabilizer.)
Stewart-Warner Speedometer Corp., 1826 Diversey Blvd., Chicago, 111.
Lobee Pump & Machinery Co., Ill Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. Lunkenheimer Co., The, Cincinnati, O,
Pedersen Lubricator Co., 636 First Ave., New Y'ork. (Pumps, sight feeds, indicators.)
American Veneer Co., 55th, Clinton and Grand Sts., Hobo-ken, N. J. (Maple and white wood.) Anderson-Tully Co., Memphis, Tenn. (Veneers.) California Hard Wood Co., Los Angeles, Cal. Eggers Veneer Seating Co., Two Rivers, Wis. Grand Rapids Veneer Works, Grand Rapids, Mich. Hammond Lumber Co., Los Angeles, Cal.
Hoffman Bros. Co., 800 W. Main St.. Ft. Wayne. Ind. (Hardwood. )
Jordan Bros. Lumber Co., Norfolk, Va. (Cellar.) Louisville Veneer Mills. 1122 Fulton St., Louisville, Ky. Martin, Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles,
Cal. (Veneers.) Michigan Veneer Co., Alpena, Mich.
Shepard, H. G., & Sons, New Haven, Conn. (Bent wood and
ash dimension strips.) Y'oungs, William P., & Bros., First Ave. and 35th St., New
Bosch Magneto Co., 243 W. 46th St.. New Y'ork. Briggs Magneto Co., Elkhart, Ind.
Carlisle & Finch Co., 229 E. Clifton Ave., Cincinnati, O. Connecticut Telephone & Electric Co.. Meriden. Conn. (Automatic igniter system; terminals and switches.)
Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics by AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th St., New York
Telephone, Circle 22S9 Cable. Aeronautics. New York
Entered as Second Class Mail Matter, September 22, 190S, under the Act of March 3. 1874. $3.00 a year, 15 cents a copy.
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Make all checks and monev orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS PRESS.
ERNEST L. JONES Editor
M. B. SELLERS Technical Editor HARRY SCHULTZ Model Editor
FRANK CASH Ass't Editor
The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each month. All copy must be received b days before date of publication. 11 proof is to be shown, allowance must be made for receipt and return.
Subscribers will kindly notify this office il discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.
TECHNICAL TALKS—By M. B. Sellers
OFFSET PLANES; CONSTANTIN PROFILE
M. Eiffel found.* for two planes directly superposed, that the unit lift was less than for a single plane, the difference being small for small angles of attack, and increasing with the angle up to about 6 degrees. Between 6 and 10 degrees the reduction in lift is maximum and almost independent of the angle. For a cambered biplane with the gap equal to the chord, the loss is 23 per cent. The loss is greater for flat than for cambered surfaces.
The unit drift is approximately the same for two superposed planes as for a single plane.
In a later experiment M. Eiffel found that the loss in lift was almost entirely in the lower plane, and this has led some to the conclusion that if the lower plane were advanced (offset forward), the lift of the combination would be increased.
But experiment seems to show that this is not the case. M. Eiffel experimented with two planes, set at various distances apart vertically, and offset both forward and backward.t and found that when the top plane was offset forward the highest lift was ob-
*Resistanee de I'Air et VAviation, p. 69. ■^Resistance de 1'Air et 1'Aviation, p. 179.
served and when set back the lowest lift was shown. Very little difference in lift and efficiency was observed for the three positions, and he concludes that offsetting is of small advantage.
In the report of the British Advisory Committee for 1912, p. 73, it is stated that there was slight gain, S per cent, ill setting the top plane forward, and a loss in setting it back.
In 1903 I made experiments with offset planes in my 3-foot wind tunnel, and repeated them in 1906 in my 30-inch tunnel; the results were however not published till 1910 (Aeronautics, Feb. 1910, p. 42). Here also the greatest lift was with the higher plane set forward. I also tried three planes superposed and offset with similar results, except that the loss in lift was greater than with two.
My attention has been called to a communication in British Aeronautics, Sept., 1913, by A. Tcherschersky, who states that with models he obtained the greatest lift with the top plane set back; but that with the top plane set forward he got the best gliding angle, that is, more efficiency. It seems that these experiments were made with flying or gliding models, and if that is so, they
could hardly be classed with the other experiments as to accuracy. The communication does not state how the tests were made.
Referring now to another matter which may be of interest, the Constants Wing Profile, it will be remembered that M. Constantin advocated a concavity on the upper side of the leading edge, intended to deflect the air upward, so as to increase the rarifaction above the wing and thus augment the lift. M. Consantin reported a very considerable gain in lift and efficiency due to this form of leading edge, but some other experimenters and manufacturers, according to reports, have had discouraging results, and have it seems, abandoned its use.
[it his recent work of 1914, M. Eiffel gives results of experiments with this device (p. 119) which show an improvement in lift and efficiency, especially with thick wing sections. With some wings tested there was very little gain, and, in case of the wing No. 35 at least, it seems to me that just as much improvement could be had by merely sharpening the leading edge in the usual way. Considering all information at hand it would seem that the Constantin profile has not fulfilled expectations.
A WING PROFILE OF GREAT UNIT LIFT
M. Kauffman in Acrophile (Jan. 1, 1915) publishes the data of a curve giving a high lift together with a moderate drift. The upper camber is 1/10 of the chord and the maximum thickness is 1/15 of the chord.
Its section is shown in Fig 1. The center of pressure curve has the nsual trend; at 1 degree the c. of p. is at the center of the wing; at 6 degrees it is 37 per cent from the leading edge; and it reaches its forward limit at 12 degrees, where it is 33 per cent from the leading edge.
It is seen that the maximum lift-drift ratio is nearly 14/ (for a lift of .05) ; the maximum lift is nearly .OS in metric units which is greater than the pressure
TfMIPVMflNN PRDFTT.F. -
Lift-drift- and drift-ratio
0" 3' 6° 9° 12°
0.0028 0.0036 0.0055 0.0075 0.0098
0.0305 0.0483 0.0604 0.0673 0.0726
0.092 0.075 0.091 0.111 0.135
on a normal plane, which is about .068. Figure 2 gives the lift-drift and drift-ratios.
This vvingis, therefore, suitable for machines designed to carry great weight per square foot.
CLEMENT-BAYARD ARMORED MONOPLANE
This monoplane, intended chiefly for the needs of the cavalry and artillery, is so constructed as to he quickly assembled and taken down, the wings being arranged to fold back along the fuselage.
The fuselage is of steel tubing, pentagonal forward and triangular aft. All the forward portion comprising engine, etc., is protected by an armor 1 milli-mer thick (about 1/25 of an inch).
The wings are very strongly constructed ; the spars are pressed from a single piece of sheet nickel steel. The ribs alone are of wood. The chassis comprises a pair of struts on each side of the fuselage placed V shape, and held apart at their bottom by two horizontal tubes. 1 let ween these tubes is the axle, jointed at its middle, and held at its ends by rubber shock absorbing bands, thus permitting the wheels to yield independently.
There is no fixed empennage, but only a balanced elevator. All controls arc instinctive; contiol wires are flexible steel cables.
To permit the wings to fold hack the forward upper and lower wing guys are respectively attached to a piece rigidly fastened to the fuselage by the tightening of a screw. The loosening of these
two screws permits the folding back of the wings without affecting the adjustment of the guys. The motor, in front
of fuselage, is fed by a small gravity tank, supplied by air pressure from the main tank.
- CLEMENT--0AYARD *
NIEUPORT ARMORED MONOPLANE
This Nieuport is provided on the left side with an armor 2>y2 nun. thick. (This one sitled protection complies with the requirements specified for armored aeroplanes.) On the same side on the upper longitudinal of the fuselage is mounted a rapid lire gun. The motor is also protected by a strong hood.
The ensemble of the machine is similar in every way to the current type; same chassis, similar fuselage, empennage and wings. The propeller is provided with a beak in the form of a spherical cap: this carries blades so con-stituated as to project air into the hood to cool the motor.
TO MARKET MOTOR
Owing to the death of Cecil Peoli. the Peoli Aeroplane Corporation, of 31 Nassau street. New York, will cease the manufacturing of aeroplanes and expects to handle the selling of the Raus-enberger motor through the Import and Exporting Trading Company, of the above address. It is expected that a thorough test of the latest motor designed by Rattsenberger, a 12-cylinder, 140-h.p. affair, will be made at the Automobile Club of America's testing plant. This is the motor which Peoli has last been using.
Note of this change should be made in the Trade Directorv Data Sheets.
The Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. of Ithaca, N. Y., has recently received an order for 12 machines for foreign shipment and other orders are expected.
Sperry fined for speeding.—Headline.
Better stick to the air. The aerial cops do not have to make arrests to hold their jobs.
"Too Proud to Fight.*'—President iriison.
That might sound all right if we had a small army, something better in the way of a navy and a few aeroplanes. There may be a time when it won't be a matter of pride, but one of necessity. Less grape juice and more grape !
THE STORY OF FLIGHT*
contrary assisted in its turning movement and the result was worse than when the vertical vane was absent. We felt that if this were a true explanation, it would be necessary to make the vertical vane movable, in order that the pressure on the side toward the low-wing might he relieved and the pressure brought to bear on the side toward the high wing. We spent several days in experimenting to make sure this was the real cause of the difficulty. Meanwhile, my brother, in thinking about the matter, noted that a particular relation existed in the desired pressures on the rudder no matter whether the troubles were due to difference of resistance of the wing tips or whether they were due to sliding. Tn either case it was desirable to get rid of the pressure on the side toward the low wing to which a greater angle of incidence must be imparted, in restoring lateral balance, and brought to bear on the side of the vertical tail which is toward the high wing to which the reduced angle of incidence must be imparted in such case. For the sake of simplicity we. therefore, decided to attach the wires controlling the vertical tail to the wires warping the wing, so that the operator instead of having to control three things at once, would have to attend to only the forward horizontal rudder and the wing-warping mechanism; and only the latter, alone, would be needed for controlling lateral balance. We now had the structure in the form pictured and described in the drawings and specifications of the pateni (lately) in suit. With this apparatus we made nearly 70 glides in the two or three weeks following. We flew it in calms and we flew it in winds as high as thirty-five miles an hour. We steered it to right, or left, and performed all the evolutions necessary for flight. This was the first time in the history of the world that a movable vertical tail had been used in controlling the direction or the halance of a flying machine. It was also the first time that a movable vertical tail had been used, in combination with wings adjustable to different angles of incidence, in controlling the balance and direction of an aeroplane. We were the first to functionally employ a movable vertical tail in a flying aeroplane. We were the first to employ wings adjustable to respectively different angles of incidence in a flying earo-plane. We were the first to use the two in combination in a flying aeroplane. ! (The Wright brothers now felt that the problem of human flight was solved and work was started on the application for a patent and design of a motor driven aeroplane with a 12 H. P., 200-pound gasoline motor, wdiich, like the aeroplane, was made by the Wrights themselves. This was assembled at Kitty Hawk the latter end of 1903 and on the l"th of December four successful flights were made, the last having a
*Begun in the April 30th Issue
By WILBUR WRIGHT
duration of 59 seconds, flying a distance of c'50 feet against a 20-mile wind.)
The operator controlled the front horizontal rudder (elevator) with his hands and simultaneously controlled the adjustment of the wings and the adjustment of the vertical tail, or rudder, by a single movement of the cradle in which his hips rested (the operator lying prone). The vertical tail wires and the wing warping wires were interconnected, as in the patent specification, and neither could he moved without the other.
While our patent application was pursuing its slow course through the Patent Office, we bnilt a second machine and flew it in a field near the city of Dayton, Ohio, in the summer and autumn of ll|04. When we had familiarized ourselves with the operation of the machine in more or less straight flights, we decided to try a complete circle. At first we did not know just how much movement to give in order to make a circle of a given size. On the first three trials we found that we had started a circle on too large a radius to keep within the boundaries of the small field in which we were operating. Accordingly, a landing was made each time, without accident, merely to avoid passing beyond the boundaries of the field. On the fourth trial, made the 20th of September, a complete circle was made, and the machine was brought safely to rest after having passed the starting point. Thereafter we repeatedly made circles and on the 9th of November made four circles of the field in a flight lasting a few seconds over 5 minutes. In all these flights the warping wires and the wires controlling the rudder were interconnected.
In order to circle to the left, we moved the cradle slightly to the left thus turning the tail slightly t > the left and imparting an increased angle to the right wing and a smaller angle to the left wing. This caused the machine to tilt so that the left wing was lower than the right wing, which, of course, in turn caused the machine to slide somewhat to the left. This side movement of the machine tended to cause the vertical rudder to strike the air at a greater angle than was necessary to compensate for the difference in resistance of the right and left wings. This tendency caused the tail to lag hehind in this lateral movement just as the feather ot an atrow causes the feathered end to lag behind when the arrow is dropped side-wise. Thus, the lateral movement of the main aeroplane sideways, as the result of tipping, became combined with the rotary movement about its vertical axis, due to the vane-like action of the tail, and the machine proceeded on a circular course. But as the speed of the outside wing increased, and that of the inside wing decreased by reason of the fact that the inner wing was traveling in a smaller circle than the outside wing, there was tendency to tilt too much and
this was corrected by gradually moving the cradle toward the high wing, thus increasing the angle on the low wing and decreasing the angle of the high wing and also setting the rudder over toward !',,<. high wing. This was done gradually and only sufficiently to prevent the low wing from sinking lower and not enough to bring it back t<> the level.
The machine then continued to circle to the lelt, with the vertical tail set over somewhat to the right, so that the machine turned in the opposite direction to that in which a ship would have turned with the ship's rudder set over to the right. When it was desired to stop circling, a sudden movement of the cradle toward the high side gave the wings an increased warp and brought the machine up to the level. Then, on setting the cradle back to its central position, thus restoring the wings and tad to their central positions, the machine proceeded in a straight line, with the wings level.
With this machine we made approximately a hundred flights in the year 1°04. 1_ stially the machine responded promptly when we applied the control for restoring lateral balance, but on a few occasions the machine did not respond promptly and the machine came to the ground in a somewhat tilted position. The cause of the difficulty proved to Le very obscure and the season of 1904 closed without any solution of the puzzle.
In 1905 we built another machine and resumi d experiments in the same field near Dayton. Ohio. Our particular object was to clear tip the mystery which we had encountered on a few occasions during the preceding year. During all the flights we had made up to this time we kept close to the ground, usually within ten feet of the ground, in order that in case we met any new and mysterious phenomena we could make a sate landing. With only one life to spend we did not consider it advisable to attempt to explore mysteries at such great height from the ground that a fall would put an end to our investigations and leave the mystery unsolved.
The machine had reached the ground, in the peculiar cases I have mentioned, too soon for us to determine whether the trouble was due to slowness of the correction or whether it was due to a change of conditions, which would have increased in intensity, if it had continued, until the machine would have been entirely overturned and quite beyond the control of the operator. Consequently, it was necessary, or at least advisable, to discover the exact cause of the phenomena before attempting any high flights.
For a long time we were unable to determine the peculiar conditions under which this trouble was to be expected. But as time passed we began to note that it usually occurred when we were turning a rather short circle. We therefore,
(Continued on pasr? 79)
A ROMANCE OF AVIATION—By Hamlet Pantalone
A Springtime Idyll in Five Acts
An aeronautical magazine Another one
Chorus of advertisers, subscribers, creditors and other hoi polloi
Time: Act I, II, III and IV, present; Act V, indefinite future
The First Revelation of Love
"... Evidently there is a large, double-acting sledge hammer working overtime up on Madison Avenue. . . ."
—****** Aeroplane Company.
ACT II The First Kiss
"... But you will be interested in knowing that FLYING ij the on-ly aeronautical magazine published. . . ."
—Excerpt from letter to one of the largest advertising agencies in this country written by one of the Dramatis Pcrsonae.
The Lovers Are United
U>Hiit tit fcrnry IDu(i61)OUi(
Aero (filub of Amrrira tSuUrtiu 29r jSodiBMi Aornur Nnn tlark (Cily
Merah 3, 1916.
You hevB probably reed thet 1 have eaqoirad the mailing list of the defunct eeronautiael weekly "AERO & HYDRO".
As tha general opinion is that ns need a weekly, and there ie certainly some importent nark for it to do, 1 have arranged to reeome ths publication of the weekly under the name of "AERIAL AGE" - the neme of the month" published in 1912, which, in 1913.
I regret exceedingly thet I have been unehle to make e oomhinetion inoluding "AIRCRAFT" end "AERONAUTICS," as I nae aBked to do by moat of the annetraot-ore. while "AIRCRAFT" has e oiroulatioo of unly 1000, including the nens-etend eelea, end ie run es e elds proposition in the office of a email eoles concern, I could not effaot en arrangement. The dahte of that magazine emouut to $10,000; and the etoakholdere number over one dozen. I oould not eaaome thet liehility. "AERONAUTICS" i3 four monthe behind end haTing a oirouletiun of only 600 ie oat worth the amount of obligations to he met In taking it up. Considering all this I dooided that it would bB baet to Invest the rasouroae et my disposal to turn oat a good weekly.
With best regards and wlshee I remain,
Yoore very oordielly.
ACT IV The First Quarrel
PERCY G. B. MORRISS
722-724 CONSUMERS BUILDING
March 11, 1915.
Mr. Henry Vtoodhouae, i:«w York City.
"y attention haB been called to your circular letter of March third In which you atate that you have acquired ths mailing Hat of AERO Aim HYDRO.
As a creditor of llosl & Company, owners of AERO a::D HYDRO, I have an Interest In any of the aeaete of this company and anyone at all acquainted knows that the mailing list of a magazine represents a cor.aideratle asaet.
Sines the receipt of your letter of March third, I and other creditors have inatltuted a careful inveetlcration to find out how thie mailing list got out of the AERO AKD HYDRO offios and we are aatiafled that if this list is out It has been stolen, as no one had authority to sell or give you this SBBSt.
The Court will be asked to take charge of this business and at the same time the creditors will aek ths Court to take cognizance of the fact that part of the aassts have been hypothecated.
It is not my intention to say whether or not you should go ahead and uae thia list in view of the above facte, but the creditors will certainly InelBt that you make restitution for the use of the mailing Hat.
A word from you ae to whether or not you expect to reimburse the creditors for thia aaast will be appreciated.
Youre very truly,
And They Lived Happy Forever Thereafter
While meandering about seeking inspiration, the author unfortunately fell into Salt Creek. Owing to this melancholy accident, a year's subscription to the Armchair Aviator's Revue will be awarded for the best MS. completing this moving heart story.
Criminal Libel Defined—Punishment
A malicious publication, by writing, printing * * * * or otherwise than by mere speech * * * * which has a tendency to injure any person, corporation ****in*4:»* business or occupation, is a libel. —Sec/ion 1340, Penal Code.
A person who publishes a libel, is guilty of a misdemeanor.
—Section 1341, Penal Code.
-Letter sent to advertising patrons of Aeronautics.
The punishment for a misdemeanor is SSOO fine or a year in prison, or both.
OF AMERICA 29 West 39th Street, New York
LEE S. BURRIDGE An Appreciation
In the formative period of practical aero-dynamics, when a significant tapping of the forehead invariably accompanied the slightest disclosure of an interest in "flying machines." it required the application of more than ordinary moral courage to become not only identified with, but a leader in, a movement hitherto treated solely with ridicule and derision.
Realizing that mechanical flight had been proven and its fundamental principles established, Lee S. Burridge entered into the aeronautical art in his characteristically whole-hearted way with the firm conviction that the time had come to reduce the movement to a practical basis and until his passing away was unswerving in his fealty to this purpose. Possessing the rare combination of inventor and successful business man, he also had a keen insight into the future and contributed both his time and money to the introduction of the aeroplane as a commercial proposition at a time when the future of aeronautics was exceedingly dark.
It has been my privilege to have been associated with Mr. Burridge for many years, both in business and in the aeronautical movement, and retrospect brings into review a multitude of kindly acts, innumerable instances of financial assistance to inventors, many personal sacrifices and the knowledge that all were blended into a real and sincere desire to foster the art of aviation and not for personal aggrandizement or profit. There was a predominant note of sincerity in all his gifts to aeronautics, which were not advertised, but given in the true spirit of philanthropy, more often secretly than merely hidden from view.
In 1908, when the world at large still received the stories of the Wright brothers' flights with doubt and scepticism, and even aero clubs then in vogue refused to lend their support to aviation. Mr. Burridge became one of a coterie of enthusiasts wdio had faith in the future which brought about the organization of the Aeronautical Society of which he was the first president.
The organization of this society and its distinctive purpose very quickly changed the attitude of the public toward aerial things and ridicule and derision became a thing of the past when a flying field was obtained and the first Curtiss aeroplane ever built was purchased by a small syndicate formed by Air. Burridge among the members of the society. With characteristic generosity, Mr. Burridge contributed the major portion of the money necessary to purchase this machine, which was sent on tour throughout the United States and Canada under the auspices of the Aeronautical Society to show the public that the flying machine was a fact and not the dream of mentally unbalanced inventors.
This tour unquestionably brought about the start of a very important and rapidly growing industry which bids fair to make radical changes in transportation methods.
History in the making is very often overlooked by those who are identified with it and it therefore may be well to note here that the commission to build this machine was given to Glenn H. Curtiss before a practical aeroplane had been built for public sale and that it was due to the success of this machine that a duplicate was built which enabled Curtiss to win the first Gordon-Bennett International Race from Bleriot. who later became famous in aeroplane work.
When this first aeroplane had fulfilled its mission of education it was sold, and it is known by very few that Mr. Burridge donated his share of the proceeds ill such a way that those associated with him never knew that he assumed a large loss.
When the practical early stage of the art of flying in America is chronicled, the personality of Lee S. Burridge will stand out commandingly as that of an earnest and consistent patron, whose faith was never shaken, and whose efforts were untiring in promoting further development.
Mr. Burridge has been a moving spirit in the Aeronautical Society since its inception and his was the first pocket-book opened when funds were needed for new plans, or to meet the expenses of old. and his loss will be increasingly felt as time goes on.
He was also a member of the Aeronautical Engineers' Society, the Automobile Club of America, the National Geographic Society and the Aero Club. He was president of the Aeronautical Society for two terms.
In taste very democratic, unaffected in manner and loyal in friendship, he endeared himself to those with whom he came in contact and who will miss
his wise counsel and unstinted help and grieve because of the passing away in his prime of a true gentleman and lovable companion.—C. Wesley Howell, Jr.
[Mr. Burridge died at his home, 160 West 54th Street, New York, on Mav 4th. ]
AERO SCIENCE CLUB
The new officers elected at the recent meeting of the Aero Science Club of America are as follows: C. V. Obst. President; George P.auer. Vice-President; W. H. Phipps, 2nd Vice-President; Frank Broomfield, Treasurer; George^ A. Cavanagh, Secretary; G. F. McLaughlin, Assistant Secretary; Edward Durant, Director.
At a recent meeting of the membership committee of this cluh the rules relating to membership were amended as follows:
"Applicants for membership must be proposed in writing by a member in good standing in the A. S. C, such proposal to be seconded in writing by another member before the application can be considered."
At a recent date a speed contest was held by this club which was not as "speedy" as members had hoped it to be. In fact, none of tlie models entered seemed to have acquired a disposition to fly in a straight line and, despite the energetic persuasion of the owners, refused so to do. While flying was plentiful, straight and speedy flying was not to be seen. Among those present were J. McMahon. with a novel four-propellered machine, which was speedy enough on the ground, but refused to take the air for reasons best known to itself. Mr. George A. Cavanagh was also present with a model which was here, there and everywhere but in the right place and finally ended in splinters. Ness, of Long Island, was present with the large tractor whicli was a perfectly good tractor, but not for a speed contest. Another distinguishing feature was Free-lar. o£ Long Island, who placed the lives of the spectators in grave danger with his erratic glider. Let us trust that the next speed contest will be a "speed" contest in every sense of the word.
A new contest is being arranged, known as the "Efficiency Contest," and it promises to be one of the greatest ever held in the history of model flying. Rules are being made for the same and as soon as completed will he made known.
Looks like the Annual Aerial Derby didn't get past the first annual.
The Harvard Aeronautical Society-has recently been reorganized. Earl H. Bean is secretary, at 7 Harvard Union, Cambridge, Mass.
The Aero Club of Pittsfield, Mass., affiliated with the Aero Club of America, is "practically disbanded." The Aero Club of Ohio, at Canton, is another affiliated club, which "exists technically, but practically is out of existence," according to an informant. This is most regrettable.
THE OBST MONOPLANE FLYING BOAT
By HARRY SCHULTZ
The subject of our drawings this issue is the Ubst Monoplane Flying Boat, the official world's record holder for models of this type (record, 25 seconds, rising from the water).
This model was constructed by Chas. V. Obst, re-elected president of the Aero Science Club of America for his second term.
As is the case with all Air. Obst's models, this one is of excellent construction and workmanship throughout and. up to the present date, has easily proven a winner in all contests entered.
The fuselage consists of a single stick of balsa. 30 in. in length and 1l> in. by % in. in thickness at the centre, tapering slightly at each end. The hooks for the reception of the rubber motors are situated at the front end of the stick and are bound and glued thereon. The propeller bar is of split bamboo. 8 in. in length, ]i in. in width and 1/16 in. in thickness, carefully streamlined. The rear end of the fuselage stick is slotted and the propeller bar placed in the slot and bound and glued securely therein. Extending at an angle from 1 *4 in. from each end of the propeller bar to the main stick, are diagonal bamboo
in width and thickness.
carefully streamlined. The joints are made as before mentioned with thread and glue, the glue being of the waterproof kind. Situated on each end of the propeller bar are suitable bearings consisting of % in. lengths of brass tubing 1/16 in. diameter. These bearings are very securely bound and glued to the ends of the propeller bar as a great strain is placed upon them. The propeller shaft, of steel piano wire, passes through these bearing with a rather close fit so that the shaft freely rotates therein without undue looseness or binding. Placed between the propeller and bearings are a few small copper washers to minimize friction, and the outer end of the shaft is threaded for the reception of a nut which holds the propeller securely on the shaft. On the inner end of the shafts suitable hooks are formed for the reception of the rubber strands, of which there are ten, of %-in. flat rubber on each side.
The propellers measure 7Vi in. in diameter with an approximate pitch of 15 in. A face view of one of these propellers is shown in the figure. They are cut from solid blocks of soft white pine and a rather deep camber is placed in the blades. The tips of the blades are covered with fibre paper for protection and the entire propeller are given several coats of "dope."
The boat or hull is constructed of
15 in. long, 3 in. wide and 1 in. in depth at the step, which is situated 6 in. from the bow of the boat. The stap is 1u' in. in depth. The drawing shows the method of interior construction of the boat. Saw cuts are made in the side strips and cross braces, 1/32 in. in thickness and Va in. in width, of yellow
pine, are glued therein as shown, making a strong and sturdy structure. The hull is secured to the main stick by bamboo braces Vs in. sq., streamlined, extending upwardly at an angle and then straight, as shown. These braces are 6 in. in length, the front pair being situated 3-VJ in. from the bow of the boat; the rear pair 2fy$ in. from the stern. Both pairs of braces are connected by a semi-circular strip of bamboo 3 in. up from the top of the boat, and a diagonal bamboo brace, 1/32 in., streamlined, extends from this bamboo strip on the front pair of upright braces to the bow of the boat.
The "balancers," or auxiliary pontoons, are constructed as above set forth with respect to the main pontoon, their construction being shown in the figure. They are connected by a streamlined bamboo strip, 13 in. long and 3/16 in. by Vs in. in thickness, this strip be-
ing situated Vi in. from the front of these balancing pontoons, and extends across the upper side of the main pontoon Sv2 in. from its bow, where it is held by rubber bands. The balancers measure in. in width, 5^ in. in depth and 2'i in. in length, the slope of the same being shown in the drawings. All of the pontoons are covered with fibre paper and coated with varnish until they are thoroughly waterproof.
The main plane has a span of 24 in., a chord of 4 in. at the center and 3 in. at the tips and a slight dihedral angle. It is built up entirely of split bamboo. The main beam is ]JA in. back from the entering edge and placed on top of the ribs. The ribs are approximately 3 in. apart, with the exception of the two ribs adjacent the center of the plane, which are 1 in. apart, so that the framework of the plane is strong at that point where it is secured by rubber bands to the main stick or fuselage. The front plane, or elevator, has a span of 10T/> in., a chord of 3 in. at the center and 2]z in. at the tips. It is constructed in the same manner as the main plane, with the exception of the fact that it has no dihedral angle and the two ribs adjacent the center of the plane are in. apart and the space between these two ribs is not covered, but left open for the reception of the fuselage or the main stick therein. A small keel is placed under the stick at its front end, as shown, and consists of a single strip of bamboo bent to form. The planes and keel are covered with fibre paper and coated with varnish until waterproof. Both planes and the main pontoon are secured to the main stick or fuselage by rubber bands which afford adjustable and flexible joints.
yellow pine 1/32
Couldn't Expect More Value
Couldn't Get More Satisfaction
100 H.P. 200 H.P.
340 lbs. - $1,250 690 lbs. - $1,850
A "Q-D" Motor—Simple—No Vibration—10-Hour Test for Every Motor—Guaranteed to Stand More Abuse and Heavy Work with Less Attention than Any Other Motor.
All it Wants is Gasoline and Spark. Send for New Circular
Roberts Motor Manufacturing Company
300 ROBERTS MOTOR BLOCK SandusK.y, Ohio, U. S. A.
WE ARE HEADQUARTERS
for model aeroplanes, accessories and supplies Very complete catalog free on request
Wading River, N. Y.
Safest and Most Practical
A few of its patented iU. S. and forripn) features:—Inherent Stability. Dual Motors, Controls and Propellers which can he worked independent of each other. Propellers and Control so arranged that machine will fiy just as readily with a single Propeller. Greater Lifting Power, Changeable Anele of Incidence.
Especially Designed for Governmental and Private Use Literature on ntjitest PARISANO AERIAL NAVIGATION CO. OF AMERICA. INC. 220 West 42nd Street New York City
WANTED—An old and, possibly, a wrecked aeroplane with motor at a fair price? Same is desired for the use only in the laboratory for class demonstration, and not for flying purposes. Address Box 146, X. D. Agricultural College. X. Dak.
6-CYLIXDER SO-h.p. Maximotor in fine condition. Complete with Mea magneto and propeller hub, $525.00, taken in trade on a new Roberts. Address R, c/o Aeronautics. 2t
4-CYLIXDER 50-h.p. Roberts with propeller hub and Bosch magneto, $450.00. thoroughly overhauled and guaranteed. Address R, c/o Aeronautics. 2t
' III!!' "
THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES
For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.
THE WRIGHT FLYING SCHOOL
Located at Dayton opens May 1st, for the season of 1915. Tuition $250. No other charges of any kind. Enroll now. Booklet on request.
The Wright Company
DAYTON, OHIO New York Office: 11 Pie
AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 9
Detroit Elec. Appliance Co., 232 W. Fort St., Detroit, Mich. Dow Mfg. Co., 131 Adams St., Braintree, llass. Eisemann Magneto Co.. 215 AV. 55th St.. New York. Elkhart Mfg. Co., First St. and Conant Ave., Monroe, Mich. Ericsson Mfg. Co., 1121 Military Rd.. Buffalo, N. Y. (Berling.l Herz & Co., Lafayette St., New Y'ork. Heinzc Electric Co., Lowell. Mass.
K. AV. Ignition Co., 2S33 Chester Ave., Cleveland, O. Marburg Bros., 1790 Broadway, New Y'ork. (Mea.l McCarthy Bros. & Ford, 41 E. Eagle St., Buffalo, N. Y. Motsinger Devices Mfg. Co., S15 Market St., Lafayette, Ind. National Coil Co., Lansing, Mich. Remy Electric Co.. Anderson, Ind. Simms Magneto Co., 17S0 Broadway, New York. Splitdorf, C. S., Co.. US Warren St., Newark, N. .T. Sumter Electrical Co., Sumter, S. C. Swiss Magneto Co., 3021 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. Tritt Electric Co., Union City, Ind. Western Electric Co.. 4C3 West St., New Y'ork. AA'itherhee Igniter Co., Springfield, Mass. MODELS
Ideal Aeroplane Supply Co., S4 West Broadwav, New York. Model Supply House, 503 Fifth Ave., New York. AA'ading River Mfg. Co., AA'ading River, N. Y. MODEL AND PATTERN WORKS
Dressier, Charles E., 3SG Second Ave., New York. General Pattern & Model Co., 17S Centre St., New York. Nilson-Miller Co., 13th and Hudson Sts., Hoboken, N. J. Trenton Pattern Works, Monmouth and Canal Sts., Trenton, N. J.
Adams Co., The, Dubuque, la. (Adams-Farwell 5-cyl. revolving.)
Aeromarine Plane & Motor Co., Avondale, N. J.
Aircraft Co.. 1737 Broadway, New York. (Sloane-Daniel.)
Ashmusen Mfg. Co.. Woonsocket, R. 1.
Bates Aero Motor Co., 104 AV. Oak St., Chicago, 111.
Burgess Co., The, Marblehead, Mass. (Burgess-AArhite.)
Curtiss Motor Co., Hammondsport, N. Y.
Duesenberg Motor Co., St. Paul, Minn.
Grinnell Aeroplane Co., Grinnell, la. (Robinson radial.) Gyro Motor Co., 331 Madison Ave., New York; 774 Girard St.,
Washington, D. C. Hall-Scott Motor Car Co., Crocker Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. Harriman Motors Co., South Glastonbury. Conn. Herfurth Engine Co., Alexandria, A'a. (Emerson.) Import & Export Trading Co., 31 Nassau St., New York.
(liausenberger.) Johnson Bros. Motor Co., Terre Haute, Ind. Kemp Machine Works, Muncie, Ind. Maximotor Makers, Detroit, Mich.
Motor Engineering Co.. 1GS6 W. Third St., Cleveland O.
(Specialists in design and building of aeroplane motors.) Nilson-Miller Co., 13th and Hudson Sts., Hoboken, N. J.
(Special gasoline motors.) Roberts Motor Mfg. Co., Sandusky, O. Selvage Motor Co., Eureka, Cal.
Sterling Engine Co., 1252 Niagara St., Buffalo, N. Y. Sturtevant Co.. B. F., Hyde Park. Mass. Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co., Ithaca, N. Y. Tracy, Joseph, 17S6 Broadway. (One-piece steel cylinders.) Trebert, II. L. F., Engine AVorks, 495 St. Paul St., Rochester, N. Y.
World's Motor Co., Hippodrome Theatre Bldg., Peoria, 111.
( Freilrickson.) Wright Co., The, Dayton, O.
OILS AND GREASES
Baker Castor Oil Co., 100 AA'illiam St., New York. N. Y. Lubricating Oil Co., 116 Broad St., New York. ("Monogram" oils and greases.)
NAVY BUYS AIRSHIP
The purchase of the navy's first dirigible was approved on May 14 by Secretary Daniels, who awarded a contract for the manufacture of one to the Connecticut Air Craft Company, of New Haven, Conn. This company submitted a bid of $45,636.25. Four bids were received, but complete data and specifications were submitted only with the bids of the Connecticut Air Craft Company and the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, and of these two bids the
Connecticut Air Craft Company's was the lower. The specifications require delivery within four months, so that by early fall this airship will be in use at the aeronautic station, Pensacola, Fla.
It will be recalled that the last naval appropriation bill was the first to carry a specific appropriation for aeronautics, the amount of the appropriation being $1,000,000. Since the passage of this act the department has been active in the development of this arm of the service,
and only last week received from the Curtiss Company two new hydroaeroplanes, which were delivered about two months after the order was given.
Contracts for the construction of three other hydroaeroplanes were recently awarded to the Burgess Company, and these three craft will be ready for delivery early this summer. ( See Aeronautics, April 30.) Specifications for three additional hydroaeroplanes are about ready for publication and bids for their construction will be invited shortly. The three machines are designed for the training of officers and men. and are expected to be ready for use by the new class of aviators which will be assembled in July.
Within a few days it is expected that contracts will also be awarded for a floating dirigible shed designed to accommodate the dirigible, for which contract has just been awarded. Specifications for a hydrogen plan being prepared and bids for its construction will also be invited within a very short time.
The armored cruiser North Carolina, now in Eastern Mediterranean waters, will be relieved in about ten days by the cruiser Des Moines. Upon her return to the United States she will be overhauled and immediately thereafter will be ordered to Pensacola to act as aviation ship. Upon the arrival of the North Carolina and the completion of all the contracts mentioned, the aeronautic station at Pensacola will be ready in a few months to proceed on a larger scale than ever before in the training of officers and men for aeronautical service.
The dirigible ordered is designed to carry eight men, four of which will be the crew, making it possible to carry four student observers. The dirigible will be 175 feet in length and 55 feet in height and will have a gas capacity of HQ 000 cubic feet. She is designed for a speed of 25 miles an hour, and at any time her radius of action, which is about two hours, can be about doubled by replacing the weight of the extra men with the same weight of gasoline.
Specifications for this airship were printed in the March 30th issue of Aeronautics. The bids made and prices quoted were printed in the April 30th issue.
De Lloyd Thompson, the well-known exhibition flyer, who has so successfully accomplished the feat of looping the loop and flying up-side-down, and who has raced with Barney Oldfield, was in New York for a day last week and placed an order with the Aircraft Company, Inc., for a complete equipment of Sloane aeroplanes for this work. The machines will be of the tractor biplane type, equipped with rotary motors of 90 h.p. The equipment will be delivered in about three weeks' time.
Mr. Thompson has a very busy season ahead of him, as he is supreme in his field.
THAT PROTECT AND PAY
Books and Advice Free
Send sketch or model for search. Highest references. Best Results. Promptness Assured.
WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer
624 F Street. N. W. Washington, D. C.
Manufacturers want me to send them patents on useful inventions. Send me at once drawing and description of your invention and 1 will give you an honest report as to securing a patent and whether 1 can assist you in selling the patent. Highest references. Established 25 years. Personal attention in all cases.
WM. N. MOORE Loan and Trust Building Washington, D. C.
irjjj Balloons ISi Dirigibles
Box 78. Madison Sq. P.O.. New York
Antony Jannus Roger Jannus
NEW 120 H. P. FIVE PASSENGER FLYING BOAT now being tested. Design based on nearly 200,000 miles of pioneer flying. Roger Jannus and Knox Martin at New Southern Hotel, San Diego. Calif. Continuous Passenger Carrying and School Work with two Flying Boats. Florida course announced later. NEW FACTORY
Battery Avenue and Hamburg Street, Baltimore/Md.
Booklet on Request
New end Enlarged Edition, Commencing January, 1914 V
The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted totheTechnique and Industry of Aeronautics
(FOUNDED 1907) Yearly Subscription One Dollar Eighty-five Cents : Post Free (Money Orders Only')
M.lp*_A apacimen copy will be mail.d
free on receipi ef ]S cents
170 Fleet Street - - London, E. C. American Olfice: 250 Weat 54th Str.et, New York
Records prove we build the best Balloons in America. Nine 1st prizes. Three 2nd, and Two 3rd prizes out of fourteen World-wide Contests.
Write for prices and particulars.
HONEYWELL BALLOON CO. 4460 Chouteau St. Louis, Mo.
C. L. PARKER
Fx-member Examining Corps, U. S. Patent Oilitm Altorney-at-L«w and Solicitor of P*tenta
American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bide. WASHINGTON. D. C.
THE AIRCRAFT CO., Inc. 1733 Broadway, New York
Sole Manufacturers of Sloane Aeroplanes
Airships, Aeroplanes. Gas Generators, Safety Packs. Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, Aeroplanes and Airships. Stevens' balloons used by 85% of American and Canadian clubs.
Madison Sq. 8oi T81, NewYork
i^gflftS DON'T ٪
ested id a reliable, efficient a rdeconomical power plant. ,FZ fjc-fy , f~l—\ liar is the only kind we r!vlft***' '4i\i fj> build. Four sizes.
Kemp Machine Works
AEROPLANES FLYING BOATS
Factory and Office
341 S. St. Louts Avenue
THE U. S. NAVY USES..............................................................................................}
<I Because they are the best by a large measure and Proved Best by test and official report. CJOtbzrs use Plain Paragons because they are not only best but also cheapest. *J For Efficiency— For Economy, investigate Paragons. No charge lor information — No pay but for remits.
*fl We have the only propeller factory in America. Large stock. Quick shipments.
AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 East Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.
I......................................................................................PARAGON PROPELLERS EXCLUSIVELY
AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 10
Shepard Ideal Oil Co., 21 Lawrence St., Newark, N. J. Texas Co., The. 17 Battery Place, New York. ("Texaco."
gasoline, lubricants and greases.) Vacuum Oil >'o., CI Broadway, Xew York,
Johns-Jlanville Co., H. \V„ Madison Aye. and 41st St., Xew York.
PAINTS, VARNISHES AND ENAMELS
Adams & Kltinge Co., 15St Washington Blvd., Chicago, III. Berry Bros., 202 Pearl St., New York.
Bridgeport Wood Finishing- Co., 55 Fulton St., New York.
Caiman. Kmil. & Co.. 100 William St., New York.
Devoe & Reynolds, 101 Fulton St., New Y'ork.
Fuller, W. I'., & Co., Los Angeles, Cal.
Glidden Varnish Co.. Cleveland. O.
Heath * Jlilligan. 1S33 Seward St., Chicago, 111.
Lucas. Jnu„ & Co., 322 llace St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Masury, Juo. W., & Son, 4 1 Jay St., Brooklyn, N. 1".
Murphy Varnish Co., Newark, N. J.
Sherwin-Williams Paint Co., The, Brown St. and Lister Ave.,
Newark. N. .1. Valentine & Co.. 456 Fourth Ave., New Y'ork. Woolsey Paint Co., Jersey City, N. J.
PARACHUTES AND "SAFETY PACKS"
Stevens, A. Leo, 2S2 Ninth Ave., New Y'ork.
PARTS AND SUPPLIES
A-Z Co.. 527 W. 56th St., New York. Auto Supply Co., 59th St. and Broadway, New Y'ork. Auto Parts Mfg. Co., Tromhlev Ave., cor. Orleans, Detroit, Mich.
Bliss Mfg. Co., SI Sabin St., Providence, P.. I. (Die work, punching. >
EM'iggs-Seabury Ordnance Corp., Sharon, Pa. (Motor parts.) Durgan. W. C., 115 Broad St., Syracuse, N. Y. (Woodworker.)
Hartford Machine Screw Co., Hartford, Conn. (Special metal parts.)
Heath, E. B., Aerial Vehicle Co., 1227 School St., Chicago,
111. (K. I>. aeroplanes and parts.) Martin, Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles,
Miller. Chas. E., 97 Reade St., New Y'ork. (Supplies.) Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co.. Ithaca, n. Y. Willis. E. J.. N5 Chambers St., New Y'ork (Parts and supplies. )
Worcester Pressed Steel Co.. Worcester, Mass. (Cold seamless, hollow, etc., parts from sheet steel, brass, copper, aluminum and other sheet metals.)
American Press Association, 225 W. 39th St., New Y'ork. Levick, Edwin. 10S Julton St., New Y'ork. Underwood & Fnderwood, 417 Fifth Ave., New Y'ork.
Crosby Co., l-luffalo, N. Y. (Stampings.)
Detroit Pressed Steel Co., 1S00 Jit. Elliott St., Detroit, Mich.
Driggs-Seahury Ordnance Corp., Sharon, Pa.
Federal Pressed Steel Co., Milwaukee, Wis. (Steel tanks
and seamless steel products.) Hydraulic Pressed Steel Co., 3152 E. 61st St., Cleveland. O. Parish & Bingham Co., 5303 Hamilton Ave., Cleveland, O. Smith, A. (>., Co., Milwaukee, Wis. Wigmore, Jno. A., & Sons Co., Los Angeles. Cal. Worcester Pressed Steel Co., Worcester, JIass. (Stamped
sheet metal parts.)
The Butte Hydro-Aero Co.. Butte. Mont. The concern is incorporated for $20,000. The directors are \Y. E. Curry, T. J. Davis, L. F. Gehrig and \Y. H. Curry, of Butte.
Kluyskens & Pelagio have opened an office at 112 West 42d street, Xew York, to deal in motors, supplies and other aeronautical necessities and accessories. Kluyskens was exclusive agent for Anzani motors in this country. De
Pelagio was for years connected with the Moisant International Aviators.
The Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Company has had its previous order of twelve machines duplicated by a foreign purchaser. Over a hundred men are working day and night at the plant at Ithaca. An American purchaser has taken a tractor designed for cross-country flying here.
STURTEVANT 8 FOR NAVY.
The 140 h.p. S-cylinder Sturtevant aeronautical motor has been specified by the United States Navy for the three hydro-aeroplanes recently ordered from The Burgess Company of Marblehead,
Mass. Full description of this motor was published in Aeronautics for March 15. 1015. The 140 h.p. was obtained at 1,200 r.p.m.; 147 at 1.300.
EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.
March, 1915 ................... none
Same period, 1914, parts only.. .$ 7 N'ine months ending March,
1915, parts only.............. 2,291
Same period, 1914. parts only. . . 20.240 Same period. 1913. 12 aeroplanes ($50,020); parts <$1.77u>; total .......................... 51,796
March, 1915. 9 aeroplanes ($89.450) : parts ($77.107).........$166,557
Same period, 1914, 9 aeroplanes ($77,399) ; parts ($12871) ; total .......................... 90,270
Nine months ending March, 1915, 34 aeroplanes ($272,305) : parts ($244,830); total........ 517,195
Same period 1914, 27 aeroplanes ($150,924); parts ($29,931); total ....................... 180,855
Same period. 1913. 25 aeroplanes ($73,450) : parts ($23,4(4) ; total .......................... 96,914
EXPORTS OF FOREIGN.
March, 1915 .................. none
Nine months ending March,
1915 ........................ none
Same period, 1914, 1 aeroplane
($4,049); parts ($900).......$ 4 949
IN WAREHOUSE MARCH 31.
1915, 1 aeroplane .............$ 1,856
1914 .......................... none
St. Louis. Mo.. May 8.—Capt. RE. Honeywell took up Miss Edna Kiel, daughter of the ilayor, and Lee Ma-honey. The landing was made near Belleville, 111. Miss Kiel dropped "bombs" containing orders good at the Highlands Park office for cash prizes.
John E. Sloane, president of the Aircraft Company, Inc. reports that they are working a force of about seventy-five men at their Bound Brook, N. J., plant. It is expected that this force will have to be increased very shortly.
This shows one section of the new steel factory. It is 300 ft. long and 100 ft. wide. Another section of equal size is now under construction. Curtiss Aeroplanes of tractor and pusher type for land and water are built here under ideal conditions.
INFORMATION ON REQUEST
he Curtiss Aeroplane Ca.
Buffalo, New York
We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS
John A. Roebling's Sons Co.
TRENTON, N. J.
Continues to Make Records
On February 27, at Ithaca. N. Y., the Thomas Tractor Biplane, with three men and four hours' fuel aboard, climbed 4,000 ft. in 10 min. Average speed 81-1 m.p.h. Slow speed down to 38 m.p.h. Showed high degree of inherent stability.
Offers exceptional facilities — land and water. Best of instructors and equipment. Write for "Opportunity" Booklet Xv. 12.
THOMAS BROS. AEROPLANE CO.,Inc., Ithaca.N.Y.
The 8-Cylinder 140 Horse Power
(REG. U. S. PAT. OFF.)
is the most powerful motor in the country that is thoroughly perfected and tried out. Sturtevant motors are used by the U. s. Army and Navy and all the leading aeroplane builders.
I 4-cyhnder. 50 H. P. ( 6-cyIinder, 80 H. P.
֓pecifications upon request
B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY Hyde Park, Boston, Mass.
ami all principal aftes of ihc ַorld
AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 11
Aircraft Co., The. 1737 Broadway, New York. (Charavay.) American Propeller Co., 24:1 E. Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.
I "Paragon.") Burgess Co.. The. Marblehead, Mass.
C. M. O. Physical Laboratory. Buffalo, N. Y\ (Olmsted.) Curtiss Aeroplane Co., Buffalo, N. Y'.
Excelsior Propeller Co.. 14SS Belt Ave.. St. Louis, Mo. Stnrtevant, B. F„ Co.. Hyde Park, Mass. Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co.. Ithaca. X. Y. Washington Aeroplane Co., SOS Water St. S.W., Washington, I>. C. (Simmons.I
Pederseu Lubricator Co., 636 First Ave., New Y'ork. (Circulating oil pumps.) Featherstone, E. A.. Los Angeles, Cal. Chanslor & Lyon Co., Los Angeles. Cal.
A-7. Co.. 527 W. 56th St.. New Y'ork.
Bush Mfg. Co., 81 Commerce St., Hartford, Conn.
Fedders Mfg. Works, 57 Tonawanda St., Buffalo, N. Y*.
International Motor Co., West End Ave. and 64th St., New
York. (El Arco.) Livingston Radiator Co., 75th St. and Amsterdam Ave., New York.
Martin, Glenn L„ Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles. Cal.
Mavo Radiator Co., New Haven, Conn. MeCord Mfg. Co., 25S7 E. Grand Blvd., Detroit, Mich. Reliance Auto Parts Mfg. Co., 244 W. 49th St., New Y'ork. Roine-Tuiney Radiator Co.. Rome, N. Y.
A-Z. Co.. 527 W. 56th St., New Y'ork.
Martin, Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, Cal.
Reliance Auto Parts Co., 244 W. 49th St., New Y'ork. Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co.. Ithaca, N. Y.
Anchor Corrugating Construction Co., 140 Washington St.,
New Y'ork. (Special 'plane sheds.) Greis, Andrew, Co., 337 W. 19th St., New York. (Corrugated
iron buildings. Pruden, C. D.. Co., 30 Church St., New Y'ork.
A-Z Co.. 527 W. 56th St., New York. (Parts and repairs, seats, special work.)
C. M. O. Physical Laboratory, Buffalo, N. Y\
Dressier, Chas. E., 3S6 Second Ave., New York. (Experimental devices.)
Manly, Chas. M„ 250 W. 54th St., New Y'ork. (Development work.)
Martin. Glenn I,., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, Cal.
Mercedes Repair Co., 159 E. 54th St., New Y'ork. (Repairs.) Motor Engineering Co., 16S6 W. Third St., Cleveland, O.
(Experimental work.) Nilson Miller Co., 13th and Hudson Sts., Ilohoken, N. J.
(Experimental work, models, special machinery.) Reliance Auto Parts Co., 244 W. 49th St., New Y'ork. (Sheet
metal, engine mountings, repairs, etc.) Smith, AY. R., & Co., 306 W. 52d St., New Y'ork. (Gears,
overhauling, special parts, general machine work.)
Hartford Suspension Co., 150 Bay St.. Jersey Citv, N. J. Walker Starter Co., S03 Monroe St., La Porte, Ind.
EXPERIMENTAL WORK IN THE NAVY.
The hydroplane glider built some time ago for testing motors and propellers
(see Aeronautics for October 30, 1914) has now been tried out at the U. S. Ex-
perimental Model Basin, Navy Yard, Washington, D. C. with a view to the feasibility of mounting a dynamometer on same for the testing of aeroplane engines and propellers under conditions similar to those in flight. The results so far indicate that by certain modifications this will be feasible.
Work in the wind tunnel is in hand comparing results of certain standard sections with those obtained abroad, with a view to detecting discrepancies and their causes.
As the wind tunnel is 8 ft. by 8 ft. in section and has a capacity of above 60 miles per hour wind velocity, we are able to handle larger models than have been tested abroad and the influence of size of models is being investigated.
The wind tunnel work is now under the direct charge of the construction officer of this yard. Naval Constructor Win. McEntee.
FALL KILLS NAVY OFFICER.
Ensign Melvin Lewis Stolz, U. S. N-, a member of the Navy Aeronautical Corps, was killed at Pensacola, Fla., on May 8th, by the sudden fall of his aircraft. Ensign Stolz was one of the senior members of the Navy's . flying corps. He was detailed for aeronautical service in 1910. He was appointed to the Naval Academy from his native state. New York, in 1906, and was graduated in 1910.
MOISANT PLANT SOLD. '
By order of the Federal Court in bankruptcy proceedings, the manufacturing plant of the International Aviators, at Winfield, L. I., founded by the Moisant brothers, has been sold for the benefit of the creditors of the famous flying organization. The aeroplane factory there no longer exists. Charles de Pelagio, formerly its manager, bought many of the Gnome motor parts and accessories, and Albert S. Heinrich bought some of the machinery. Alfred J. Moisant attended the sale, and for reasons of sentiment bought in the all-metal monoplane, first of its kind, designed by his brother, the late John B. Moisant, who was the first to fly from Paris to London carrying a passenger, in 1910. The body and wings, without motor, brought $4. The total proceeds of the sale were about $4,500, to meet liabilities of about $15.0)0.
In the sale the good will and name of the International Aviators were reserved. Charles A. Tipling, referee in bankruptcy, said that it was hoped that some one would yet be found to continue the business of the concern to whom the name would be of value.
6-cylinder, 100 H. P.
Builders as well as Aviators are
most ardent supporters Built in Four Sizes from 50-150 H. P.
1528 JEFFERSON AVENUE E.
AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 12
A-Z Co., 527 W. 56th St., New York. Badger. K. B„ it Sons Co., 65 Pitts St., Boston, Mass. Janney, Sleinmetz & Co., Fourth and Market Streets, Philadelphia, Pa.
Johns-Manville Co., H. W., Madison Ave. and 41st St.. New York.
Koven, L. (">.. & Bro.. 50 Cliff St., New Y'ork. Mayo Radiator Co., New Haven, Conn.
Reliance Auto Parts Co., 244 AV. 49th St., New York. (Tanks,
metal work, repairs.) Trageser, John, Steam Copper Works. 447 W. 26th St., New
Boyle, John & Co., 112 Duane St., New Y'ork.
Kenyon, R. L., Co., Waukesha, AAris.
Magee, M.. & Son, 147 Fulton St., New Y'ork.
Missouri Tent & Awning Co., 206 Chestnut St., St. Louis, Mo.
Smith, Arthur F., 147 Fulton St., New York.
Goodrich, B. F., Co.. Akron. O. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, O. Griffith Tire Co., 1625 Broadway. New Y'ork. U. S. Tire Co.. 1790 Broadway, New York.
American Brass Co., Waterbury, Conn. (Brass and copper tubing.)
American Tube & Bending Co., 5 Lawrence St., New Haven, Conn.
American Tube & Stamping Co., Bridgeport. Conn. Breeze Carbureter Co., 250 South St., Newark, N. J. (Flexible tubing.)
Bridgeport Brass Co., 106 Crescent Ave., Bridgeport. Conn.
(Brass tubing, sheet, wire, etc.) Cox Brass Mfg. Co., Albany, N. Y. Crerar-Adams Co., Chicago, 111.
Detroit Seamless Steel Tubes Co., 804 Union Trust Bldg., Detroit, Mich. (Cold drawn seamless steel tubing.)
Frasse. Peter A.. & Co., 417 Canal St , New York. (Steel.)
Hungerford, U. T., Brass & Copper Co., 503 Pearl St., New York.
National Tube Co.. Frick Bldg.. Pittsburgh. Pa. (Shelby seamless.)
Ohio Seamless Tube Co., Shelby, O. (Steel.) Phenix Tube Co., 182 N. 11th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. Pittsburgh Steel Products Co., Frick Bldg.. Pittsburgh. Pa. Randolph-Clowes Co., Waterbury, Conn. (Brass and copper.) Standard Welding Co., Cleveland, O.
Aircraft Co., The, 1737 Broadway, New Y'ork. Hartford Machine Screw Co., Hartford, Conn. Martin. Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, Cal.
National Aeroplane Co., Machinery Hall, Chicago, III.
Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co., Ithaca. X. A'.
Aero Wheel Co., 7S2 Eighth Ave., New York. N. Y. Motorcycle Co., 31S AV. 4Sth St., New Y'ork. Martin. Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, Cal.
Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co., Ithaca, N. Y. WIND SHIELDS AND TRANSPARENT MATERIAL
Arlington Co., 725 Broadway, New Y'ork.
Celluloid Co., 30 Washington Place, New Y'ork.
Landers Bros. Co., 145 Pearl St., Boston, Mass.
Rose & Frank Co., 136 W. 21st St., New York. ("Flexo-
Niftlonal^Vuto Top Co.. 244 W. 49th St., New York. Western Mechanical Co., Los Angeles, Cal.
(To be Continued)
THE STORY OF FLIGHT
i Continued from page 69)
made short circles sometimes for the purpose of investigating and noting the exact conduct of the machine from the time the trouble began until the landing was made. At one time we thought that it might he due to some special reaction of the air, due to the fact that the machine, in circling, did not face exactly to the direction of the line of motion. To test this point we disconnected the rudder wire from the warping wire and and operated the rudder by an entirely separate handle. The trouble, however, continued as before. * * * Sometimes, in making a circle, the machine would turn over sideways despite anything the operator could do, although under the same conditions in ordinary straight flight it could have been righted in an instant. In one flight, in 1905, while circling around a honey locust tree at a height of ahout fifty feet, the machine suddenly began to turn up on one wing and took a course toward the tree. The operator, not relishing the idea of landing in a thorn tree, attempted to reach the ground. The left wing, however, struck the tree at a height of ten or twelve feet from the ground and carried away several branches; but the flight which had already covered a distance of six miles continued to the starting point."
The flight here mentioned was made on the 28th of September, 1905, with the rudder wires entirely disconnected from the warping wires. When it was noticed that the machine was tilting up and sliding toward the tree, the operator turned the machine down in the front and found that the apparatus then responded promptly to the lateral control. The remedy was found to consist in the more skilful operation of the machine and not in a different construction. The trouble was really due to the fact that in circling, the machine has to carry the load resulting from centrifugal force, in addition to its own weight, since the actual pressure that the air must sustain is that dne to the resultant of the two forces. The machine in question had but slight surplus of pbwer above what was required for straight flight, and as the additional load caused by circling increased rapidly as the circle became smaller, a limit was finally reached beyond which the machine was no longer able to maintain sufficient speed to sustain itself in the air.
And as the lifting effect of the inner wing, owing to its reduced speed, counterbalanced a large part of the increased lift resulting from the greater angle of incidence on that wing, the respons-to the lateral control was so slow that the machine sank to the ground usually before it had been brought back to the level again. In other words, the machine was in what has come to be known as a "stalled" condition.
The phenomenon is common to all the aeroplanes in the world and is the cause of frequent disasters to unskilled aviators. * * * (Many machines have been wrecked by novices stalling
the machine in attempting to climb too fast while circling, and have come tumbling to the ground, just as we did in 1905.1 * * * The remedy for the difficulty lies in the more skilful operation of the aeroplanes.
When we had discovered the real nature of the trouble and knew that it could always be remedied by tilting the machine forward a little, so that its flying speed would be restored, they felt that we were ready to place flying machines on the market.
We spent the next two years in build-
ing machines and making business arrangements for the exploitation of the patent.
In 190S we sold a machine to the United States government, and in the years 190S and 1909 flights were made before the officials of the United States at Washington; and before the rulers of England, France. Spain. Italy and Germany. Corporations were organized in several of these countries, including the United States, for the commercial exploitation of aeroplanes, built under authority of the patent.
ADOPTED BY LEADING CONSTRUCTORS
110 H.P. Gyro, 9 cylinders, weight 270 pounds 90 H.P. Gyro, 7 cylinders, weight 215 pounds
GYRO MOTOR COMPANY
N. Y. Office: 331 Madison Avenue
774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.
BURGESS- Military < ^roplane DUNNE
United States Great Britain Russia
Form of wing gives an unprecedented arc of fire and range of observation.
Par excellence the weight and gun-carrying aeroplane of the World.
Tail-less and folding.
Enclosed nacelle with armored cockpit.
Speed range 40-80 miles per hour.
Climb 400 feet per minute.
Bargeii-Dunne Na. 3 Delivered to U. S. Army at San Diego, December 30
THE BURGESS COMPANY, Marblehead, Mass.
Sole licensees of the American-Dunne Patents