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VOL. XVI. No. 2
MARCH 30, 1915
Hold the Principal American Records as Follows:
Altitude, without passenger, Capt. H. LeRoy Muller, U.S.A., 17,185 feet. Altitude, with one passenger, Lieut. J. C. Carberry, U.S.A., 11,690 feet. Duration, Military Tractor, Lieut. Byron 0. Jones,U.S. A., 8 hrs. 53min. Duration, Hydroaeroplane, Lieut. J. H. Towers, U.S.N., 6 hrs. 10min.
Motors Ready for Delivery
MODEL "S," 6-CYL., 60 H. P. MODEL "O-X," 8-CYL., 90 H.P. MODEL "O," 8-CYL.. 80 H.P. MODEL "OXX," 8-CYL., 100 H. P. MODEL "V 8-CYL. 160 H.P.
THE CURTISS MOTOR CO
21 LAKE STREET HAMMONDS PORT. N. Y.
U.S. Gov't Uses
Complete Balloons Made By Us
After 15 years devoted exclusively to the making' of rubber goods, we have perfected the ideal fabric for balloons and aeroplanes.
We have the necessary experience and factory equipment to design and construct Spherical balloons, complete, of any size or type; also to design and construct the gas bags of Dirigibles.
The Goodyear experts act in a consulting capacity with manufacturers of aeronautic equipment. We work to specifications or design complete ourselves.
Win In Foreign Field
Every balloon bought by the U. S. Government the last three years has been made by Goodyear.
Goodyear Balloons won the American National Elimination Race out of Kansas City in 1013, the International Race out of Paris in 1913, and the American National Elimination Race out of St. Louis in 1914.
We also make aeroplane tires in any size — two new sizes, 26x4 inches and 26x5 inches.
Rubberized Balloon Fabric and Accessories
Ask questions—No obligation
If you have balloon problems, consult with the Goodyear experts. This is no obligation to you. Write us, giving specifications, and we will send complete information and prices.
Address Balloon Desk, ISO.
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company
Makers of Goodyear Automobile Tires New York Branch, 1972 Broadway
The Ball-bearing Motor
MODEL A8V 110-120 H. P.
THE MAXIMOTOR has always been sold at a price that put it within the reach of all.
WE have been enabled to give Sterling Worth at Maxi-motor Prices because of the simplicity of design, and the ease and rapidity with which these motors can be built.
MANUFACTURING in Detroit, the home of the gas engine, has played no small part in reducing the cost of production.
Let Us Send You Our Catalogue and Prices
1530 Jefferson Ave. Michigan
Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics by AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th St.. New York
Telephone. Circle 2289 Cable, Aeronautics. New York
ERNEST L. JONES Editor
M. B. SELLERS Technical Editor
HARRY SCHULTZ Model Editor
FRANK CASH Ass't Editor
Entered as Second Class Mail Matter. September 22. 1908, under the Act of March 3. 1879. $3.00 a year. 15 cents a copy.
Postage free in the United States, Hawaii, the Philippines and Porto Rico. 25 Cents extra for Canada and Mexico. 50 Cents evtra for all other countries.
Make all checks and money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS PRESS.
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Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to he continued.
NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS
ll'itli the preceding issue was begun Vol. XVI. with Xo. 1. The issues for each six months have, heretofore, formed one volume. There should have been 12
issues for Vol. XV. instead of the 8 which have been published. Instead of continuing to name future issues consecutively, completing Vol. XV. to avoid an anachronism, a new start was made
with the issue of March 15, 1915.
All unexpired subscriptions arc set ahead four months so that every subscriber zvill receive the full complement of issues due him.
RESISTANCE OF BODIES IN MOTION IN A FLUID
Different Regimes.—By M. B. Sellers
It may be remembered that M. Ria-bouchinski,* in comparing various "wind tunnels," refers to the fact that M. Rateau. Prof. Prandtl and Prof. Mallock found that between 30 and 40° inclination, the pressure on a plate exposed to a current of air was subject to more or less violent fluctuations, now high, now low; and that these investigators attributed this condition to different types of eddies formed behind the plate.
In his own wind tunnel M. Riabouch-inski found no such pronounced fluctuations, but in a model of the Prandtl tunnel, where the rod supporting the plate was bent and joined to the plate at its middle, so as not to interfere with the flow around the edges, the same fluctuations were observed as reported by Prof. Prandtl; but with the rod attached to the edge of the plate they did not occur. When the return portion of the Prandtl tunnel was removed no fluctuations were observed. JNI. Ria-bouchinski's conclusion was that the current in the Prandtl tunnel was steadier and thus the eddies or vortices formed about the plate were longer preserved.
This brings to mind that M. Rateau,t in determining the centre of pressure on a plate found, in the neighborhood of 40°, two positions of equilibrium for the same position of the axis.
Captain Jules Constanzi,** using a cylindrical vertical tube (21.7 mm. diam.) partly submerged, to a depth of 385 mm., in water, finds two sets of resistance values for speeds of translation from 0 to 5 m. p. s.; the plotted values arranging themselves along two divergent curves, having their common origin at zero speed and pressure. These curves represent two regimes of resistance, which we may call the lower and higher regimes.
If we take A' = _^_and find and plot
K for these values of R. then the values of K will be grouped along two approximately horizontal and parallel lines: that is, for each regime the resistance is about proportional to the square of the speed.
With a tube of elongated section 23.5 by 75 mm. the two regimes were not continuous, but instead, there seemed to be a transition from the lower to the higher regime between 3 and 4 m. p. s., the higher regime of this tube blending with the lower regime of the other.
The resistance in water of a tube of lenticular section being determined and the values of K plotted (resistance on speed) K was found to decrease rapidly between 2 and 4 m. p. s., showing presumably a passage from a higher to a lower regime. M. Riffel found a similar condition for streamline aeroplane struts; and Capt. Constanzi, in his small wind tunnel, finds that a tube of fusiform section shows K decreasing (within the range of the experiment) ; whereas for a round tube, he finds K constant. Capt. Constanzi concludes that the change in value of K corresponds to the passage from one regime to another, which occurs also in air. but at a higher speed ; the relation being that between the viscosities of the fluids.
Capt. Constanzi tested two spheres: one 10 cm., the other 20 cm. diameter. The larger showed a change from a higher to a lower regime at about 1.35 m. p. s.. the smaller at about 2.75 in. p. s.; outside this region of change K was nearly constant These two speeds are in inverse ratio to the diameter of the spheres. For the same speed, the coefficient of the smaller sphere is higher than that of the larger sphere, as is also the case with wires and dirigible bodies.
M. Eiffel.*** experimenting with spheres in air observed similar phenomena. Rord Rayleigh.tt basing his conclusions on M. Eiffel's experiments, has shown that the change of regime occurs at corresponding speeds following the law of similitude of Osborne and Rayuolds. If we plot the values of K on VD as abscissas (D = diameter), the curves will almost superpose.
Capt. Constanzi's experiments confirm this deduction, as also those of M. Maurin at the Institute of St. Cyr, with eight spheres ranging from 17 mm. to 9S mm. radius. The roughness of the
surface and the character of the support are not without influence.
Finally, Capt. Constanzi refers to experiments on the resistance of wires, made in the Goettingen laboratory and in the National Physical Laboratory. The points representing the co-efficients of resistance of the different wires, in function of speed, are scattered over the diagram without appearance of order. But it suffices to dispose them in function of "VD" to have them range themselves along a curve, at first descending, later becoming horizontal; the descending portion corresponding to the change of regime.
Capt. Constanzi concludes from what precedes that the descending part of the curve of K corresponds to the passage from one regime to another, which occurs following the law of Osborne and Raynolds at different speeds—that is, the smaller the model the higher the speed.
"There exists, therefore, for several forms, spheres, tubes, wires and 'carenes' a double regime of resistance, and we pass from one regime to the other at different speeds, which depend on the dimensions of the bodies and on the density of the fluid. Probably the two regimes follow the quadratic law as has been shown in certain particular instances.''
"Therefore, in experimenting with models it is important to know whether one is in the first or second regime. In the first regime the phenomena are not comparable to those which occur in full sized apparatus, unless the law of Raynolds is not yet proven. Finally this, double regime which at lower speeds depends on viscosity, is encountered again at high (ballistic) speeds; in which case, compressibility is the preponderant disturbing phenomenon."
ւulletin de l'Institute de Koutchino, Pt. IV. 113.
fAerophile. Aug. 1st. 1909.
**"Rcndiconti" of tlie Italian Military Aeronautic Laboratory. Vol. I: also Technique Aeronautique, Aug. 1st. 1914.
"*G. Eiffel. ('. R. Acad. Sc.. Dec. 30. 1912.
ttLord Ravleigh, C. R. Acad. Sc., Tune 13th, 1913.
NAVY DIRIGIBLE SPECIFICATIONS
With $1,000,000 appropriated by Congress for naval aeronautics, with additional funds which can be drawn on in the same manner as has been done in the past to provide money for the work that already has been acomplished, the navy is now in a. position to carry a good part of the plan framed by the Naval Board of Aeronautics, and first published in full in Aeronautics for October 30, 1914, p. 122, and January 31, 1914. p. 19.
The first proposals issued ,ne for two non-rigid dirigibles, "vedette" type, complete with necessary power plant, equipment and outfit, in accordance with specifications, inflated at Pensacola, Fla.
Bids are desired on the following basis:
1. Dirigible—Includes the dirigible proper, with car stabilizers, controls, control surfaces and leads, blowers and fittings, engine covers, cockpit covers, etc., with crates.
2. Power Plant—Includes motor, propeller, radiator, gasoline and oil tanks, piping, controls, gasoline and oil gauges, power transmission system, crates.
j. Instruments—Includes irstrument board complete, chart holder, gauges, etc.
4. Automatic stah'llzers, if proposed.
Dirigibles having characteristics differing from those specified will be considered. Decision as to merit of design will be based on extent to which proposed designs conform to or exceed the requirements and in this respect the following points are considered of import-
ance in the order given : Completeness with which detail information asked for is furnished, staunchness of design, useful load, speed, altitude attainable, rate of ascent, descent and directional stability. Merits of power plant will be considered from the viewpoint of suitability for purpose, propeller efficiencj', fuel consumption, weight and compactness in the order given.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. Dimensions not to exceed 175 ft. by 50 ft. high by 35 ft. wide, useful load 2,000 lbs. or more. Composed as follows: Crew, 1,450 lbs.; tool kit, fire extinguisher, rations, 50 lbs.; fuel, oil and water for 2 hours, 100 lbs.; air and ballast, 400 lbs. With full load—to be capable of ascent to at least 3,000 ft. without casting ballast, descending at a rate of at least 6 ft. per second from above altitude; speed, 25 m. p. h. or more; duration, 2 hours or more, full speed; car capacity, 8; enclosed body; car to be of such form and buoyancy to allow resting on or mov;ng through water; 2 balloonets, with means of "trimming" by their use, to act in conjunction with the pitching controls; twin screws, swivelling; at least 1 ripping panel at bow and at stern; substantial means for mooring by nose to mooring mast in a wind 50 per cent, greater than the speed; gas leakage limited to 1 per cent, in 24 hours in shed, normal conditions.
POWER PLANT. Two motors, light as practicable consistent with reliability, economy and service. To obtain quick delivery stand-
ard aeroplane motors accepted, provide mountings, insure absence of vibration. Transmission to provide for swivelling proppellers to assist in ascending, descending or maneuvering. Propellers to be more than 70 per cent, efficient at full speed.
There are also requirements covering protection from weather and moisture by paints, varnishes, etc., covers, color scheme, make of fabric used, its strength, coating, etc.
Complete plans, specifications and descriptive matter are required covering: General arrangement plans, principal dimensions, performance; envelope (strength of cloth, seams, color, permeability; stabilizers and rudders; gas valves, operating means, capacity) ; balloonets (cloth, strength, seams, etc.) ; ignition, lubrication and all other details of motor and performance; transmission, blowers, propellers (no. pitch, diameter, etc.), fuel supplies, car and suspension, equipment, weight schedule.
In the original plans as formulated by the Navy Aeronautic Board $85,000 was figured as the probable cost of these two airships.
NO ARMY AVIATION PARK.
Congress cut the armv s appropriation down to $300,000 and refused to give the money asked for the purchase of an aviation site in the vicinity of San Diego. No more aircraft will be purchased other than those at present under construction during the balance of the present fiscal year, as there are practically no funds available for this purpose.
MAXIMOTOR MODEL A8V 110-120 H. P.
In building the "Maximotor," Max Dingfelder has followed standard practice in design, but has cut down weight by elimination and combination of parts. Ball-bearings have been adopted for the crank and cam-shafts.
The latest model to be added to the line of 4s and 6s is an 8 cyl. "V" of 110120 h.p. The construction details of this motor follow:
The crank shaft is cut from a solid billet of chrome vanadium, 2'A in. in dia., and hollow bored. Connecting rods are drop forged from 3 1/3 in. nickel steel: 9'A in. centers. The crankcase is of the barrel, or single piece, type, cast from the finest grade aluminum alloy, and well webbed. Cast in pairs, the cylinders are from the very finest, close-grained semi-steel. Water jackets are very long, of welded pressed steel. Nickel steel tubing is used for the camshaft, with cams pinned by 3 nickel steel taper pins. Pistons are of the same material as cylinders, accurately machined with convex head, strong and light. Intake valves are 2'4 in.; exhaust. l"s in. Cast iron head fused to nickel steel stem by patented process. A gear-type pump placed in deepened
front of crankcase runs in oil fed from service tank. Riming at engine speed, oil is forced through the hollow crankshaft under high pressure. A supple-
moved, complete with cams, by removing 5 set screws. All small parts have been reduced to the minimum to facilitate replacement of parts. Finish:
mentary system sprays the cyinders and pistons with lubricant. Ignition is by Bosch magneto, of course. The water pump is of a centrifugal type of large capacity with double outlet, insuring perfect cooling.
Crank-shaft and cam-shaft run in ball-bearings. This latter can be re-
Nickel plated and highly polished.
The cylinder bore is 4'A in. and the stroke 5 in. The net weight is 400 lbs. Speed, 200-1600 r.p.m. Crank-shaft length, 4S in. Thrust with 8 ft. by 6 ft. Paragon flexing propeller, 700 lbs. Consumption, S gals, gasoline; oil, 3 qts. hourly.
HEINRICH MILITARY TRACTOR BIPLANE
This machine has heen designed especially to meet the 1914 specifications and requirements of the United States Army and the foreign governments. It has been developed to meet the severe requirements of a machine for military purposes where a machine is called upon for very fast flying speed combined with a low landing speed, a speed variation of better than 50 per cent, high climbing speed, good gliding angle, a large degree of natural stability, economy in power. It will arise from the land in a very small and confined space and has a very clear and wide range of vision for pilot and observer. The land-
a climbing speed of 800 feet per minute, and with a passenger and pilot and fuel for four hours it has a guaranteed climbing speed of 4,000 feet in 10 minutes, and a flying speed of 80 m.p.h. Flving light it has an extreme speed of 90" m.p.h.
The motor mentioned in these specifications is a 8 cyl. 110-h.p. Gyro rotary-motor. The gasoline consumption of this motor is 10 gals, per hour, and the oil consumption is 154 gals, castor oil. Weight of motor 270 lbs. Weight with gasoline and oil for a four hours' run 570 lbs.
The wings of this machine are of the
deep at the rudder. The longerons are of ash \Vz in. square at the front, tapering to 1 in. at the rudder. The fuselage is corner braced with seven sets of ash struts double channelled, and then cross wired, making a box-girder of the whole. The second and third struts are made extra large to take the extensions to the upper plane, the lower ends being slotted to take the lower plane beam ends. The top of the fuselage is streamlined off from the hack of the pilot's seat to the tail plane. The stream line effect is preserved by enclosing the motor under an aluminum hood allowing just the hottoms of the cylinders
ing chassis combined with very little resistance is compact and robust. The machine is easily handled and quickly dismantled with simple, efficient and effective controls, and capable of making a 500-mile-cross-country flight with a passenger.
The seats are arranged in tandem for pilot and passenger with ample room allowed in front cockpit for two passengers if necessary. The controls are placed in duplicate for military work. With a 110-h.p. Gyro motor this machine has a guaranteed speed range of from 45 to 80 m.p.h. Flying light it has
one-piece type. The wing sections are I beam with ash center and spruce straps, these are reinforced under the upright stanchions and where the cross-wire come in inside of wing. The front and rear beams are also I beam section with ash centers and spruce straps. The wing tips are laminated ash 4 ply. The covering is Irish linen, unbleached, thoroughly coated with a special coating and gray varnish. The total lifting area in main planes is 285 square feet.
The fuselage is rectangular in section, 40^-2 in. wide by 33 in. deep in the front tapering to 13 in. wide by 2 in.
to project for cooling, slots are made in the hood on either side of the propeller allowing air to enter and circulate around the motor. The hood is carried back to the pilot's seat, carrying out the stream-line effect and protecting the pilot and passenger from the wind and shielding the dash board upon which are mounted the instruments. The entire fuselage back of the passenger seat is covered with Irish linen and treated the same as the wings, forward of the seat the machine is covered with aluminum.
The rotary motor is mounted with
both front and rear mountings, the struts taking the rear mounting, being extra large and unchannellcd, 2 in. by 3 in. The front and rear mountings are of 3-32 in. reinforced steel. The motor is direct connected to an 8 ft. by 6 ft. propeller.
The gasoline and oil is fed to the motor from a gravity feed tank in front of the passenger seat, this tank holds 10 gals, castor oil and IS gals, gasoline. The gasoline tank is further supplied by a combination pressure and hand feed pump system. The hand pump only being used in case the pressure feed fails.
This gasoline is supplied from a 25-gal. tank under the passenger seat.
The landing chassis is of the wheel and skid type, two struts of ash \% in. by 3 in. support the fuselage on either side and are fastened to the skid on the bottom by a 1-16 in. steel fastening. The skid is of laminated hickory, 5 ply, 2l/2 in. deep by 2 in. wide and 4 ft. 6 in. long, turned up in front and projecting far enough out to protect the propeller. The wheels are stream-lined 26 in. by 4 in. attached to the skid with rubber rope shock absorbers. The whole is then cross braced with two steel tubes and
The tail skid is also of hickory and is hung on rubber rope shock absorbers.
Lateral balance is maintained by ailerons attached to the trailing edge of the upper plane. The vertical rudder is of the balanced type with 10 sq. ft. of surface. The elevators have 16 sq. ft. of surface. The fixed tail plane, or stabilizer, has 28 sq. ft. of surface. All control wires are in duplicate. Either the "Three in one" or the "Deperdus-sin" control is provided with these machines. The weight loaded is 1,430 lbs.; empty, 8S0 lbs. The price is $7,500.
The Christofferson flying boat, so far as the surfaces, control areas, etc., are concerned, follow identically the construction and workmanship of the tractor biplane.
The hull is especially designed for rough water work, and follows closely the fuselage construction of the military tractor biplane. The hull length over all is 26 ft. 2 in., and the greatest depth 2 ft. 10 in.; breadth amidships 2 ft. 10 in. The bottom is flat and is fitted with runners, which make possible alighting upon a frozen surface. On this account, also, the boat may be driven at a great rate of speed from the water up onto
the beach. The speed range, when fitted with a 100-h.p. motor, is 45 to 75 miles per hour. The boat carries three persons besides the pilot, and has a climbing speed almost equal to that of the tractor.
The top plane proper measures 23 ft. 9 in., for each section, of which there are two (47 ft. 7 in. total). The sections are attached to special steel tubing supports by means of steel pins, which can be quickly removed. The outer ends of the top section curve toward the back beam from the last strut out.
The ailerons are a continuation of the
plane and are attached to the rear beam of the plane by special steel hinges.
The two sections of the bottom plane each measure 17 ft. 2 in. in spread, and are attached to the fuselage by means of quick detachable steel sockets.
The upper and lower planes are separated 5 ft. 9 in. by means of laminated stream-line struts, which fit into special patented sockets that serve as a support for the guy wires. These sockets are so constructed as to allow the top and lower planes to be folded together. This arrangement makes it possible to set up the machine very quickly, as there is
no "lining up" necessary. This latter feature is accomplished by the use of patented quick detachable turnbuckles constructed of chrome nickel steel and tobin bronze. These turnbuckles are so constructed that by pulling back a metal sleeve a lever is released which in turn releases the guy wire. This lever is so constructed as to automatically tighten the wire as it is pulled back into place upon reassembling.
The beams or spars of the main planes are of the "I-beam" type, built up of laminated spruce. These beams are spaced 3 ft. 6 in. apart.
The ribs are spaced according to their relative location to the fuselage, those up close being nearer together and those away from the fuselage being further separated. The ribs are constructed of selected Oregon spruce and basswood, and are also of the "I-beam" type.
The entering edges of the planes are fitted with strips of walnut so made that a neat, sharp, efficient nose is obtained. The planes are interhraced by means of wooden rods, both laterally and crosswise. This wood bracing is glued to each rib it passes through, and makes practically a solid mass in point of
strength and durability. The cross section of the surfaces is especially shaped to obtain the highest possible speed, greatest lift, and least drift.
The entering edge turns up slightly, as also does the controlling edge. The section is set at an angle of incidence of two degrees, wdiich gives a rise of 4^4 in. from the controlling edge to the entering edge. The planes are set at a positive dihedral angle of I'A degrees.
The wire bracing used is Roebling's steel cable, 2,300 to 4,000 pounds tensile strength. Where the wire passes around turnbuckles and through sockets it is protected by a copper sleeve.
The surfaces are covered with a very high grade of Irish linen, heavy weight, tested as to strength and treated.
The elevator flaps are 9 ft. in spread, 3 ft. 2 in. from front to back, with an area of about 22 sq. ft. It is constructed in the same manner as the main planes, with I-beam ribs, beams and cross trimmings. The corners are rounded.
The rudder is somewhat oval in shape, 3 ft. 8 in. long. 3 ft. 6 in. high, and is constructed in the same manner as the elevating planes. The stabilizer is built in one piece, and attached to the fuselage
by means of special clips. In packing it comes off in one piece with the elevating plane. The vertical fin, attached in the same way as the stabilizer, is taken off in one piece with the rudder.
The ailerons operate together and by means of a special lever device which enables all control wires to pass along the lower beam, thus facilitating inspection. The ailerons are attached to the main planes by special steel hinges. The construction of the ailerons follows generally the main plane construction, except that a steel tube is used as the front beam. The ribs are set into steel sockets brazed to this tube, thus making a very strong structure.
The motor is a Curtiss 100 h.p. The climbing speed with 100-h.p. (with full load, consisting of pilot, observer, fuel for five hours, and 150 pounds additional weight), is four to five hundred feet per minute. The speed range is from approximately 45 miles per hour, minimum speed, to 85 miles per hours maximum speed.
The type of control is left to the selection of the purchaser, and any desired system will be installed.
Lincoln Eeachey, known by sight to hundreds of thousands of people all over the country and by reputation to the whole world, met death in one of his hair-raising "dips to death" at the exposition at San Francisco on March 14th.
He began the steep dive several thousand feet up and when he straightened out his monoplane it gave way under the strain and Beachey, strapped to his machine, fell entangled in the remnants into San Francisco Bay.
Beachey had had built for him a new monoplane and this was the machine he used in the fatal flight.
A diver from the U. S. S. Oregon located the wrecked machine and it was hauled to the surface of the water. An examination by a surgeon showed that Beachey "was still alive when he struck the water and had sustained no major injury as a result of the fall, except a broken leg." There were evidences of a struggle to free himself from the mesh of twisted wires and parts and the direct cause of death was drowning.
Lincoln Beachey's loss is felt keenly by the vast circle of acquaintances who admired him and his exploits. He was universally acclaimed at least one of the greatest aviators who ever lived. No one will question his right to the palm among American flyers. He began his career with one of Captain Baldwin's airships at Oakland. Cal., in 1905, and, up to the Winter of 1910-1911, followed the airship "game." He then went to Ham-mondsport and, with some difficulty, learned to fly a Curtiss machine and joined the Curtiss exhibition flyers. Later he branched out for himself and formed a team with Barney Oldfield. He had often talked of looping the loop and when Pegoud was said to have done it Beachey started in to out-Pegoud
Pegoud—and he did. Beachey sailed his airship around the Capitol in 1906, and over Manhattan Island; he flew his aeroplane from Bridgeport to New Haven and over Niagara Falls: won the race from New York to Philadelphia and made a new height record in the course of his career.
In May, 1913, he gave up flying hut renewed his activity in the Fall after having a new miniature Curtiss machine built, fitted with a SO h.p. Gnome motor. The trial of this machine resulted in the death of a young lady who was observing his capers from the top of the navy's tent at Hammondsport.
DEATH OF FRANK STITES.
Los Angeles, March 16.—Frank Stites, an aviator employed by the Universal Film Company, lost control of his biplane this afternoon and fell to his death.
The accident occurred during the making of a motion picture of a supposed battle in the air between two aeroplanes. According to the most coherent version of the accident a premature explosion of a bomb in an anchored aeroplane just as Stites flew over it caused his machine to somersault earthward.
EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.
The exports for January show the effect of the war on prices. $14,263 is the average price for the machines shipped to the Allies (?) during this month. The mean valuation for 1914 was $6,337.47 each.
January. 1915.................. none
Same period 1914, parts only. . . $5,643 7 mos. ending Jan.. 1915, parts
only ..................... 2,239
Same period, 1914. parts only.. 26,233
Same period, 1913, 12 aeroplanes ($50,020) and parts ($1,776),
total ........................ 51,796
DOAIESTIC EXPORTS. Januarv, 1915, 5 aeroplane ($71,315)," parts ($21,87S)......... 93,193
Same period. 1914, 2 aeroplanes
(S12.50O), parts ($2,614), total 15,114 7 mos. ending Tan., 1915, 23 aeroplanes ($176,915), parts ($143,630). total .................. 320,545
Same period, 1914, 14 aeroplanes ($53,525), parts ($15,594), total .................. 69,119
Same period. 1913, 22 aeroplanes
($61,450 (.parts ($17,703), total 79,153 EXPORTS OF FOREIGN.
January, 1915 ................. none
Same period. 1914.............. none
7 mos. ending Jan., 1915....... none
Same period, 1914, 1 aeroplane
($4,049). parts ($900)....... 4,949
IN WAREHOUSE JANUARY 31.
1915, 1 aeroplane............... 1.856
1914 ........................... none
Mr. Fay, of Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Company, has been at the B. F. Sturte-vant Company's plant at Hyde Park witnessing tests on the new eight-cylinder 140 h.p. Sturtevant aeronautical motor.
C. A. Coey. of Chicago, is about to receive from Captain Bumbaugh, of Indianapolis, "what 1 believe to be the smallest passenger-carrying balloon in the world; you probably are aware of the fact that 1 own the largest, one in the world-—'The Chicago.'
"The new balloon will hold 9,000 cubic feet and I am having a private aerodrome built on my farm near Chicago and 1 expect to have a great deal of fun this summer taking short trips. I believe it is the only private aerodrome in this country."
FREDRICKSON TWO-CYCLE ROTARY MOTOR
While the two-cycle motor has almost passed out of existence, save for the one or two notable makes which have been very practical, there are still many believers in it through the absence of valves, cams, springs, gears, push rods, etc., and the doubled number of impulses to a revolution of the crankshaft.
C. E. Fredrickson has conceived the idea of placing a valve in the crankcase at the base of the cylinder and utilizing the lower part of the cylinder as a compression chamber, doing away with crank case compression.
The world rights of this motor have been acquired by the Worlds Motor Co.. which proposes to manufacture aviation motors.
This aviation motor is of the rotating cylinder or revolving type and is to be manufactured in three, five and ten-cylinder models.
In the three and five-cylinder models the body of the crank case is in one casting, including the valve and cylinder seats. The cylinder seats rise slightly from the crank case and in these are machined the valve seats and they also have the necessary clearance for the valves to operate, leaving the cylinders free of any attachments except their anchoring bolts. The two ends of the crank case are formed of two steel plates held together by five bolts passing through the entire case with a nut on each end. These bolts also reinforce the crank rase for the cylinder anchor bolts, which are not threaded in case, but are threaded into a 3'/. per cent, nickel steel lug at an angle, making a four-point anchorage per cylinder with one-half the usual number of parts. These anchor bolts pass through lugs of ample size cast in the head of the cylinder with castellated nuts screwed down against the cylinder head.
The cylinders are of the usual two-cycle type, of cast iron with cooling fins. The pistons are also of the usual type with the regular type of baffle plate or peak.
The valves are of a sliding or oscillating type. The seat is above the valve and all valves and seats are ground to fit. The valves are held in po-ition bv guide plates below them and, as the motor is of the revolving type, centrifugal force ~eals the valves against the scats al 875 r.p.m.
The gases are taken into the crank case through a hollow crank shaft in the usual manner, and at the lowest point of the piston stroke are admitted under the piston through the valve which slides on its seat as the connecting rod changes its angle. This valve remains open until the piston completes its outward travel, when it closes, imprisoning the gases between piston and valve, thus relieving the crank case of any com-
pression when the piston starts its down or back stroke. The piston in its backward travel now compresses the gas in the rear of the cylinder and, at the proper time, releases it through the by pass chamber into the combustion chamber, as is customary in two-cycle practice.
The mixture in the crank case is always uniform and as the valves admit an exact amount at each opening, each cylinder receives the same combination in both character and volume. The gas is carried practically
a complete revolution in the warm cylinder.
Ignition is by means of a single distributor, high tension magneto, the high tension current being carried by a single cable to a brush which presses against a circular distributor bolted to the crank case. This distributor is of fibre with one brass segment per cj'linder. From these segments are taken the ignition wires which go direct to the spark plugs.
For lubrication the oil is mixed with the gasoline and an auxiliary force feed oiler, gear driven, is mounted on the frame. This oiler forces jets of oil to the connecting rod bearing at the crank shaft, from whence it escapes through the connecting rod collars into the crank case.
The five-cylinder motor with a bore of 4I4 in. and a stroke of 4J4 in. weighs 192 pounds with cast iron cylinders. Including all bolts, nuts and screws, there are only 204 pieces. The entire engine runs on two annular ball-bearings.
Every advantage has been taken of centrifugal force. It is utilized to seat the valves and aid the gases and oil in their passage from crank case
to cylinders. The crank case is only seven inches wide and the motor revolves in a space of two feet and ten inches.
SOME PRACTICAL HINTS
The manufacturers of aviation motors during the past year have been greatly handicapped, due to the fact that there were very few purchasers for exhibition flyers, and the Government business has not been very clearly defined.
Our motors have been sold to several foreign governments during this year
and in every case a severe and closely watched test has been run pending the purchase. Perhaps the most rigid test was run for the Norwegian navy. They required our Type A-4. 100 h.p. motor to develop not less than 130 brake test horsepower continuously for three hours and a half. This motor had to turn at a speed not less than 1,480 r.p.m. during the entire time. This was done, after which the motor was disassembled and carefully inspected, showing everything to be in perfect shape.
It is our belief that both the United States army and navy (provided they wish a more efficient power plant supply them) should induce manufacturers to participate in tests both on block and in the air. In this way the manufacturer could be brought into personal contact with just what is required.
This could be done as foreign governments have done—offer a cash prize for the motor winning certain tests, either installed in a plane or on the block.
At any rate the United States army and navy must co-operate to a greater degree and offer more inducements to the American manufacturer in order to obtain motors that are more reliable and suitable to their needs than the ones they are now using.—Hall-Scott Motor Car Company
THE HUNTINGTON PASSENGER BIPLANE
The first machine produced by Howard Huntington, of his contemplated series, has. during March, had its first trials on Long Island under the guidance of Harold Kantner, the well-known Moi-sant monoplane pilot.
In this, biplane wings have been combined with a Nieuport type of fuselage, which has been refined considerably. The framework is so put together by the use of special sockets that U-bolts and their protruding nuts and ends are done away with. There is no tendency displayed to swing around when landing. The Nieu-port landing gear has been modified so
that it is more practical. It enables the machine to land straight on rough ground and the wing-tips do not hit. There are very heavy coiled springs in tubular telescoping absorbers running down to the ends of the axles, which prevent side rocking on rough ground.
The machine was designed for 70 miles an hour; and, although climbing and circular timed trials have not been made, the performance seems to fulfill the expectations. The engine is an 80-h.p. Gyro. The weight was figured to be 96S lbs., and the actual weight, empty, came to 925 lbs.
The total supporting surface is 352 sq. ft. and it is expected that S lbs. to the square foot can be carried. The fuel and oil capacity has been arranged for five hours' flying. The machine spreads 36 ft., 5-ft. chord. The gap is unusual for this chord, being 6 ft. To this fact is attributed its claimed increased efficiency. The planes are staggered 14 in. The angle of attack is 4 deg. on the upper wing and 2Vz deg. on the lower. In flight, the lower wing is neutral. The elevator measures 7 ft. by 22 in.; the rudder 2 ft. 4 in. by 3 ft. 9 in. The fuselage measures 22 ft from tip to tip thereof.
The ailerons are placed between the main surfaces and are actuated downward only. They are returned to normal position by fabric-covered strong elastic bands. One single wire runs from each aileron to the modified Dep control. Later on, the lateral stability will be handled by flaps cut out of the main wing for comparison with the present arrangement.
Four different makes of propellers are being tried, all of the same diameter and pitch, S and 6 ft. respectively, among these being Paragon, Curtiss and Simmons.
Another machine is in course of construction, to he fitted with a 110-h.p. Gyro motor.
These machines are soon to be placed on sale. Mr. Huntington, who is secretary of the Aero Club of America, is taking, in general, standard designs and incorporating minor changes and ideas with a view to great efficiency. Jt ma}' be that later on this construction work will he turned into commercial channels.
Recently an inquiry to Aeronautics as to the facilities of the aeroplane factories of this country for the production of 1.000 aeroplanes caused some little stir among those manufacturers who were in a position to start work on such an estimate. Doubt was expressed as to the ability of the existing manufacturers to fulfil such an order on short notice. An optimist much given to statistics proved that 800 aeroplanes were built in this country in 1912. This was encouraging news until some crapehanger suggested that a foreign order for 1,000 aeroplanes meant 1.000 aeroplanes capable of being flown upon completion.
The Parisano Aerial Navigation Co. of America, Inc., of 220 West 42d Street. New York, is about to make trials of its
new machine. This is a unique monoplane, as there are two propellers and two rotary motors, the propellers being at the front and rear end of a large tube approximately the same diameter and driven by chain from the motors, which are set in the open bottom of the tubular structure. The four-wheeled chassis, with riders' seats, is below the motors. A triangular, in cross-section, open fuselage extends rearward and supports a standard type of tail.
STATUS OF CAPTURED AVIATORS IN WAR
If the aviators belonging to the forces of one belligerent are captured, they have the status of prisoners of war, provided, of course, they belong to the military or naval establishments. Under the interpretation of the agreements at the second conference at the Hague, aviators are to be considered solely as prisoners of war, and whether they have dropped explosives or fired from aircraft is not considered in fixing their status.
The death rate among the English aviators in the front is 2 per cent. No data are available on the other belligerents, but the percentage, doubtless, runs about the same.
Curtiss Aeroplanes & Motors, Ltd., Toronto. Can., $50,000.
Huntington Aircraft Co., 18 E. 41st st., New York.
Parisano Aerial Navigation Co. of America, 220 W. 42d St., New York, $100,000. R. Ebie. John J. Byrne, William Swain.
Fanning Aircraft Destroying Gun Co.. Davenport, la., $1,000,000. C. E. Fanning.
Aviauto Mfg. Co., $5,000. Bernard A. Law. Martin Baier. Sidney F. Miller, James E. Fingan, 154 Nassau St., New York.
FRENCH AEROPLANES MADE 10,000 FLIGHTS.
Paris, March 7.—The following note is appended to tonight's official communique :
"Statistics covering the aerial operations from the beginning of the mobilization to January 31 of this year show the following:
"During these six months the aerial squadrons made about 10.000 reconnoitring flights, corresponding to more than 18.000 hours of flight. These flights represent a distance covered of 1.080,000 kilometers (1,125,000 miles), or, in other words, twenty-five times around the world.
"These remarkable results were not obtained without sorrowful losses, which were at least equal to and in many cases heavier than those suffered by other branches of the army so far as the dead, wounded and missing are concerned."— The Sun.
THE SCHOBER GLIDER-By Harry Shultz, Model Editor
Some time ago the Aero Science Club held a series of model glider contests. Those who have never witnessed a contest of this kind cannot realize the entertainment to be found there. To see these miniature machines glide onward for a hundred yards or so on level ground seemingly without propulsive power is rather weird to those not understanding the principles of aeronautics. At the recent Aero Science Club contest, generally five or six of these models, all thirty inches in span, were in the air at once, and 'he spec-
wind. Flights of over ninety seconds have been made in this manner.
One of the best known glider enthusiasts of the Aero Science Club is Mr. Frank Schober. The model herein described is one of the first constructed by him, and was one of the finest specimens of model making we have seen.
The writer had the pleasure of witnessing the first trials of this glider at Forest Park, Brooklyn, N. Y„ last Winter. The snow was about a foot deep at that time and only one with a great amount of enthusiasm could be
tator had a rather difficult time keeping watch on all at the same time.
The correct method of Hying model gliders is down a slope or hill, the glider being headed into the wind, which should preferably be coming up the hill. The glider is generally weighted at the nose to keep the head down into the
persuaded to flounder about in it. Nevertheless, we mounted to the top of one of the numerous hills there and to our dismay then found that the wind was blowing down the hill instead of up. Mr. Schober tested the glider with the wind behind it and it made some wonderful flights. Sometimes it would land
with a thud on the frozen ground at the foot of the hill, bounce off and sail away for ISO feet more. An end was put to the sport, however, when the glider came into severe contact with a huge tree trunk, the skids and the front portion of the fuselage being damaged.
The fuselage is built up of 54 in-square spruce, the joints being made by tiny pins and then glued. The fuselage is 34 ins. in length and 3 ins. in width and 3 ins. in depth at its widest part, which is 5 ins. from the front of the fuselage. In the front of the fuselage is mounted a piece of lead, the same being shaped to conform to the contour of the body. This weight acts to keep the nose of the glider down into the wind and also strengthens the front of the fuselage. Secured to the rear end of the fuselage is a strip of metal, preferably aluminum, which acts as a bearing for the pivoting rod of the rudder. This rod is a dowel, or the like, and turns stiffly in the bearing so that the rudder remains in any position in which it is placed. The ruder is 4 ins. by 4 ins., and is made of two strips of spruce, the encirclnig strip forming the edge being of flat rattan.
The planes measure as follows: Main plane 34-in. span, chord at center 7 ins., chord at tips 6 ins., tail plane 10-in. span at front edge, 6V2-U1. chord and 13-in. span at rear edge. Both planes have double ribs of spruce 54 >n- wide by 1/32 in. in thickness, the front or main plane having 21 ribs, the ribs being spaced approximately 154 ins. apart, and the tail plane having 6 ribs, the edges of both planes are of flat rattan. The planes, rudder and fuselage were covered with a strong red silk and treated with varnish, the planes and rudder being double surfaced. The front or main plane is placed approximately 7 ins. from the front of the fuselage.
The skid arrangement at the front end of the fuselage is made from heavy umbrella ribs, the portion of the ribs where secured to the fuselage being flattened, drilled and nailed to the fuselage, underneath the covering.
BRITISH PILOTS WANTED. The secretary of the Governor-General of Canada is making a campaign to ascertain the names of British born aeronautic pilots and mechanics living in the United States who might be willing to serve with the Royal Flying Corps during the term of the present war. Those applying must be British born or have British nationality. They must be medically fit and have normal vision.
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Ex-member Examining Corpi, U. S. Patent Oftio*
Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patent*
American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. ?n McC.m Bid*. WASHINGTON, D. C.
THAT PROTECT AND PAY pijrr BOOKS, ADVICE AND SEARCHES rKtt Send sketch or model for search. Highesl References Best Results, Promptness Assured.
WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer 624 F Street, N. W. Washington, D. C.
Airships, Aeroplanes, Gas Generators, Safety Packs. Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, Aeroplanes and Airships. Stevens* balloons used by 95% of American and Canadian clubs.
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ANNUAL MEETING HELD The annua] meeting of the Aeronautical Society of America was held on Thursday evening, March 25, when the following officers and directors were elected to serve for the ensuing year: President, T. R. MacMechen; first vice-president, Frederick \V. Barker; second vice-president; William J. Hammer; third vice-president. E. D. Anderson; fourth vice-president, C. \V. Howell, Jr.; fifth vice-president, Louis R. Adams; secretary, Edward Du-rant; treasurer, Lewis R. Conipton; counsel, Walter L. Post. Directors: Louis R. Adams, Lee S. Burridge, Capt. T. S. Paldwin, William J. Hammer, Thomas A. Hill, Leon Goldmer-stein. Earle Atkinson, C. W. Wurster, E. L. Jones, Capt. W. I. Chambers, U. S. N., T. R. MacMechen, Rudolph Hanau, Ernest D, Anderson, A. Leo Stevens, Matthew B. Sellers, Lewis R. Compton, Frederick W. Barker, Oscar Her-manson, Rudolph R. Grant. E. P. Hopkins, Walter V. Kamp. Merrill E. Clark, Edward Durant, Charles W. Howell, Tr., Archibald Hart.
At this meeting, also, the organization of the Aeronautical Engineers* Society was approved and formally ratified by the members of the parent body, the Aeronautical Society of America.
The creation of branches of the Society in various large cities throughout the country was discussed at length, the purpose being to provide different centers in places distant from New York, where men interested in aeronautics could gather to consider matters connected with air-craft, to be submitted, with the findings of the branch, to the headquarters of the Society in New York. Authority was given the directors to formulate and carry out plans for the establishment of branches where desirable.
President Thomas Rutherford MacMechen gave an address on "Air-craft in the War," with a comparison of the present condition of aeronautics in the United States.
Mr. MacMechen said in part:
HOW APPROPRIATIONS FOR AERONAUTICS WASTE THE PUBLIC MONEY.
"Congressional appropriations in the interest of aeronautics—that is to say, for the establishment of aeronautical branches for the army and navy—are entirely thrown away if the authorities who have the matter in their hands are devoted to experimental machines, especially in this day of advanced development.
"Investing money in machines that do not possess practical endurance, for the avowed purpose of learning to handle big machines by handling small machines, is folly.
"It is. in fact, established by aeronautical development that a small machine of whatever type will not act like a big machine; that the operation of two sizes calls, in many cases, for radically different handling. Yet we have the spectacle of aeronautical boards of the army and navy advocating the foregoing plan of 'feeling their way' in a field which they admit by their plan to be unfamiliar to them
"This waste of public money applies especially to the dirigible, which in any size is a iiuch more expensive craft than the aeroplane. Whatever may be the popular notion of the useful nt-ss of dirigibles for military operations, military experience amongst those governments having the greatest actual experience with diri-
gibles have very clearly demonstrated the exact value of certain types of the dirigible for specific work, and this knowledge explains the continued investment of great sums of money in the dirigible. Confirmation of this statement is indeed found in the fact that the naval board of the U. S. had invited bids for the building of two baby dirigibles of a type long since experimented with and practically discarded by the power that has bad the most experience with the dirigible. If this is not true, what excuse can the U. S. authorities offer for investing in dirigibles at all?
"It is generally said that the proposed investment in baby dirigibles is based on the assumption that they are conserving public money and learning to handle the dirigible in its smallest size, a size now demonstrated to be entirely impractical for any useful purpose, and woefully inefficient as an instrument from which to learn how to operate the large and really useful airship.
"No baby dirigible gives its operator the slightest clue of the involved technique of the large machine. Consequently the investment of the LTnited States in such dirigibles is an absolute waste of public money.
"This type of dirigible is well known. It is so small that it can carry engine power sufficient to manage them only in the slightest winds. They cannot be driven excepting at very slow speed, a speed at which no dirigible can really be a practical machine, as the science has fully demonstrated. If it were possible to carry sufficient engine power a mere gas hag cannot be taken against the air at any practical speed because its body will buckle in the air. Its skin, or balloon cloth, must be kept so light that it cannot protect its gas from constant fluctuations caused by atmospheric changes. This is the law on the subject as demonstrated by the engineering science. Yet an aeronautical board in this country flies in the face of precedent and wastes the public money.
"It is demonstrated practice that the thicker the envelope of a non-rigid dirigible is, a thing only made possible by size and carrying capacity, the better is the gas protected against atmospheric changes. It is only necessary to add tliat the double skin, outer covering and inner balloonetts of the rigid dirigible most adequately protect the gas against atmospheric changes, which consequently explains the rigid airship's greater endurance and incomparably superior radius of action, not to speak of the certainty which these great ships afford in the matter of carrying great loads over immense distances and reach the objective point. Therefore the adoption by the German government of the rigid airship as the only all-around practical weight carrier of the air.
"Now what have the Zeppelins done which justifies the present investment by the German government of more than 30 million dollars in a fleet of such machines? Newspaper accounts of what the Zeppelins have been doing and the popular conception of the value of their flights do not give either a reasonable or a true picture of the Zeppelin's work.
"I will now refer to some of the actual lessons gained by the Zeppelins' operations, and I shall ask you to fix your minds upon the points about to be impressed. . . ."
Members are reminded that the Round Table talks held every Thursday evening are always intensely interesting and should not he missed. Matters of technical and general aeronautical interest are brought up and considered each week, and every member should make a point of attending if possible in order to keep abreast of the times, for undoubtedly progress is now being made in the art of aviation, and the Society is taking its full share in the activities.
New members who have been elected are: Hans Nordman and Henry L. Coakley.
Aeronautical Engineer's Society
On Wednesday evening, March 17, at the rooms of the Aeronautical Society of America, 29 West 3°th Street, there was held the foundation meeting of a body which is to be known
as the Aeronautical Engineers' Society, A. S. of A., the last letters being the initials of the preseiH society, the Aeronautical Society of America.
Under the rules of the Aeronautical Engi-n;ers* Society, A. S. of A., none but members of the Aeronautical Society of America are eligible for membership. Among its charter members are: Lee S. Bur ridge, president of the Sun Typewriter Company; Thomas R. Mac-Mehon and Walter V. Kamp, inventors of the Zeppelin-destroying dirigible now building in England; Leon Goldmerstein, inventor, engineer and editor; Frederick W. Barker, acting president of the Aeronautical Society of America; A. Leo Stevens, the balloonist, and Adolph 1). Wittemann of Wittemann Brothers, the well-known builders of aeroplanes.
The principal object of the Aeronautcial Engineers* Society is to create in this country as high a grade of design of aerial machinery as the stress of war has developed in Europe. As stated in its by-laws, the purposes of the society are: *'<T) To constitute a body for the promotion of the science and art of aerial navigation and branches of engineering kindred to it; (2) To create and promote an intercourse between persons earnestly interested in the above referred to fields of endeavor; (3) To create a body which, by the constitution of its membership and achievement should be entitled to represent the interests of aeronautical engineering before proper bodies in this country and in international intercourse."
The officers of the Aeronautical Engineers' Society, A. S. of A., are: Charles W. Howell, Jr., chairman; Leon Goldmerstein. first vice-chairman; Walter V. Kamp, second vice-chairman : and Lewis R Compton, secretary and treasurer.
There is no entrance fee, and the annual dues arc $25. Only engineers and persons of aeronautical prominence are acceptable for membership.
Aero Science Club of America Bulletin
On Lincoln's Birthday a number of trials were made by the members of both the New York and the Long Island sections of the Aero Science Club at the Liberty Heights Field for Tractor Duration Records. On the 2lst and also on the 22nd of that month these tractor trials were repeated at that field with the result that two new American Tractor Records were established as follows: Single Tractor Monoplane Duration.... 27 sec.
Single Biplane Tractor Duration.......21 sec.
The first being made by Mr. L. Ness: the biplane record by Mr. C. V. Obst, Pres*t of the Club.
At Van Cortlandt Park, a demonstration of the practical value of negative and plain wing tips was given by Mr. A. K. Barker and Mr. Frank Broomfield, both of the Aero Science Club. This demonsration was the result of a debate on that subject held about a month be-fire, in which discussion neither of the aforementioned model flyers was able to gain the advantage over his adversary. Three judges were present to witness the trials, and the general results were declared to be very satisfactory. At this interesting demonstration James Barker, one of New York's most promising young amateur flyers, made some very remarkable flights with his small single-propelled tractor and had the satisfaction of nearly equalling the records held by more expert flyers.
Louis Fenouillet, one of the oldest model flyers in America, and a most active model experimenter and worker in the line of man-carrying gliders, lost his well-made original type biplane glider His brother, who was uy-ing the apparatus at the time, escaped injury. The accident is said to have been due to the inexperience of the young enthusiasts who were towing the glider at the time of the fall. Mr. Fenouillet has had special hydro floats made for the purpose of an over-water flight in this machine from Bath Beach, Brooklyn, to the aeronautical field at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island, and his chances of making a world's record by this feat were regarded as Continued on Page Ml
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j*. New and Eoiarged Edition, Commencing January, 1914 *f
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On February 27, at Ithaca, N. Y., the Thomas Tractor Biplane, with three men and four hours' fuel aboard, climbed 4,000 ft. in 10 min. Average speed—81-1 m.p.h. Slow speed down to 38 m.p.h. Showed hi(jh degree of inherent stability.
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NEW WORLD RECORDS.
Lieut. Byron Jones, of the U. S. Signal Corps, on March 12 made a new world endurance record by flying 7 hours 5 minutes with two passengers.
The machine used was a Burgess tractor with a 75-h.p. Renault motor reconstructed by Grover Cleveland Loen-ing, the S. C. aeronautical engineer.
It has recently been necessary for the Aircraft Co., Inc., New York, to double its forces on account of the increased amount of work. They And the prospects for the coming season very good for a large output. They have a very expert corps of men at work now and will probably make another addition to the force in the very near future.
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WANTED, immediately, three expert draftsmen, having experience in the design of aeroplanes or in the detailing of aeroplane parts. Box A. c/o AERONAUTICS.
ATTENTION : Young man. 21 years French, studied aviation several years, five years' experience in auto factory as repairer, motor and road tester and as-
sembler, now with Splitdrof company, seeks position with aviator or areoplane manufacturer for general service to learn that line of business; reference of highest character. J. H. Yelle, Y. M. C. A., Newark. N. J.
FOR SALE—On account of sickness, aeroplane, very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. E. M„ 1522 Norwood ave.. Toledo, O.
WANT TO BUY an 80 h.p. Gnome or an 80 or 90 h.p. Curtiss. Address John Weaver, c/o Aeronautics. (Ix)
WANTED—50 to 60 h.p. aeronautical motor in good condition: no junk. Arch. Irwin, General Delivery, Topeka, Kans.
INDEX TO VOLUME XV.
Note.—Volume I started with the first issue, that of July, 1907; Volume II started with the issue of January, 1908; Volume III, with the July. 190*S, issue; Volume IV. with the January. 1909, number; Volume V, with the July,
1909. number; Volume VI. with the January.
1910, issue; Volume VII, with tbe July, 1910, issue; Volume VIII, with the January, 1911, number; Volume IX, with the July, 1911, issue; Volume X, with January, 1912; Volume XI, with 1 uly. 1912; Volume XII, with January. 1913; Volume XIII, with July. 1913; Volume XIV, with January 15, 1914. and Volume XV. with July 15. 1914.
There are only eight numbers in Volume XV. as explained in the issue of March 15, 1915.
Only principal articles are ii dexed. News notes in general and smaller mentions are not indexed.
Accidents. Fatal: pAGE-
Cooke, Weldon 1".................. 78- 91
Gerstner, Lieut. Fred'k J.......... 120
Hill, Thomas 1..................... 105
Piceller. William .................. 7S
Terrell, Frank P.................... 105
Aero Club of Pennsylvania [bulletin... 10R-106 Aeronautical Society Bulletins.
Aeroplane Speedometer (XJ orell)..... 30
Burgess i>unne .......34-S8-101-116-117-119
Army Competition for Constructors.. 9-74
Contrabrand, Arc ................. 3S
Curtiss Model J..................... 69
Curtis* Model X................... 104
Martin, Glenn ..................... 90
Schmitt, Paul ..................... 24
Sellers Ouadroplane ............... 21
Signalling to ...................... 45
Sperry Wins Stability Prize........ 13
Stability of .........'............... 67
"Steco" ........................... 70
Thomas Military Tractor ........... 106
Transmission Gear for.............. 5b
Aero Science Club Bulletin .23-58-89-92-108-126 Aircraft in the Early Part of the European War......................36-55-73
Aircraft Industry, the:
In France......................... 5
In Germany and Other Countries... 31
Air Fleets of Foreign Countries...... 22-106
Anenio-Tachometer, Morell ........... 30
Army Aeronautics, U. S.:
An ti-Aircraft Gun ................. 120
Burgess-Dunne ...............25-88-117-1 19
Bomb-Dropping Tests (Scott)........ 74
Buys Martin Tractor............... 16
Competition for Constructors........ 9-74
Flying Statistics ................... 23
Mackay Trophy Competition........ 120
New Duration Record.............. 91-116
Resume of Progress in Signal Corps. 87
Aviaphone, The Turner............... 102
Accessible Circle. The............... 41
Aerial Bombs and Projectiles........ 94
Aerodynamical Laboratories......... 52
Aircraft in War, the Hague, and,
hy Arthur K. Kuhn.............. 35
Aircraft in War, by Brig.-Gen. Geo.
P. Scriven ...................... So
Airhole at Landing................. 15
A Suggestion for the Power Plant of an Aeroplane, bv Prof. David
L. Gallup .........'.............. 19
Carburetors from a Functional Standpoint, by Ralph S. Barnaby...... 115
Converse Automatic Stabilizer, the. . 39 Hydroaeroplane in Coast Defence Reconnaisance, the, by Capt. V. E.
Clark ..............'............ 99
How to Find the Way Across the
(>cean, by Leon Goldmerstein..... 3
International Code of Aerial Law.... 21 Law of Similitude, the, by M. B.
Sellers ........................ 7
Leonardo da Vinci, by Chas. Beecher
Bunnell ........................ 3b
Measuring Horsepower in tbe Air. . 23 Measuring Tension of Stays in Full
Flight ................."......... 47
Naval Aeroplanes at Sea............ 40
Review of Aeronautical Progress, by
John J, Long.................... 5l
Signalling to Aeroplanes............ 44
Soaring Flight, by O. Chanute...... 53
Some Experiments with Biplanes, by
A. A. Merrill.................... Si
Stability of Aeroplanes, by Orville
Wireless as Connected with Aeronautics, by William Dubilier, R.S.A.,
Velocity of Rise and Lifting Power
of Balloons .................... 44
Barnaby, Ralph S.................. 115
Bunnell, Chas. Beecher............ 35
ChanuLe, Octave .................. 53
Clark, Capt. V. E.................. 9*
Dubilier, William ................. 5
Gallup, David L.................. 19
Goldmerstein, Leon................ 3
Kuhn, Arthur K.................... 35
Long, John J...................... 51
Merrill, Albert A.................. S3
Scriven, Brig.-Gen. George P....... 67
Sellers, Matthew B................. 7
Wright, Orville .................. 67
Honey well's New Company and
National Race Won by Goodyear.... 12
Beating Wing Machine, The.......... 110
Denine Glider ....................... 27
Deposition of Metal on Wood......... 110
De Villers Convicted............... 119
Jannus .......................... 105
Curtiss' Transatlantic "America". .3-22-57-71
Fox-Philiipps Skimmer .............. 41
German Commercial Airship Lines..... 39
Germany Protests Curtiss Machines.... 126
Heinrich in N. Y. Race.............. 8
Ruled as Motor Boats.............. 104
The Hvdroaeroplane in Coast Defence 99
0. S. "l licenses Granted............ 122
Who Invented—Curtiss and J a mi in
Patents ........................ 126
International Code of Law, The....... 20
Kantner Wins N. Y. Race........... S
King. Samuel A.—Death of.......... 94
Leonardo da Vinci, by Charles Beecher
Bunnell ......................: - 35
Measuring the Tension of Stays in
Full Flight ..................... 47
Model Aeroplanes, Harry Schultz, Editor:
A. B. C. Self-Rising................ 26
Construction Details............... 124
Funk Speed Model................. S9
Obst Flying Boat.................. 59
Schultz Speed Model.............. 89
Ashmusen 12-cvl. 105-11.T.......... 124
Demont 300-H.P.................... 47
Kemp 75-H.P..................... 72
Maximotor 100-H.P................ 24
Naval Aeroplanes at Sea........... 40
Navy, United States:
Aeronautic Service ................ 118
Aeroplanes. To Buy................ 118
Appropriation Passed ..............
$5,000,000 Recommended for......... 101
Burgess-Dunne .................... 24-101
Dirigibles, To Buy.................. 101
Mav Get $1,187,600................ 122
Plans for Work, 1915.............. 123
To Have Constructors' Competition.. 118
Tests Hydroplane ................. US
Aeronautic Service ................ 118
Maximum Speed of................ 25
Width of Blades of................ 42
On the "America".................. 57
Jones. Lt. Byron G. Duration....... 116
Martin's Passenger Duration......... 90
Capt. Muller's (Lt.) Altitude Record 91 W. C. Robinson Makes Distance
Thompson, De Lloyd—..Altitude---- 42-72
Schmitt Monoplane in N. V. Race..... S
Scott (Riley E.) Bomb Dropping...... 74-121
Sperry Wins Stability Prize........... 12
Automatic, Converse System......... 39
Automatic, Selenium Cell for...... 25
Carey System .................... 71
Of Aeroplanes, by O. Wright........ 67
Pendulum Systems ................ 110
Airhole on Landing................ 15
Aerial Bombs and Projectiles........ 94
Accessible Circle, The.............. 41
Kilograms in Eng. Lbs. and Cwt..... 44
Measuring II.P. in the Air.......... 23
Speed Table ...................... 102
Velocity of Rise and Lifting Power
of Balloons .................... 44
Transmission Gear for Aeroplanes.. Wright:
England Acquires Patent Rights.. Starts New Infringement Suit
Zeppelin's ''Failure of" in the War. ,
Aero Science Club of America Bulletin
Continued from Page ?S being very good indeed. Unfortunately, unless he is able to construct another machine very shortly this flight will have to he cancelled and the ariangements for towing by a racing motor boat stopped.
Mr. J. J. Curran, an aviator of the Aeronautical Society of America, has very kindly offered to allow the members of the Aero Science Club to have the use of his machine at Oak wood Heights for "grass-cutting" practice flights. The machine is a 30-horsepower Anzani-motored Bleriot monoplane of excellent workmanship and finish.
On the evening of the 6th. Mr. Frank Schoe-ber of this club demonstrated very satisfactorily to his fellow members tbe new three-cylinder rotary compressed air and steam engine, on which he has been working for the past few months, in conjunction with Mr. Rudie Funk.
The machine is a flash boiler type, using gasoline for fuel and having a reciprocating pump of special design and very light construction fur keeping the boiler furnished with water Total weight of the engine is 5 l/z ounces, having a bore and stroke of y& in Crankcase is of machined cast aluminum, cylinders of phosphor-bronze machined from solid castings and fitted with special quick-detachable devices, enabling them to be inserted or removed entirely in a few seconds without any bolts, threads or other standard means. Pistons are of special aluminum alloy, connecting rods of brass, fastened to the hollow crankshaft to move without friction. The total weight of the complete machine ready for installation is but one pound and ten ounces, with water and gas for a two or three-minute run. With a 20-inch propeller of high pitch a speed of over 3.000 R.P.M'. has been obtained, and a very high thrust given by the handmade propeller.
Plans for a canard-type monoplane have been completed and work started on this six-foot model, which will weigh complete with engine installation appromixately 3 \\ pounds These two experimenters have made rapid progress with their motor experiments, and although it is but their second machine, it has been more successful than any other similar mechanism so far produced in this country.
From their past performances in model flying it is safe to judge that when this model is in working order more than a few of the official American model records will go in rapid succession to these enthusiastic young experimenters.
For information and particulars address the Secretary, 29 West 39th St., N. Y. City, care of the Aeronautical Society of America.
MODEL AEROPLANE MEET
A series of model aeroplane contests will be held at Concord, Mass.. during the spring of 1915. the events being held on the following dates:
March 13, distance, launched from the hand; March 27. duration. launched from the hand; April 24, distance, rising off the ground; May S, duration, rising off the ground; May 22, duration, rising off the water.
The competitions will last from 2.15 to 5 p. m.. and each contestant may have as many trials as he wants during that time.
The contests are open to any model driven by rubber bands, and the models need not be constructed by the entrant himself.
At each meet there will be a silver medal awarded to the winner, and a bronze medal for the best record by a boy under sixteen years of age, using a model constructed entirely hy himself. Several cups also will be given to those securing the greatest total number of points in the four contests in which he makes the best showing; that is, those who compete in all five contests will have their worst score omitted. Points will be given to every competitor on a percentage basis.
The entry fee will be twenty-five cents for a single contest, or fifty cents for the whole series, provided entry is made before March 1. Further information may be secured from, and entries should be sent to
Edward P. Warner, Concord, Mass.
100 H.P. -200 H.P. -
340 lbs. - $1,250 690 lbs. - $1,850
A "Q-D" Motor—Simple—No Vibration—10-Hour Test for Every Motor—Guaranteed to Stand More Abuse and Heavy Work with Less Attention than Any Other Motor.
All it Wants is Gasoline and Spark. Send for New Circular
Roberts Motor Manufacturing Company
300 ROBERTS MOTOR BLOCK Sandusky, Ohio, U. S. A.
I.....:: iMiiaiLMii'.iiiiiiiiiMiiini :x.:
The Paraplane is a Triumph in Aeronautical Science. The Safest, Most Practical and Efficient Flying Machine Ever Devised
represents the latest development in Flying Machines. Its patented parachute arrangement makes falling almost an impossibility. The Paraplane is capable of flying across the Atlantic. Positively the largest monoplane in America.
Especially Designed for Governmental, Commercial and Private Use
Herewith is a list of some of the patented features embodied exclusively in the Paraplane: — Inherent Stability; Dual Motors, controls and propellers which can be worked independent of each other. Propellers and control so arranged that machine will fly just as readily with a single propeller. Greater lifting power, changeable angle of incidence. Protected by many patents in United States and foreign countries.
Complete History of the Paraplane and its Relation to Aviation. Representing IS Years of Research Work by MICHAEL A. PARISANO. will be published and ready for distribution free of charge early in April. By sending in your application now. a copy of this book will be reserved for you.
Parisano Aerial Navigation Co. of America., inc.
220 West 42nd Street New York. N. Y.
5MMMS iinilililllllllllllllllllllllllll llllllllllllllli: ililllllllllllliu
THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES
For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.
The Wright Company
DAYTON, OHIO New York Oflice: 1! Pin. Si.
FOR SPRING DELIVERY
90 H.P. Gyro "Duplex
(Cut shows 110 H. P. Motor)
Best Motor For Exhibition, Loop-the-Loop and All Practical Flying
Orders Filled in Rotation as Received
The Gyro Motor Co.
774 GIRARD STREET WASHINGTON. D. C.
NEW YORK OFFICE 331 MADISON AVENUE
BURGESS- Military Aeroplane DUNNE
United States Great Britain Russia
Form of wing gives an unprecedented arc of fire and range of observation.
Par excellence the weight and gun-carrying aeroplane of the World.
Tail-less and folding.
Enclosed nacelle with armored cockpit.
Speed range 40-80 miles per hour.
Climb 400 feet per minute.
Burgeu-Dunne 3 Delivered to U. S. Army at Sao Diego, December 30
THE BURGESS COMPANY, Marblehead, Mass.
Sole licensees of the American-Dunne Patents