Aeronautics, No. 1 July 1914

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XV. No. 1 JULY 15, 1914 ** *>nts


No king ever enjoyed such sport as this. Four to five hundred miles without pause, at a speed of more than a mile a minute.

Five hundred thousand passenger miles without one serious accident. Used by six Governments and by private owners nearly everywhere.


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C,An open field for pleasant, remunerative employment.

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C,Opportunity to keep directly in touch with latest developments in Aviation.


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PlT, ? AERONAUTICS. Tulv 15. 1914

lace l

Aeronautical Engineers

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Associate Editor A. S. M. E. Journal, Chairman Technical Board Aeronautical Society of America

When Lieutenant Porte FtS

Across the Atlantic one of the greatest difficulties facing him will be to find his way to Europe. The ship's captain is in a far better position "in this respect. In the first place, he has a vessel which can keep its direction much better than an airship. It is less liable to drift, and the captain has far better facilities for making an estimate of the possible drift, if any, because he knows the currents, and can easily estimate the force and direction of the wind. Also, the steamer, especially the modern passenger vessel, is rather overengined than otherwise, and, barring gales, will cleave its way no matter what the wind or tide may be. Finally, the captain has elaborate instruments for making observations and carefully worked-out tables for taking care of all possible errors, whether those of observation, or due to lack of precision in the indica-^job of his instruments. What is TailT more important, however, is that the ship's captain has all the time he wants and pretty comfortable surroundings for making his calculations, while, even if he should commit a small error (and this is not likely), he would still have enough fuel and provisions to get to his destination.

The position of the airship pilot is entirely different. He has only a limited knowledge of the drift of his ship, as there may be movements of large bodies of air which can carry his craft miles and miles out of his way without his having the slightest intimation of the deviation. He has only the scantiest instruments at his command, and the dip and zigzag of the flight, together with the jar and whirr of the engine, make correct observation a matter of the greatest difficulty. The use of nautical tables in his case depends on his knowledge of his elevation, which he does not have, as barometer readings at his level would be of value only if he knew what the barometer reads at sea level, which, of course, he does not. It is hardly necessary to add that the present day aeroplane is not the kind of place peculiarly suitable for performing mathematical calculations, and an error would be especially dangerous, owing to the fact that both fuel and provisions have to be taken only in such amounts as

would permit the fliers to reach their goal. In fact, from what is known of the flight of Porte, it appears is rather to risk going without breakfast on the last day, than carrying any American food over to the British market.

The problem rises, therefore, as to whether there is any way of finding the way across the sea without having to carry a certified navigator aboard, and running the risk to lose the way notwithstanding. What is known as the wireless radio-goniometer, a long name tor a comparatively simple thing, may prove to be the solution of this particular difficulty.

The essential part of a radiogoniometer, or wireless directionfinder, is a system of two loops of wires of equal size, suspended vertically and crossing each other at right angles. This forms what is known as the aerial circuit, and includes, in addition to the wire loops, a coil of wire and a condenser in series with each of the loops. The two coils of wire, with their condenser, are contained in a box provided with a handle which permits to vary both condensers simultaneously. Inside the crossed coils there is a third coil, called the exploring coil, mounted on a vertical spindle so that it can he set at various angles with respect to the fixed coils. The detecting system, which is contained in a separate box and connected by wires to the exploring coil, consists of a pair of telephones and a crystal of carborundum, in series with a potentiometer and battery, the latter being required to sensitize the carborundum crystal. The exploring coil picks up the signals from the aerial circuits, and passes them on to the detector, where they are rendered audible in the telephone.

The finding of the direction by means of this apparatus is based essentially on the following considerations: The relative strength of the current induced by an incoming electric oscillation depends on the angle which the direction of the aerial forms with the direction of the propagation of the wave. The currents induced in the aerial pass later on through the coils in the direction-finding instruments and

produce there two magnetic fields, the relative strength of which depends on the relative strength of the currents induced in the two aerials, and, as the fields are at right angles to one another, they produce a resultant field at right angles to the direction from which the signals are coming. The exploring coil will receive its loudest signals when its plane is at right angles to the resultant field, or in the direction from which the signals are coming.

The theory of the apparatus is somewhat complicated, but its actual manipulation is extremely simple, and in less than half a minute one can locate the direction from which tbe signals are coming. There will be no trouble to design the apparatus so that it would weigh not more than a few pounds, and be easily adjustable to a given length of wave. By combining the direction with some kind of amplifier, such as an audion detector or gas amplifier, signals coming from a considerable distance could he easily heard even above the noise of the engine.

The system to he used would be, therefore, to have a number of land stations—such as Newfoundland, Long Island, Massachusetts, Ireland, etc.—send out for one minute every half hour signals on a wave length not used for messages, say 900 meters. The pilot tigures them out beforehand, and the angle he has to keep with the beeline from the station to which he refers, and all he has to do is, every time he gets the signals, to correct his direction with respect to them. He has no calculations to make, and if he misses some signal he will get one next time.

This system might be considerably elaborated by providing for vessels at sea to send both signals and their position, and equipping the aviator for each trip with a special chart giving direct readings of his position lor each angle with the signal line from a ship, no matter what the position of the latter may me. That would really mean having a modified and very much simplified Bow ditch for aerial navigation, and we do not see how this could be obviated otherwise.


After three weeks of experimenting it has been decided to apply the "sea-sled" principle to Rodman Wanamaker's flying boat, America. Trials of the machine, hastily equipped with a false hottom in the shape of an inverted V, proved this construction to be the one best bet for raising a heavy load off the surface of the water.

Thus fitted out, the America planed nicely at twenty miles an hour and with only half the available power. Therefore, Glenn II. Curtiss has started work on an entire new hull of the sea-sled type and the work will be finished by July 26. Present indications are that the Wanamaker expedition will start for Newfoundland on August

1 and that Lieutenant John Cyril Porte and George E. A. Ilallett will make their attempt to fly the Atlantic about August 10.

Following is a detailed description of the machine as it now stands: Length over all, 37^2 feet: length of hull. 33 feet; width of hull, 7 feet: depth of hull, 6 feet; length of cabin, 7 feet; height of cabin, 5 feet: width of cabin, 4 feet; spread upper wing, 74 feet; spread lower wing, 46 feet; chord, both, 7 feet; gap, between wing, 7^ feet; weight, empty, approximately 3,000 lbs.; weight, fully loaded, approximately 5,000 lbs.; speed, 62-65 miles per hour in still air; to this add or suhstract speed of wind machine is traveling with or against.

Description of hull: Forward section, for 16 feet 6 inches is of the im-erted Yee-bottom cont ruction, or "sea-sled" type. Aft of this a conical tail terminating in a point twenty feet from the main body of the boat. Over the main section a rigid top fitted with celluloid windows, forming an enclosed cabin or pilot house. Here are seats for the two pilots; dual controls throughout, so that either may operate the machine, or both simultaneously.

Construction of hull: Over a framework of closely spaced ash ribs a planking of spruce, covered with heavy canvas set in marine glue. The bottom of the forward section double skinned and inter-


laid with Sea Island cotton set in marine glue. Fastenings are several thousand brass screws and copper rivets.

Description of wings: Wings are composed of seven sections; a center panel of ten by seven feet above the power plant; four main sections (two upper and two lower) approximately 18 x / ft., and two overhangs on the upper surface measuring 15 x 7 ft. each. The shape of the wings is known as the X. P. L. wing section, which after exhaustive experiments made at the National Physical Laboratory, Ted-dington. Eng., was considered most efficient for this work. The wing frames are built up solidly of ash and spruce, covered with a heavy ribhed silk which is coated with a special water and fireproof dope.

Controls: The aerial rudder for turning from left to right has a depth of five feet and a length of four and one-half feet. The elevators are located on either side of the main rudder, and their dimensions are six feet by four and one-hal f feet. The ailerons or trailing flaps at the extremities of the wings are at present single acting, and measure fourteen feet in length by a maximum of four feet in depth. These are used to correct the lateral balance of the machine. If one side tips up the flap on that side is pulled above the normal level of the plane, with the combined result of slowing the speed of that side and at the same time depressing it through the pressure on the upper side of the flap. These controls are operated as follows: The rudder, by turning the wheel to left or right; the elevators, by pulling the wheel forward or back; the ailerons, by foot pedals.

Power Plant: Consists of two Model O-X Curtiss aviation motors rated at 90-100 h p. each, "Bosch equipped, of course." These are mounted midway between the planes, each four and a half feet fr<>m the center. Two propellers, one to each motor, are bolted direct to the motor shafts. They turn at a maximum speed of 1,250 to 1,300 revolutions per minute, but the machine is expected to fly under perfect control with the motor^ turning at less than 1,000 revolution'- per minute. The machine is expected to fly with either one or both should occasion demand.

Fuel supply: Seven gasoline

tanks have a total capacity of 312 gallons of gasoline; two tanks mounted on the engine beds have a capacity of 30 gallons of lubricating oil. Six main tanks are located just aft of the pilot house; these drain simultaneously, and the fuel is pumped to a gravity feed tank midway between the motors by a rotary gear pump. A special gauge on the side of this gravity tank indicates the action of the pump. In case the gear pump fails the aviators have an auxiliary hand pump. In 30 hours the two engines consume a little over 280 gallons of gas and 9Yi gallons of oil, after a 30-hour run of each engine.

I nstruments: The compass is nearly as large as ship's, especially constructed by the late Lord Kelvin's firm in England, which makes the instruments for the British admiralty. Tachometers show engine speed, aneroids show altitude, special Walt ham watches for time, the standard Pitot tube speed indicator as used on all Curtiss boats, inclinometers, fuel and oil gauges complete the equipment, except for the Sperry drift indilator which shows on a dial directly the drift from a straight course, having been tested out on a U. S. Navy airboat flown by Lieut. Towers. In the cabin are Lieut. Porte's navigation instruments, such as sextant, chart table, etc.


Under the auspices of the Boston Journal, the Burgess-Dunne seaplane took the first pictures of a news nature ever taken in this country from an aeroplane so far as may be recalled.

Less than 12 hours after the great Salem fire, piloted hy Clifford Webster, the liurgess-Duniie seaplane carried a press photographer over the blazing ruins at an extremely low altitude.

The photographer rose from his ^eat. walked forward and snapped the pictures, leaning out over the front of the fuselage to the side of Webster. The flight lasted an hour and five minutes, in which a large numbe>* of pictures were taken. The photographer was on his feet most of the time excepting when changing plates and had no difficulty in

taking views both from the rear and front of the machine.

It will be noticed that the ruins were still smoking and very hot. Webster found the air very turbulent, of whirlwind variety, with a strong ascending column in the center. The successful operation of the machine through these air conditions with a man walking from forward to back of the fuselage, a distance of eight feet, gives one an idea of the stability of the Rurgess-Dunne seaplane and widens the area of possible usefulness of aircraft. ._

The air-craft industry of France is mostly confined to the manufacture of aeroplanes, 1,350 of a total motive force of 80,000 horsepower. 7 dirigibles of an aggregate of 1,760 horsepower and 64.500 tons capacity having been manufactured in

1912. The financial condition of the aeronautical industry was fair during 1913. Most of the orders received were for air craft for military and naval purposes for the French and foreign Governments, principally Great Britain and Russia. There were 272 aeroplanes, valued at $5,707,782. exported in

1913, and 13 hvdroaeroplanes, valued at $297,606.'

Your magazine has come to hand, and read with interest, for it is interesting to one who is not especially interested in the work beyond a general understanding of the world's progress, and to those who are directly interested, owners or contemplated owners, it certainly must be indispensable.

Will say that for the uninitiated your journal inspires confidence to believe more readily and to know how to believe more that is seer, in the "evcrv-day press." W. \V. McC, San Pedro, N. M

This story is being told of George Beany, the w. k. aviator. It seems, according to the relator, Mrs. Realty wanted to buy George a present, but couldn't seem to find anything just suited, so she explained her quandary to another of Mineola's products, saying: ''George doesn't smoke or drink, or go out nights or play cards and I don't know what to buy."

The friend: "Is he fond of fancy work ?"



[Abstract from Mr. Dubilier's paper read before the Aeronautical Society of America, June 11 th, where he prefaced his remarks with a note on the history of wireless and its adaptation to aeronautics. At the conclusion of his consideration of various systems he showed lantern slides of various experimental sets which have been employed here and abroad in military and civilian trials, and then showed in operation two complete sets as have been adapted and ordered by the English and the American Governments for aeroplane and balloon work.]

For wireless installations on board aeroplanes and balloons the most important consideration has been to install apparatus which will conform to the limitations of the weight and space, and still provide a suitable and efficient means for transmitting messages to the desired points with the small aerial wire system and power limited to the size of air craft. The demand for light and easy removable stations for Army and Navy work is constantly increasing. During the time of war, wireless communication, due to the way in which the stations can be quickly removed, is of great service in connection with aeronautics, for it enables the leaders of the battle to send commands rapidly and to receive the position of the enemy. Tbe operator is usually carried as a passenger and transmits signals at the same time as he makes observations. The apparatus used in all respects is interchangeable with the portable field sets, as this enables any operator of the field signal corps to work the aeroplane outfit when necessary. It is so arranged that the machines are of double key type so that messages can be sent by either the aviator or the passenger.

The current is obtained from a generator friction driven from the fly wheel of the engine or from storage cells. Experiments have also been made with wind motors, where the generator was driven by an aero fan.

The equipment at present used hy the U. S. Government has an output of about 125 watts, weighs about 75 pounds, and it has been claimed that a radius of 30 miles has been obtained. The new equipment designed by the author has a total weight of less than 20 pounds with double the capacity and less than l/2 the space, so that immediately one will be able to see the advantages from every standpoint.

Recently several European governments have been making experiments with apparatus for army work and have arranged conditions .contrary to those which have been planned and adopted by all wireless workers up to date; in fact, have gone hack to old days when the ordinary Hertz oscillator, untuned and of open circuit, was used. Now several officials have suggested the use of apparatus wherein the transmitter is not tuned, and they advance several points in its favor.

First, in transmitting a sharply tuned signal it takes a longer time for the receptor to get into proper adjustment for receiving these signals.

Secondly, the transmitter can be more quickly adjusted, as it is not necessary to carefully adjust the oscillating circuits in order to bring them in resonance.

Thirdly, messages can be sent in secret code, hence it does not matter whether the enemy receives them or not. Then if the signals sent out are not tuned sharply, the greatest hindrance can be done to

used, which is let down from the aeroplane or balloon or an auxiliary balloon used for elevating wires. This plays a very important part in determining the range of a wireless station, for, roughly, it varies directly with the height of an aerial and cube root of the power.

Many different kinds of apparatus have been designed for aeroplane work. Portable stations supplied

the enemy by interfering with their stations, for it will be difficult for them to tune out these highly damped waves. It has therefore been desirable to send out waves with a flat resonance curve.

In order to get the largest amount of power out of the transmitting station and to arrange the circuits in resonance, the following figures will be of great interest to give one an idea of the size of the aerial and capacities that is necessary in installations The speed of electric waves is about one billion feet per second. If oscillations or waves of a frequency of one million is desired, it will be necessary to have a wave length of about 1,000 feet, for to send messages with wave lengths of very much less, is not practical, due to many difficulties, such as absorption, heat losses, induction losses, etc., therefore, if signals are to he sent longer wave lengths should he obtained by using larger inductances. The size of these are also limited, for the machine again becomes inefficient when too much inductance and too little aerial capacity is used, hence, a compromise must he made, where-hy sufficient aerial length and surface is used, coupled with a fairly large inductance. To get an idea of the length of the aerial, roughly, the wave length transmitted is 5 times the length of the aerial, plus 10 times the length of wire in the coil or helix. To make up the length, usually a trailing wire is

by the Marconi Company, type L, especially adopted for aeroplanes, weigh 50 pounds, have a capacity of 50 watts and a radius of about 10 miles. Type Ll weighs 200 pounds, has a capacity of about 500 watts and a sending radius of 50 miles, while type M. for dirigible balloon work, has a capacity of 1,500 watts, a sending radius of 200 miles and weighs 500 pounds. One of these installations was tried on board the Flanders, a British machine, and was made up in 2 separate contained units with the idea of distributing the weight. It fitted underneath the pilot and passenger seats, and the only part exposed was the manipulating key with several controller switches, which were placed in the most convenient position for the operator to carry out the simultaneous work of observing and reporting.

Another aeroplane installation used is one constructed by the Lor-enz Company, using a quenched discharge gap for the production of nearly continuous oscillations. The outside dimensions of the box are 15 x 15 x 21 inches. The weight of the transmitter without the generator is 100 pounds, the dynamo used is 500 volts with a capacity of 500 watts. This apparatus consists of a discharge gap made of 2 large electrodes, each electrode shaped like a half ball and cooled by a hydro-carhun vapor. Although this

apparatus is not efficient, it has already been installed by several foreign governments.

The Telefunken Company have also made an apparatus for aeroplane work which has a capacity of about 300 watts and occupies 3 cubic feet. A small dynamo is used, belt or friction driven from the main engine, and this apparatus has a sending radius of from 15 to 20 miles.

For balloon installations, where large aerials can be constructed, much greater distances could be obtained. It has been reported that the Zeppelin airships are transmitting signals 200 miles with a 5 kw. installation, and all the Zeppelin airships that are making public trips have on board regular telegraph forms, the same as used on ship stations, and passengers can send tbeir messages at published rates to any part of the world.

Tbe greatest danger attached to balloons from wireless installations is the fact that the gas may become ignited hy sparks produced by induced currents that occur in metal parts. This danger cannot be eliminated with the larger installations where high voltage transformers are used, but there are certain systems, such as the Poulsen, Lorenz and that devised by the author, where the voltage of the transmitting oscillations are greatly reduced, thus eliminating to some extent the danger of induced currents. All metal parts, such as the valves, etc., must be thoroughly covered with a thick coating of some form of insulating varnish. For balloon work the wireless telephone is the most practical method for transmitting communications, for it eliminates the telegraph operator, the danger of explosions by brush discharges and makes possible quick transmission of signals. Fig. I shows Dubilier wireless telephone installations for balloons and aeroplanes.

The aerial on board the Zeppelin balloon is almost 600 feet long, and a 500 cycle generator is driven by an independent engine at a speed of 3.000 revolutions per minute. The wave length varies from 400 to 1,200 meters.

The illustration (Fig. II, Dubilier wireless telegraph apparatus for aeroplane?) herewith shows a port-aide Duhilicr apparatus weighing 20 pounds with a maximum rapacity of y2 kw. The system devised by Mr. Dubilier eliminates the use of the difficult high frequency alternator. A small direct current dynamo is used, and then by a simple device alternating currents are produced having any desired frequency from 200 to 800 cycles, thus sending signals with musical notes. The apparatus is much easier and cheaper to construct than any yet provided for portable work, is much smaller and much more compact for a given power, therefore more portable and readily adapted for transport purposes. It is especially designed for aeroplane installations, where power, space and weight are important considerations.

From tests made both by the British and United States Government the apparatus has proven itself 100 per cent, more efficient than any of the machines vet tried. Tn a report issued by Captain LeFroy, at Aldershot, a 60 watt, 110 volt set was used, and signals were sent from a standard portable aerial and

received on a service peck aerial 30 feet high consisting of 2 wires in parallel, 4 feet apart. A ground net with a peg driven 12 inches into the earth was used as a balanced capacity. The station was erected on grass, and 104 volts direct current were used for transrr itting. The current in the aerial v as \y2 amperes. The condenser capacity was .0015 inf., a loose coupler be-

Roughly, the principal used isl the producing of pulsating currents of a musical frequency from direct currents by means of a tuned circuit. This circuit contains a condenser charging device, condenser and an inductance. The condenser charging device is set in operation mechanically or electro mechanically, and hy means of springs is given a certain definite working

ing used. The maximum voltage across the spark gap was 7,000, which was of fie quenched type adjusted to give the best readings in the aerial. Tests w ere trade with1 three ranges, in connection with a 300 watt Marconi installation >■ > alongside for co nparisons. From Aldershot a motor car with a portable installation went out to three distances, first to Hook Common, 9 miles; second to Overton, 1 i m.JiS; third, to Whitchurch, 25 miles. In the first two places signals were received clear and good, being 8 times audibility at the latter test. At the third test tbe receiving end was connected to the wrong side of the aerial, which was directive and which was in a valley so that no signals were obtained. Captain LeFroy reported that this apparatus, which weighed but 15 pounds less the generator had a safe range of 20 miles over land. The same apparatus operated on a 50 volt accumulator weighing 35 pounds had a radius of approximately the same distances.

Fig. 1.

frequency, say 500 cycles. Then the inductance and capacity is so varied that its natural frequency is also 500 or a harmonic of the frequency of the oscillator. Under this condition the primary current is transformed into pulsating currents having a sine wave with over 90 per cent, efficiency. A suitable analogy can be shown by having constant water flowing out of a faucet, which will represent direct current, and then having another faucet with water running out into a cup or into a vessel which operates a lever by means of its weight when it becomes filled. This lever closes a valve, and at the same time drops and turns over the vessel, which releases the water. The release of the water operates the lever in the opposite direction, due to its lighter weight, and the vessel is then brought up again in position. The valve is simultaneously opened and the water again allowed to flow into the vessel until it is filled, and then the operation is repeated. Hence, we have quantities

of water being thrown out instead of a continuous flow; so does this system operate on direct current.

The inductance of the primary oscillating circuit acts as the primary of a high tension transformer, the secondary discharge of which produces oscillations in the well-known manner. A quenched spark is used of a special design and is shown on the cover of the apparatus. This gap consists of long copper bars with smoothly planed ends placed about .003 of an inch apart, the discharge taking place between the planed ends. Any number can he connected by a small short circuiting rod. The inductance is mounted in back of the instrument and is connected to a hot wire ammeter, which indicates the amount of power that is being radiated.

In experiments carried out by

.Mr. E. J. Simon and L. J. Lesh, an aerofan was used to drive the generator. This was equipped on board a Curtiss military hydro-aeroplane and was of about M kw. capacity, with a 500 cycle generator driven by a fan 20 inches in diameter, and aerial wire 600 feet long was wound on a reel and weighted by a 3-pound piece of lead; this was used as the trailer and taken in as it became necessary. The installation weighed 105 pounds, and it was found necessary to attain a fairly good speed to generate enough power to operate the apparatus efficiently.

In connection with aeroplane military work, a motor car installation is being used by the English Government. The capacity is 1V2 kw., and the generator is run by the motor engine. The aerial can be erected in a short time and when

folded up fits on the side of the car. It has been found that these motor car stations are only suitable for well-constructed roads. The range of the apparatus was from 50 to 70 miles.

The question of receiving signals on board aeroplanes and balloons has been a very difficult one, for the noises and vibrations of the engines and air currents make it unpractical to receive signals with a telephone receiver. A receiving apparatus was designed for the Austrian Government in which a visible signal was used. The operator is able to observe dots and dashes by means of a small light. It is advisable to use Prof. Flemming's oscillation valve or Dr. De Forest's audium, for they act as amplifiers to the received signals and are not affected by vibrations.


As to the means of stepping from the model to the aeroplane; it is known that the force on a surface due to the wind may be written as KSY2, S being the area of the surface, V the speed of the wind, and K a quantity which for two similar surfaces similarly placed is approximately a constant, independent that is of the velocity and the area. If K were really constant the step from model to aeroplane would be simple; to obtain the force on the aeroplane at a given speed it would merely be necessary to measure that on the model at some speed and increase it in the ratio of surface of the aeroplane to that of the model and of the squares of the respective velocities. But experiment proves that the force is not strictly proportional to the square of the speed. If the lift and drift coefficients of an aerofoil, 1.1*., the ratio of the lift or of the drift to the square of the speed, be determined, they are found to vary with the speed. This is shown in Figs. 2 and 3, which represent the result of such a series of experiments, and in which, as the speed changes from 10 to 50 feet per second, there is a growth in the coefficients.

At an early point in the work of the Advisory Committee for Aero-

nautics, Lord Kayleigh called attention to the fact that if K be not

rent, L some linear dimension of the surface, and v the kinematic

; 1 . ; ' 1











r \




-2 ՠ t * *

K> - .1 «* « *L

Fi<, 2

constant for similar surfaces it VL

must depend on the quantity -■


or in mathematical terms be ex-VL

pressible as a function of -


where V is the velocity of the cur-

viscosity of the air. If then we plot the value of K as found for an aerofoil in a given position, hut for different values of the velocity against VL, the spots ought to be on a smooth curve and the form of this curve will determine K as a function of VL. This has been done in Fig. 4, where the values of the lift to the drift ratio are plotted against VL (or rather, for convenience, against log VL) for the series of experiments show.n in the preceding curves.

Again, experiments have been made at the Aerodynamical Laboratory of the University of Paris on full-sized aerofoils. These have been repeated at the Laboratory on models 1-16 of the scale, and when the results are reduced by the above law. the agreement in the lift experiments is practically complete; the measurement of the drift is more difficult and the agreement is less good, but the results for the ratio are given in Fig. 4, and it appears that at the highest value of VL yet reached in the model experiments the value of the ratio lift-drift is somewhat less than for the full scale experiments, but that values for the coefficient found from the 50 ft. per sec. observations in the channel do not differ greatly from those belonging to the

actual machine. This point can be tures. The beams are very deep and craft a speed of sixty miles an hour checked more fully when the large strong, and the ribs are built up in on the water and seventy miles an

channel is complete, and the necessity of checking it afforded a strong reason for the building of that channel.

the most improved monoplane fash- hour in the air, ion, closely spaced and with light, false ribs between every one to preserve the special shape of the

wing and prevent any sagging of AT JOHNSON'S SCHOOL

From ' The Development of the the cloth. The wings are covered ~ . , , . ,

Aeroplane," being the second Wil- with linen treated with four coats Consistent good weather has been

bur Wright Memorial Lecture, de- of aero varnish and two coats of productive of much flying at the

Hvered by Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, spar varnish; tRus giving the planes " ՠ Johnson School of Aviation

F. R. S., F. Ae. S., before the a smooth finish that is proof against at Conesus Lake. The machines

weather and seas. Tbe struts which nave been in the air from daylight

fit into special steel sockets are of t!11 dark practically every day for

streamline form wrapped with linen the Past three weeks, and great num-

and treated with the same varnish bers of People have watched the

Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, at the Royal United Service Institution, Whitehall, on Wed nesday, May 20, 1914.

■ Marion LT^Swlw wtth LV. — — W զnbsp;of t=h>on4 r>f«er- —

flying daily. Not a few people have taken advantage of the opportunity and taken a ride over the lake.

Walter Johnson brought up the new school boat and put it through its paces successfully, and it has been doing good work every day. This boat is equipped with one of the new Kirkham 70 h.p. motors, and seems to have considerable excess power.

The school has purchased two new motors and will have dual control boats for both inside of a couple of weeks, and from all appearances will have use for all of them, as the summer class is pretty well filled.


Harold Kantner, with a Schmidt monoplane, won in 43 m 26 1/3 s. 5o over Albert S. Ileinrich in a Hein-r;ch monoplane (46 m. 46 4/5 s.)

C*T i-\ a »rn T^-r tt»xt ^ 4 m the JU,V "* 3'r r3Ce f,'0m Gov-

oLUANE FLYING BOAT as used on the wings, making them ernor's Island, in New York Ilar-

Loa L.V

The first trials of the new Sloane S"?^"8^^1 ^1 ele/"e.nts an/J renf

flying-boat were concluded at Stein! der.'.nS them ..alinost '"capable of way Eeach, L. I June.

he latter nfrt nf rotting or ^'"ing; an important Club at Seag latter part ot consideration in flying-boat work, starting line

bor, to Spuyten Duyvil, back down the river to the Atlantic Yacht ate and return to the between Governor's

This flvine-boat usinc the T)Pn AI] t!ie gPy wires are doubled, as Island and Mistress Liberty. The ...-ii-..?in-?..?oaS u^!ng Dep- are also all the control wires The Ileinrich machine was flown ♦«

The flying boats of Yerplanck (Curtiss), Niles (Boland) and

are also all'the control wires. The ^ ~- --- ---- t"~\"\ "I

monoplane style of rib, winch was t_ail planes, elevator and rudder are Governors island trom its shea ai expected to compare favorably both 0f ample size and pleasing lines, Hempstead in quick rising and weight carrying vvliich blend in with the rest of the with the best military monoplanes machine. and tractor biplanes. At the first trials, with three people aboard and the throttle only half open, the new craft literally "tore off the water," with Gil pat rick as pilot.

This "sporting type" helongs to the class of long hulled water-planes. The central hull furnishes the flotation, as well as acting as a fuselage to carry tail planes and rudder.

Just as tbe main bull is constructed of solid mahogany, so are the two wing tip pontoons. These wing tip pontoons only weigh about six pounds apiece. The motor is placed a little over midway between the planes, affording a space for two passengers in the rear, just in back of the two front seats, from which the craft is controlled. The hull is of single step tvpe, V bot-torn, in front, and constructed in Tbe new Sloane three-in-one con- Burnside {Thomas) were to nave the usual manner with spruce and trol has heen designed especially gone in the race, but tbe heavy ash frames. The front dash is low for flying-boat use and to better water off Coney Island prevented and gracefully shaped, affording an meet naval requirements. Tbe con- getting off. Burnside had flown efficient wind and spray shield. The trol is operated entirely through down from Dobbs Ferry. On July hull itself measures 23 feet long the steering wheel. leaving the op- 0 Mr. and Mrs. Burnside flew back and 36 inches wide, with a beam erator's feet and shoulders free. It to

motor quit.

„ Dobbs Ferry in a sensational ,. is in duplicate and operates in the flight which ended in a forced at the top. The height of the hull following manner—pushing the descent on the water when the 100 is 40 in., which keeps the wings wheel backward and forward steers Daimler well above the water. The top the machine up and down, rocking

wing has a span of 42 ft. and a the whole wheel from side to side, _---

chord of 6 in., and the lower wing works the ailerons, while turning has a span of 30 ft. and a chord of the wheel to the right and left op-

The ailerons are fitted erates the rudder. I consider AERONAUTICS a re-

markably interesting paper. The power plant consisted of a One especially nice feature is the 110 If. P. Boland motor turning illustrations, which I find very in-The interior construction of the an 8 ft. diameter by 6 ft. 6 in. pitch structive. planes is one of the special fea- Charavay propeller, which gave the II- D. S.

of 36 in. at the bottom and 44

5 ft. 6

to the outer extremities of each wing, and each measure 9 ft. x 30


Brigadier-General George P. Scrjven has just issued a circular covering conditions of a contest to be held at the Signal Corps Aviation School at San Diego around October 14, this year.

The contest is open to all builders, and the matter of royalty to The Wright Co. will probably be taken care of by the Government, whose privilege in the matter of patent rights has been fully explained in AERONAUTICS.

If five or more machines qualify, the Signal Corps will purchase the three which make in order the greatest number of points; the first for $12,000, the second for $10,000, and the third for $8,000. If but three or four qualify, the first two will be purchased at $12,000 and $10,000. respect ively. If but two qualify, the one making the highest number of points will be purchased at $12,000.

All inquiries concerning this competition should be addressed to the Chief Signal Officer of the Army. Washington, D. C.

The type desired, a military reconnaissance aeroplane, must possess following characteristics: Biplane, erclosed fusilage, two seater, dual con'rol, maximum speed of i ot less than seventy and a minimum spee * of not more than 40 miles per hour when carrying fuel and oil for four hours' flight at seventy r iles ner hour and a useful load if 450 pounds, and i ndtr these conditions of load, to climb 4,000 feet in ten minutes. First class material and workmanship. Head resistance to be kept down. Power plant is to be located in front of the occupants and suited to the requirements of the aeroplane. The motor must be capable of throttling to 20 per cent, of full speed and running without overheating over the land. The motor must be supplied with a positive means of stopping by a short circuiting device, hy release of compression or by other suitable means. It is desirable that the radiators, if used, should conform to stream-line requirements and act as an effective shelter for the motor. The motor should be provided with positively driven pump for pumping gasoline from the reservoir to the service tank and will also be provided with attachments for hooking on a flexible tachometer, the shaft for this purpose to come off the motor at right angles to the propeller shaft, preferably downward. The propeller or propellers should be of sufficient form and construction and suited for the particular machine and possessing a minimum efficiency of 70 per cent., that is to say, to have a slip of not over 30 per cent. The controls should be of such a type as approved by the Chief Signal Officer of the Army. During the trials the builder may use such controls as are familiar to his demonstrator, but the Signal Corps design shall be substituted at tbe builder's expense prior to delivery and acceptance of any machine acquired as a result of this competition. Wear and friction in the control leads must be eliminated in every possihle way, and tbe leads shall he as direct as possible. Leads to pitching and steering shall be in duplicate. The landing gear to be

as strong and simple as possible to be efficient in absorbing shocks in landing and running at full speed over rough and plowed ground. The maximum gliding angle shall under no condition exceed 1 on 6, that is to say, one foot of drop for each six feet of advance. All parts shall be efficiently protected from the action of the weather by the use of suitable paint or furnished with covers. The power plant shall be so arranged as to be readily removed and replaced bodily without disturbing the alignment or the fastenings of the planes or landing gear. The machine complete shall be capable of being assembled from transportation cases in not to exceed two hours by four mechanicians and of being disassembled and packed in transportation cases in not more than one hour and a half by the same number of mechanicians. No part shall be of such length that when packed in its case the case shall exceed twenty feet in length.

The manufacturers who desire to enter this competition shall inform the Chief Signal Officer of the Army on or before September 1, 1914, of this fact in writing and shall supply the President of the Board of Officers who will conduct the tests, the following data on or before October 1, 1914

blades and blade area of the propeller or propellers used and if geared down, the ratio of gearing.

The machines entering the competition must he delivered on the ground of tbe Signal Corps Aviation School at San Diego, Cal., on or before October 20, 1914, at the manufacturer's expense. Each manufacturer sball supply a demonstrator. The Signal Corps will provide suitable housing for the machines and the fuel and oil for the tests. The competitive test will be conducted by a Board of Officers to be appointed by the Chief Signal Officer of the Army under detailed rules to be promulgated later.

To enter the competition, each machine must qualify by demonstrating by actual trial that it complies with the above requirements by making a non-stop flight of four hours in the air and by making the climb fully loaded, of 4,000 feet in ten minutes. Tbe machines will be graded by points, taking into consideration the following:

Const nuct ion and workmanship, speed, maximum and minimum, climbing and manoeuvering ability, ease of handling, gliding angle, inherent stability, suitability of landing gear, distance of run on the ground when starting and landing, held of vision, etc.

(a) Weight, fully loaded when fully equipped.

(b) Normal angle of incidence in horizontal flight.

(c) Gliding angles.

(d) Safe ranges of angle of incidence.

(e) Fuel oil and water consumption with certificate of performance (subsequently described).

(f) Blueprint or diagram to scale of aeroplane and motor complete.

(g) Stress diagram of planes showing tensile and bending stress on heams, struts and brace wires, clearly indicating the material used and tbe factor of safety in each member, together with moment diagrams.

(h) Itemized weight of parts. The certificate of performance

shall consist in a certified test of the motor as follows:

1. One hour run at the rated B. II. P. on the test stand.

2. Half hour run at the maximum power on the stand.

3. A run of half hour at 20 per cent, of the rated revolutions per minute. During tbe test, the following data shall be reported:

Revolutions per minute at the rated B. II. P.

Revolutions per minute at maximum B II. P.

Minimum revolutions per minute. The oil per B. II. P. and the fuel per B. II, P.

A statement of the condition of the motor at the end of a half hour run.

In addition to the above data, the following information shall be noted on the certified test sheet to accompany each motor:

The maker's number, horsepower, stroke, diameter of shaft, piston displacement, type of magneto, type of tachometer used in test, weight complete, starting arrangement, carbureter (trade name), cooling system, lubricating system, type of spark plugs used, date and place of test, the type, pitch, number of


The President signed the Naval Appropriation Bill on June 30. It is with the greatest regret, however, that we record the fact that the SI,297,700 extra to the appropriation recommended by the Board of Aeronautics (see AERONAUTICS for Jan. 31) was not added by the Naval Affairs Committee so that aeronautics in the Navy will have to drag along about as before, depending on what the various bureaus can spare, which will probably be in the neigh borhood of $200,000.

Thus plans for an enlarged air navy will have to wait another year and give other countries still more of an opportunity to equip themselves in advance of the United States.

Tonv Jannus carried a 340-pound man recently -n one of the many passenger flights he has been mak-ng from SandusEy, where he has established himself. His brother Roger Jannus, has been flying the r.enoUt "Lark of Duluth, owned by William Jones of that city.


Roy Donaldson and Wilbur Henderson, who were almost given up for lost in the balloon race from Portland. Ore., June 11, returned to Portland June 17. They were six days finding a habitation and were emaciated and on the point of collapse when they staggered to a hut and asked for food.

FOR SALE—Our last year's monoplanes and biplanes; very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. F. M., 152.2 Norwood ave., Toledo, Ohio.


San Francisco, July 1U.—Warrants for the arrest of Charles K. Field, editor of "The Sunset Magazine." a photographer, and Riley E. Scott of bomb-dropping fame, were issued today at the request of John W. Preston, United States District Attorney. They are charged with disclosing military secrets, and the penalty is ten years' imprisonment or a ? 10,000 fine for such disclosure if made abroad, and one year or a $1,000 fine if made in the United States.

In April "Sunset" published an article entitled "Can the Panama Canal Be Destroyed from the Air?" Reproductions of photographs taken from an aeroplane accompanied the text.

"By the act of March 3, 1911, Congress strengthened the regulation, so that it is now a violation of a plain statute for a civilian to take or publish photographs of any fortification, whether complete or in process of construction. The War Department regards the enforcement of this law as absolutely essential, and my instructions are emphatic in this case."

The fact that the pictures complained of in this case were taken from an aeroplane raises for the first time an interesting point of jurisdiction by the national authorities over the upper air and involves a decision as to whether a person sailing over a reservation can be held to have unlawfully entered it. This point is quite as important in a military view as the right to take photographs, because a military expert might by merely passing over a fortress observe enough to enable him afterward to draw an accurate sketch of the defences.

In this instance, however, department officials pointed out, the publication specifically directed attention to alleged shortcomings of the defence system of the Panama Canal.


Fargo, N. D., June 18.—It is said Bob St. Henry, the birdman, borrowed some money once when here on an aviation exhibition. A local man, who indorsed his note, has been looking for some way to get even. Recently St. Henry's aeroplane, being shipped from Montana to Winnipeg, was taken off the train here to be transferred. The local man heard it was on the depot platform and had it attached. There is some legal red tape to unwind, but he hopes to secure the machine and will start some of his friends in the aviation husiness.

Pittsburgh, Pa., July 7.—Following a meeting of several hundred stockholders of the "Italian Aeroplane Co.," Louis Maida and M. Loretio Manasterio were arrested, charged with failure to show the books of the company. The company is said to have been organized ahout nine months ago and scores of Italians bought $1 shares in the concern. Peter Angelo was made head of the company shortly after its organization. Announcements were made that one of the company's machines would make flights at Brunots Island July 4, but the flight did not take place. Maida and Manasterio were committed to the county jail charged with embezzlement.

Richmond, Va., July 3.—Simeon Scott paid to see a ball game at Broad Street Park on April 19, 1913. Before the game was over an aeroplane swooped down from the heavens and swiped him on the back. He therefore brought suit against the Park, demanding damages in the sum of $300, claiming the aeroplane was an advertised attraction.

The defendant demurred to the plaintiff's evidence, declaring that it had no connection whatever with the aeroplane, and that it was not one of its duties to guard against dangers it could not foresee such as the falling into the park of an aeroplane which it had not employed or hired.

The jury thought that Mr. Scott should recover $150 for his injuries, and brought in a verdict for that amount July 2. Judge Crump however, sustained the defendant's demurrer, and setting aside the jury's finding, entered a verdict for the defendant.


Imports for May, 1 and parts valued at $5,776, the aeroplane remaining in warehouse on May 31.

Exports, 1 and parts, $4,558. No exports of foreign made machines. Goods in warehouse May 31, $5,276.


Sanaudres Wireless & Aero Yisi-hle Message Co., develop system of telegraphic optic acoustics on aeroplanes, semaphoric signal system, $100,000; C. B. Mason, A. Matters. A. Sanaudres, 124 Thompson street.

Lansing, Mich., June 22.— International Flying Boat Transit Co., Detroit. $10,000; stockholders are D. B. Hartley, John H. Fietzell, I*. M. Coates, etc.

The Southern Ballooning Company, Cherryville, N. C.; capital, $3,000 authorized and $1,000 subscribed by J. F. Weathers and others for giving public exhibitions of balloon ascensions and aerial flights.

Deselektro Company, Augusta, Me., to manufacture and deal in battleships, aerial craft and all other vessels of war; capital, $1,000,000. President. R. S. Buzzell; treasurer, L. J. Coleman, Augusta.


The Signal Corps has accepted a new Glenn Martin tractor (Curtiss 100 h.p. motor), recently completed, upon its meeting the usual requirements of the Army in tests at San Diego. Observers report this latest acquisition one of the finest machines ever seen outside of France. A second machine may also be bought from Martin. On July 7 Martin flew 71 miles over the ocean from Balboa Bay to North Island. Martin carried Lieut. T. S. Bo wen as a passenger and made the trip in 175 minutes, with his Army machine.

Flying done at the S. C. Aviation School, San Diego, Cal.. week ending July 4, 1914: 28 flights; 4 h. 28 m. in air; 14 passengers carried.

Summary, January 1, 1914, to July 4, 1914: 1.151 flights; 314 h. 5Vi m. in air; 559 passengers carried.


On July 14 Heinrich Oelrich established a new world altitude record, 24,600 feet (7,500 metres), from Leipsic. Otto Linnekogel made the previous record on July 9, 6,600 metres, at Johannisthal.


The dirigible duration record has been increased to 35 h. 20 m. by the French airship "Adjutant Vin-cenot," which carried its pilot and eight passengers this period on June 29, beating the German record held by the Zeppelin L-3, 34 h. 59 m.


Reinhold Boehm (Albatross biplane, 75 h.p. 6 cyl. Mercedes motor), using the same machine employed by Landmann in making his non-stop flight of 21 h. 49 m. on June 28, flew on July 11 from Johannisthal non-stop for 24 h. 12 m. Speaking of his wonderful flight, he said:

"My provisions consisted of a vacuum flask filled with cold milk, several packets of chocolate, and a few cakes. Despite the heavy load, I ascended easily, and in order to save petrol flew slowly around the aerodome. First 1 did not go higher than 30 feet. As night wore on I went higher and for an hour or two I left Johannisthal and flew across Berlin and Potsdam.

"I returned to the aerodome at mid ni ght and then took u p my weary circuit. How many rounds I made I suppose nobody will ever know. I must have covered roundly 1,350 miles, as my speed averaged 37^4 miles an hour. The engine was working perfectly at the finish. If I had had enough petrol 1 could easily have flown another twelve hours. I finished fresher than I started, although I was on duty for twelve hours without rest before 1 went up. The Atlantic flight is sure to be accomplished soon. It is only a case of a powerful enough machine. No machine, in my opinion, will be practicable which does not contain three engines, none of which should be worked to its limit. There should also be two separate pilots. I found myself growing stronger after the first ten or twelve hours. I f you can survive the strain of that period the rest is easy."

Toward the end of the flight a fierce thunder storm burst over the aerodome, but Bohm refused to give up. During the daylight hours Bohm put in a good deal of time reading, but usually had to contend with brisk winds, especially at the higher altitudes. When the storm came on he had been alert. His hands were sore and hardened from the steering.

The machine was equipped with Rosch plugs, magneto and starter.

A new world's record of 18 hours 10 minutes was made on June 24 bv Gustav Basser at Johannisthal, aviator alone. He used a Rumpler military hi plane, Bosch equipped. The American record is—oh, what's the use?

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The balloon "Goodyear," piloted by R. A. D. Preston, M. 1). Tremelin. aide, won the National Balloon Race from St. Louis July 11. They landed near Constance. Ky., July 12, less than 24 hours after the start. Ralph II. Upson, who used the same balloon in winning the international race last fall, and Preston will comprise two of the American team this year, Capt. II. Eugene Honeywell being the third, in the international race from Kansas City in October.

The contestants were as follows, in the order in which they finished. Official distances have not yet been measured:

I.—"Goodyear/* R. A. D. Preston and M. I>. Tremelin to Constance, Ky., 320 miles.

5.—"America III," Dr. Jerome Kingsbury and C. P. Wynne, president Pennsylvania Aero Club, landed near Princeton, Ind , 143 miles.

8.—"San Francisco 1915," E. S. Cole and R. E. Emcyir landed near McLeansboro, 111., 98 miles.

2.—"Pennsylvania II," Arthur T. Atherholt and P. T. Sharpies landed near Rockville, 111., 214 miles.

6.—"Miss Sofia," William Ass man n. no aide, landed near Flat Rock. 111., 132 miles.

4.—"Uncle Sam." Paul J. McCul-lough and Win. II. Trefts, landed near Lewis. Ind., 154 miles.

3.—"Aero Club of St. Louis," John Perry and Albert Yon Hoffmann, landed near Terrc Haute, Ind., 161 miles.

7.—-"Kansas City II," John Watts and W. F. Comstock, landed near Enfield, 111.. 105 miles.

Berry was asked for damages to a cornfield when he and a young woman made their landing on a farm near East St Louis on June 18 and the balloon was held by the farmer for payment.

The "America III" is the gift of Rodman Wanamaker to the Aero Club of America. It made its trial ascent the first week of July with Dr. Kingsbury, Clarence P. Wynne, A. R. I law ley, Henry W'oodhouse and C. Jerome Edwards. The balloon was made by Leo Stevens.

it was decided, as was anticipated, not to award the Grand Prix of $77,200. Two prizes were awarded, one of $10,000 to the Sperry Gvroscopic Co. and the other of $6,000 to the Paul Schmitt biplane with variable angle of incidence. It was also decided to award seven consolation prizes as follows: $3,000 to Caudron Brothers for their two-seated biplane, $2,000 to the Doutre stabilizer, $2,000 to the Societe Avi-Auto for the Lelarge carburettor, $1,600 for the Etcve stabilizer, $1.000 to the Moreau monoplane, $400 to the Kohert parachute, and $200 to MM. Philippe and Perron for their "demarreur."


The Sperry gyroscopic stabilizer, fitted to a Curtiss Hying boat, won $10,000 of the safety prizes offered hy L* Union pour la Securite en Aeroplanes, as noted in AERONAUTICS for April, 1913. A note on the Sperry apparatus was published in the issue of Feb. 14, 1914. The U. S. Navy stands ready to purchase one or more of these instruments upon satisfactory demonstration. Various trials were made heretofore, but changes suggested and no perfected instrument has yet been installed for sale-demonstration to the Navy.

The French contest was concluded near Marseilles on July 2. In the demonstration Lawrence Sperry operated his Curtiss machine at all angles, leaving the stahilizer to correct the forced instability. In one instance Sperry rose in the machine and held bis

hands above his head while a mechanic crawled out to the wing-ends. M. Rene Outnton, president of the National Aerial League, flew with Sperry, who took his hands from the wheel and allowed the machine to take its own gliding angle under the operation of the automatic stabilizer, and even a glide was made with the stahilizer with one wing up at an angle of 45 degrees during the glide. As explained in the previous article in AERONAUTICS, the machine may be banked and the instrument set to maintain this bank, despite any disturbances, or the stabilizer may be set to keep the machine level.

As finally evolved, the machine consists of a double set of gyroscopes, operated by the aeroplane engine. One pair of these gyroscopes is attached to the lateral ailerons. The other pair controls the tail rudder and keeps the machine on even keel.

The illustration shows the installation of the perfected apparatus, looking from the bow of the flying boat, and the plate anemometer.

Altogether the committee since the opening of the competition on January 1, witnessed trials by 21 competitors out of the 56 who had entered. After a very long sitting


London, July 12.— Walter L. Brock, our American friend, flying an SO h. p. M orane-Saunier, won the race from London to Paris and back, covering the 502 miles in 7 h 3 m. 6 s., an average speed of 71 \~2 m.p.h.

The only other competitor to finish was Garros, whose net flying time was S h. 28 m. 47s.. with the sime type of machine. This is the third big race Brock has won abroad, the other two being the aerial Derby, as previously mentioned, and the Loudon-Manchester race.



At Chartres on July 2 Garaix on the Schmitt hi plane, in which August Belmont is interested, fitted with 160 h.p. Rhone motor, succeeded in regaining for France the duration record for pilot and three passengers which had been held by Gsell with 3 h. 11 m. 30 s. The new record made by Garaix is 4 h. 3 in, 29 s.

AERONAUTICS, Tulv 15, 1914

Pace 13


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The velocity of the air at the surface of the earth is not the same as at some elevation from it, and the air may he perfectly still at the ground level while at a comparatively slight height there may be a wind of some 10 m. (32 ft.) per sec. This is due to the protection afforded the lowest layers of air by the un-evenness of tbe earth surface.

If a flyer runs against a wind of 10 m. per sec, with an absolute velocity of 25 m. per sec., his relative velocity is 15 m. per sec, and when he suddenly enters a stratum of still air his velocity remains only 15 m. per sec, which is not enough for planing; as a result he hits the ground with a thud, having struck an airhole. In landing, it is always a safe thing to select a fully open place where there is nothing to keep the wind out. The height of fall through an airhole is directly proportional to the velocity of the aircraft. Let G be the weight of the apparatus; v the velocity of the aircraft in still air; vl the wind velocity; h the height of fall. Further, let v1 =10. When the craft is in air having vx = 10, its kinetic energy is Gv2


where g = 9.81. When the craft passes into the air having vl = 0, it loses some of its kinetic energy, which then becomes


a3 = — <* — v,y


t landing.

The difference between the values of Ax and At indicates the kinetic energy A required to bring the aircraft back to the speed that would allow it to float in the lower air stratum. In this case vx~ v— 10, which gives after substitution:

What is wanted, however, is to establish the relation between v and h. When a craft of weight G falls through h, a kinetic energy A = Gh is liberated, and therefore Gh may be substituted for A in the preceding equation, which finally gives 10

h — — (v—5), S

But g is approximately equal to 10, and therefore h = v — 5

may be accepted as being approximately correct. This equation shows that the height of fall through an airhole increases with the speed of the aircraft, and that it is independent of the weight of the aircraft (the latter because G does not figure in the equation for h). Table 1 gives the height of fall through an airhole due to the craft coming from air moving against it at 10 m. (say 32 ft.) per sec. into still air, as functions of the speed of the airship.—(Das "Luft-loch" bei der Landung, E. Heinkel. Der Motorwagen, Vol. 16, No. 4, p. 91, Feb. 10, 1913. iy3 pp., 1 fig. ptA.)

v in miles per min.

cin ft. per see.

h in m

31 47 62 78 93

14 21 28 35 42

46 69 92 115 138

9 16 23 30 37


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