Aeronautics, No. 9 May 1914

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VOL. XIV. No. 9 MAY 15, 1914

a r

15 Cents


Official Organ and Bulletin—Aero Club of Pennsylvania The Aeronautical Society

Are you tied to good roads with a motor car? Or shackled to smooth water with a put-put? Why not cleave the air faster than the birds, free from rough waves or rutty roads in a

Curtiss Flying Boat

NO king ever enjoyed such sport as this. Four to five hundred miles without pause, at a speed of more than a mile a minute. :: :: ::

FIVE hundred thousand passenger miles without one serious accident. Used by six Governments and by private owners nearly everywhere. ::

During the past three years Curtiss Water Flying Machines in the

U. S. and foreign navies have flown hundreds of thousands of miles without accident. The confidence engendered by this record must De reflected by the work of our navy fliers in Mexico.

^fter using them for thousands of miles of flight, Curtiss Flying Boats lave the endorsement of Mr. Harold F. McCormick, Commodore Wm. E. Scripps, Mr. J. B. R. Verplanck, Mr. Gerald Hanley, VIr. William Thaw, Mr. Logan A. Vilas, Mr. William A. Dean, Mr. Barton L. Peck, Mr. Raymund V. Morris, and many others.

One Demonstration Will Convince the Most Skeptical

5 for illustrated litera-to arrange for a dem-an flight. DO IT 3 IT IS TOO LATE.

i Curtiss oplane Co.


You can expect absolute dependability if it's a


There are magnetos and magnetos, some are so named and perhaps generate sparks; the other has reputation and ability to stick everlastingly at holding its reputation.

Meaning that

when you equip with a "Bosch" you not only have a magneto but you have the assurance that the efficiency and reliability you must have will be there at all times.

Your engine when Bosch-Equipt is equipt with confidence and assurance at its most vital point.

Be Satisfied Specify Bosch Correspondence always Invited

Bosch Magneto Company

201 West 46th Street : New York


Lift and Drift of a Full-Sized Aeroplane Wing Compared With That of a Model

n applying his results obtained with models the calculation of full-sized aeroplane :igs, M. Eiffel augmented the values Kx 1 Ky by 10%, because the value Km, which s .072 for a square plate with the area of : model, tended toward .080 with increasing e of plate.

The bulletin of the Aerodynamic Institute the University of Paris (Part III) de-ibes some tests of full-sized aeroplane surges, made by means of the "electric chariot.'' ie values obtained with three of these sur-■es are compared with those found by M. ffel for models one-tenth of their lineal nensions. Surface no. 1 was flat, top and ttom, but the top was sloped to the leading 1 trailing edges; nos. 2 and 3 were arched > and bottom.

t was found that the plotted curves for the sssures A'x and Ky had the same general nd as those for the models. The lifts, Ky, re greater throughout for the full-sized ֦aces in every case, the difference varying >m 0% to about 15%. A comparison of the ifts, however, did not show a common ,-ergence. The drift for the no. 1 was

greater than that for the model, especially around 3\ where the values for the model appeared remarkably low. For the surfaces nos. 2 and 3 the drifts were generally higher for tlie models.

On account of the small pressures measured, in the case of the drift, the results are less accurate than those for the lift; also, the unavoidable irregularities in large surfaces, as compared with the models, would presumably affect chiefly the drift. The authors conclude that it is, therefore, hard to determine whether each divergence in the results can justly be attributed to the method of measurement.

In some more recent measurements on a full-sized Bleriot aeroplane, while in flight, the unit lift was found, for gliding flight, to be about the same as that given in M. Eiffel's work for the Bleriot Xl-bis wing model. (In propelled flight it was about 14% more, due to the action of the slip stream on the wings.)

It appears, therefore, that the actual pressure on aeroplane wings in flight does not differ greatly from that deduced from experiments on small surfaces.


In telling at one of The Aeronautical >ciety's meetings recently, of the encourage-ent of the development of water flying iroad, with particular reference to the rench naval competition in which are offered ֩zes aggregating $20,000 approximately, a milar competition in Germany, and the teed race, open to all nations, from Paris to eauville, about no miles along the Seine, >r prizes totalling $8,000, G. C. Loening said at from an examination of the require-ents for these contests, it was evident that urope was awake to the development of ival aviation and would soon outstrip us if e are not equally alert.

Among the requirements taken up were the scessity for reefable or foldable wings; the imination, so far as possible, of lateral ropellers, the necessity of special air and ater controls for maneouvering in winds, ie absolute protection of the motor against lort circuits in the ignition system, the 'limination of aluminum except for parts iking no stress, ease of starting motor from plot's seat, stability when at rest on the water 1 a high wind and hull strength to withstand punding of waves without possibility of l-akage. With regard to the latter, Mr. Loen-lg pointed out that metal construction had lany advantages over wood, as the absorp-on of water by wood soon rendered a ma-hine incapable of flying. The distinction between monoplane and bi-lane flying boats was then discussed and ome of the advantages of the monoplane, uch as greater height of the surface above

the water, were pointed out. For greater safety he suggested that a better arrangement would be to mount the seats high in front and the motor low in the rear, instead of the motor high and the seats low in front and underneath it.

In closing he emphasized the amount of work that had yet to he done to make the aero-boat really seaworthy, and then read the French and German military conditions for flying boats.

The desiderata of the German naval department for hydroaeroplanes may be summed up as follows: The hydroaeroplane must be able first, to carry its pilot and a passenger weighing together 396 pounds.; second, to transport fuel, etc., for a flight of 4 hours; third, to travel at a speed of at least 62 miles an hour; fourth, to descend on the open sea, rough with waves produced by wind blowing 25 miles an hour; fifth, to remain floating on that rough sea during one hour with the motor stopped; sixth, to take flight off that rough sea; seventh, to take flight of three hours without any motor trouble. In addition to the possession of the above mentioned qualities, the hydroaeroplane is to be provided with two seats, each giving its occupant an uninterrupted view in front and below, the steering gear and the lever-handles of the motor must be within easy reach of the passenger as well as the pilot, both of whom should be able to start the motor. The hydroaeroplane must be provided with a device to permit of its being hoisted off the sea and placed on board ship.



In view of the conflicting opinions held among the builders of hydroplanes regarding the n.ost efficient number, shape and configuration of the steps of fast motor boat bottoms, the recent contribution of U. S. Naval Constructor H. C. Richardson is particularly interesting and instructive. Published

f. Just preceding the "get-away" there is a tendency for the resistance to remain at an appreciable value, which

g. Falls to nothing sharply at the last.

Furthermore, conclusions drawn from these and previous experiments are as follows:

Plate /»

/S9t- '

Fig. 2

by the Smithsonian Institution for the Advisory Committee of the Langley Laboratory, it deals with hydromechanic experiments carried on at the model basin at the Washington Navy Yards, with some five models of flying boat hulls with photographs, charts and diagrams of performance.

This work comprised an investigation of the forms of hulls of flying boats in order to determine:

(i) their resistance at "displacements corresponding to speeds," on the water, and (2) their resistances "submerged," as a means of approximating their total head resistance in air ;md of determining an approximate "coefficient of fineness of form."

As a result a form was derived which appears to have decided advantages over those already in use in the Navy, so far as resistance on the surface and in the a:r is concerned. Such a hull slightly modified to overcome structural difficulties is now being tried on a new Navy machine.

The principal deductions from the plotted resistance and trim curves are as follows:

a. At low speeds, suction is present.

b. This is succeeded by a condition in which the models run hard.

c. Which is succeeded by a condition at which the model begins to plane.

d. And just before the planing is established the slope of the curve lessens rapidly.

e. And when planing is established resistance falls off sharply with one exception.

a. The step should be close to the position of center of gravity, to eliminate a nosing tendency, to facilitate change of trim while planing, to avoid change of balance when getting away or landing.

b. Hollow V sections keep the spray down, cut the water more

easily and cleanly, plane better a greatly 1 educe shock on landing when plowing through broken wa and practically eliminate the nec sity of shock absorbers.

c. A shallow step is sufficient, t ventilation is essential to facilit; the breaking of suction effects.

d. The bottom forward of t step should be inclined to the a of the machine, but '

e. The inclination must not be great as to cause planing befc the controls are effective, and t is particularly necessary when ri ning before the wind. If the pi; ing of the hull is to be pronounci the machine rises to the surfs with but very little control availal to maintain balance, and when ri ning before the wind this is rac apt to occur, due to the high wal siieed necessary before the machi can take the air.

f. The bottom abaft the st should rise strongly, as this favc a steepening of the planing bow ! fore suction is eliminated, and gi the tail well clear when planing 1 gins.

Fig. 1 shows the bow end of t five models: 1592-1, 1593-1, 1591 1602-1 and 1617-2.

Logarithmic plots of the resi ance of models towed submerged speeds up to 15 knots show £ proximate straight lines, thus im eating that the power requir varies closely with the law of t

Fig. 3

spray it was considered necessary lo modify the model and this was done by making the V sections "full"; the principal effect of the change was to augment the sheet of spray so the opposite tack was next taken, that of making the V sections hollow in wake of the position from which the sheet of spray originated and 1591-3 was thus de-live-d. The result was that the spray was held down, the planing effect increased and the resistance reduced, an all around improvement.

Fig. 1

vlodel 1591-3 was designed to c of g. This model was derived

riate the defects of the flat scow from 1591-1 (see Fig. 2), which ]\JEW INCORPORATIONS .v tvpe and introduces the V bot- was a true \ type. 1591-1 ran very T

60/P> GNOtft -t-LNCUNC



A British-designed, British-built, so., ft. The main planes, which are tapering to a vertical edge at the d British-piloted machine _ has comparatively flat, are set at a rear.

ide good in a big international slight dihedral angle and the top The landing chassis has been con-ent, and for the first time in the plane is staggered forward a foot, siderablv modified, and consists of nary of aviation England has iten France thoroughly and most nvincingly. The Schneider trophy, e marine equivalent to the Gordon :nnett trophy, has been won by award Pixton on a Sopwith "tabid" hydro-biplane with 100 h. p. nonosoupape" Gnome engine—the dy non-British feature, on April '. Not only did the Sopwith bi-ane win the cup, but it established jrld's records for hydro-aeroplanes >r all distances to 300 kilometres, id proved that the generally ac-pted idea that a monoplane must j faster than a biplane is not an ishaken truth.

The course was laid out in the ly of JNlonaco—10 kilometres to ie lap, and 28 laps constituting ie total distance to be covered, lual to 151 sea miles, or 174 land liles. The start had to be taken float, and two landings, or bumps," had to be made within a rescribed area during the first aund, these naturally detracting omewhat from the net speed for le whole race.

The other starters were Levas-eur (Nieuport catamaran—160 Inome), Espanet (same), Bussi (F. !. A. flying boat—100 Gnome) and .ord Carberry (Deperdussin). Others id not start as they saw no chance f improving Pixton's time, which light have been even better had not cylinder quit firing. The full ourse of 280 kilometres was com-ileted in 2 h. 13.8 s., over 78 m. p. 1. average. His fastest lap was at 92 n. p. h. His official times were: 0 kil. in 20:57; 100 in 41:33; 150 n 1:02:31; 200 in 1:24:04; 250 in :46:59; 300 in 2:09:10. The Sopwith "tabloid" 80 h. p. and machine is especially designed or speed variation, obtained by hrottling. The machine flies at its ilowest speed under 37 m. p. h., it an angle of about 15 deg., with he motor being turned on and off luccessively. From this, to 92 m. 3. h. loaded with fuel for 3 hours, silot and passenger, is the range, lying its fastest at a negative angle


two cells, the two short skids, each connected to




The feature of this latest Thomas flying boat is the metal hull, covering the wooden planking and framing. The 90-100 II. P. Austro-Daimler motor has been fitted with flaps over the air intake pipes so that the air can be shut off, making the mixture rich and allowing throttling to a very few turns while discharging and taking on passengers and running on the water to

On May 9 Ralph M. Brown flew the latest Thomas flying boat from Dobbs Ferry to the Hudson Boat Club at 127th street and North River, a distance of 16 miles. Crown carried Fausto Rodriguez, the representative of the Thomas Company, and flew over the Polo Grounds during the progress of a game between the Giants and Boston. Rodriguez dropped a bouquet

Rodriguez and Brown in the New Thomas


Seven balloons have been ei tered for the national balloon rac this year, from St. Louis July 1 The pilots named are Dr. James Kingsbury, of New York; E. 1 Cole. II. E. Honeywell and W. ] Assinann, of St. Louis; Arthur Atherholt, of Philadelphia; Roy Donaldson, of Springfield, 111., ai R. A. D. Preston, of Akron, Ohi May 11.—A. T. Atherholt travek from Holmesburg, Pa., in the "Per 1." making landings at Pembertoi Hanover and Lisbon, N. J.

May 9.—Leo Stevens and passei ger, another beautiful young lady i the movies, made a trip from Pa isade Park, which is in New Jerse. to the usual safe landing on til shore of Jamaica Pay in his hydn gen balloon. Miss White is tl| leading lady of "The Perils c Pauline" and was supposed to mak the ascension alone. Without balloo experience this was impossible an Mr. Stevens was viewing the scener from the bottom of the basket i the start, taking hold of affair himself on arriving at a highe altitude. The perils of the air wer soon over for Pauline and the ascen was a novelty for the young lady.

May 13.—The aeronautical exper ences of Pauline were finished a Philadelphia with a coal gas ascer. by Mr. Stevens alone, the landin made at Hanover Farms, also ii New Jrrsey. No tickets have as ye been received in the editorial d« partment.

the beach. A little lever at the hand opens the air again for starting at full speed of engine. Steering with the rudder is by means of the standard hand wheel, the pillar rocking fore and aft for elevator. Each foot fits in a metal loop. Pushing out with the leg, just the same as the clutch pedal on an auto, on the high side of the machine pulls the high flap up and the low down, and vice versa. A magneto switch is provided as well. The throttle lever is arranged on the steering pillar.

1 he magneto is a Bosch two-spark, Bosch oiler. The bow is flat, coming to a straight V for about 18 inches forward of the step. From the step back to the rudder the bottom is flat. The hood opens longitudinally and occupants can step in from a float or from the beach, and walk to the comfortable seat. The motor swings a 7 ft. 11 in. by 5 ft. 6 in. propeller anti-clockwise in the breeze. The gas tank*is on the top of the plane, made in streamline form. Double pipes feed to each of the two carburetors from either end of the tank so that gas is assured from either end, climbing nr diving. Goodyear cloth is used for covering the planes.

of flowers with a note to John J. McGraw, manager of the Giants. After seeing the ball game a return trip was made to Dobbs Ferry and they covered the distance of 16 miles in the remarkable time of 12 minutes. For flying over New York Brown was suspended for three months from competing in meets. No contests are scheduled for 1914 thus far, so the penalty is minus any sting. On May 14 Mr. Rodriguez, who himself is an active member of the Aeronautical Society, invited Mr. Louis R. Adams, Acting President, Ernest L. Jones, Secretary and Wilbur R. Kimball to go to Dobbs Ferry and see the machine. Mr. Adams, Mr. Jones and Mr. Kimball ha'd each a very nice ride on the machine. Mr. Adams can again lay good claims to being the first American aero club president to actually fly in an aeroplane. The machine will remain at Dobbs Ferry for a couple of weeks longer, available for demonstration flights. Several turns up and down the river were made between Yonkers and Tarrytown, outstripping the New York Central trains. The machine climbs very fast and has a large surplus of power.


The first flight of the present ser son for the Goodyear Aero Clu was made from Akron on May 2( The passengers were C. P. Mood and Charles Becker, with R. E Upson, pilot. Staying in the air thii teen hours, they made a successft passage of Lake Erie and landed i Ridgetovvn, Ontario, the next mori ing, a distance of ioo miles.

The second annual meeting of th Goodyear Aero Club was held Ma 5th, and plans were launched fo the ensuing year.


Orville Wright will be presented with the Elliott Cresson Gold Medal by the Franklin Institute at its final stated meeting on Wednesday, the 20th inst., "in recognition of the epoch-making work accomplished by him. at first together with his brother, Wilbur, and latterly alone, in establishing on a practical basis the Science and Art of Aviation."


On May 9th, Charles Fay, a Thomas exhibition flyer, flew with the wind from the aviation field at Bath over to Elmira, a distance of 3S miles, in 25 minutes, in the standard Thomas biplane, fitted with a Curtiss OX motor. After playing a game of golf and spending the evening, he returned to Bath the following day.


Lincoln Beachey and Barney Old field will fight out the "Champion ship of the Universe" at Brightoi Beach, May 22-24, under the abb and alliterative management o William Bill Adjective Pickens Beachey is scheduled to do tlx loop, upside-down flying, race Bar ney, and generally throw thrills Beachey does about all the death defying feats known to the air, ex cept fly backward. Barney will use the old Christie front-drive racer which is sufficient bull for the lane events, and Bill will supply the ver bal pyrotechnics.


The B. F. Sturtevant Company has just received an order for one^ of the new 100-h.p. engines for thw Bay Cities Flying Boat Company, which will carry all the World's Fair visitors across from Oakland) to San Francisco.

TALKER AIR STARTER start it to turning, thus turning SOPWITH "TABLOID"

.„ . , ՠ ՠ the engine. At the same time the (Continued from page 133)

sera SbSefta^ compressed air passes through the tremjties {he disc wheds In i(g

fnrter SO h J Surtevant motor StarlmF ca,rbllret,er <c> wh"e ' 's normal position, the axles lie in a Under bU n. p. Stuitevant motor proper v charged, to the distnbut- l,.,j 'լ ,,1p .._„.

ՠthe Walker Starter Co. of La- 1 '. (d?, ,vhich js operated =,00%e to"ned in the cioss strut, r,.j 'nS \<-ive icn;, \\nicn is upeiaieu maintaining the stream line

>rte, lnd. . fron, the cam shaft so as to release „ff_,.t ,,f ti,p ; =

One will note connections to the compressed mixture into the eHett , tlle latter- 1'\e ax,« >s

r„n pvlinrlcre next the flv wheel % coڬ,rL!»»eu uu-niui c uuu me sprung uy means of rubber shock ree cylinders next tne n> wneei. j,f]erent cylinders in charges at A,snvhPrs attahie.1 m tl,P el-iiu anrl lppose the order of tiring is besinn nsr of their respective ar,soibers attached to the skids, and

e* 6-^ a hv connecting this wav DeSin",nS °,v, lespecme ls held m position by two very short

!3 starter wil fire e°verv other i,r,n* strokeS- Ihe Spark 15 re" ٦lt;"«s rods, hinged to the rear ex-Under as 1-3-2-. All six cylin- tarded so as to occur just alter the tremities of the skids. In order to ֲs could be connected up but charge is injected into the explo- prevent the cross strut from bend-is is not necessary with this svs- sion chamber and thus ignite it. As jng downwards in the middle, it is

braced at this point to the fuselage by a wire. The tail consists of a semi-circular stabilizing plane, to the trailing edge of which are hinged two elevator flaps with a balanced vertical rudder, almost circular in shape, between them. Lateral control is by wing-warping, the movement being carried out by a wheel mounted on a vertical column, a fore-and-aft movement of which operates the rear elevators through a connecting rod and counter-shatt. The warp cables are led from a rock-shaft to pulleys let into the uprights of the fuselage just above th<: lear spar attachments of the lower plane. From these pulleys tilt cables go to the top sockets of the rear outer struts. A continuous cable also runs from each of tin outer rear strut sockets o£ the lower plane over pulleys on the tops of the two rear struts attached to the fuselage.

*Mrtff> ft

the compressor

?m, as the engine is turned inde- the engine starts,

endent of these leads by the air- commences at once to restore the

lotor (air-compressor acting as an pressure in the tank to the max-

ir-motor). The parts are repre- imum when the yalve (pc) acts on

11-ujuiui,. imum when tne vaive (pc; acts 011 tf , „„hp

ented as follows: (sb) starting , , disenea<dns- it P . a nude

utton- (n<A pressure gauge; (sv) the cllltc 1 (cli;\ aisenga0ing u- as expected, I'egouc

tarting valve MA) lead fr°om tank The clutch may a so be thrown 1.1 pected jn N y


If plans now under way turn out d may be ex-ork. Pegoud is

1 starting valve: (P>) lead from or out at the will of the operator under contract and receives the tarting valve to starter; (C) lead and independent of the air, from small sum of $6,000 a day for his rom compressor to tank; (st) stor- n;s seat. flying, which is almost as much as

ge tank; (cs) air-supply to car- It takes from thirty seconds to tl,e editor of an aeronautical paper ureter; (c) carbureter; (dl) mix- . restore {he ssure gets.

ore supply from carbureter to dis- . . . .... .. . r--

ributing valve; (dv) distributing »seJ 111 starting. While the starter--—

alve; (1). (2) and (3) leads to will work with 50 pounds pressure, AERO MART

pecial check valves on the cylin- a higher maximum pressure allows___

lers 1, 2 and 3 of the engine; the storing of a greater volume of GAS BALLOON FOR S\I E_

gs) supplies the carbureter with ajr jn a smaller tank, and as this Xew 40,000 cu. ft. Just finished ;asolme; (mc) motor and com- carbUreter will work just as efficient £300. Address E. Torgensen, 1831 iressor combined; (ch) air clutch; d itive at hi h pressures, with Belmont Ave., Chicago, 111.

pc) pressure controlling valve; (p) . զnbsp;1 ՠ' ,__

.rimer 110 changing 111 any way, as it does -

There is no attention required at lower pressures, a tank not no-h.p. MOTOR for sale. Spec-rom the operator with this system larger than 8 x 36 inches is of ially built, 8 cylinder V, 4^ by 7, ither than pressing the starting sufficient capacity for aeroplane water cooled, built by ^Christie Ma->utton (sh) to start the engine. By motors. chine Co. for C. K. Hamilton,

his system one need only employ The great feature of this sy=tem Flown by him at Belmont and Sac-

,-,٦raquo;r,tn Cost $5,000. Perfect to put in 'plane, any day. Run not lours total in flight.

inersry is imparted to the piston will explode before it will start. $i)000 cash onlv. Address Hamilton, oy the internal combustion of This carbureter is dependent upon cyQ AERONAUTICS.

:his charge, which expands against the air pressure alone passing to__

:he piston with raising pressure to it frorn the tank, and as long as MORANE-SAULNIER — Latest the end of its stroke, giving a nir nasses to it, gaS0H„e will be type. ,Set of detailed working draw-

starting valve, pressure gauge, com- starting valve is pressed a perfect ֮fend^construction'!" Address A.^F., pressed air carbureter, distributing charge is created and injected into care AERONAUTICS, 250 \V.

(sb) and compressed air rushes is no heat to _ it to create a sweat ' *> 527 pages, in splendid con-through the pipe-line (B) to the over the inside of the cylinder aition wjl, be sen{ post.free for control valve (pc) which causes the walls and plug by drawing the 24 dol]ars.

clutch (ch) to engage and then al- frost. Heat can affect it 111 no way Remittance to be sent to "Astra,"

lows the air to pass into the motor except to aid in igniting it, for the c/o The Editor. "Aeronautics, 1/0

valves on the air compressor and proportion and mixing is complete. Meet St., London (England).


The Signal Corps' machines ana aviators are still at Galveston and are awaiting orders. What the outcome of the present situation will be nobody knows. There seems to be no truth in the story that a supply of bombs is being prepared and held at North Island; and if there were anything in the story it would, naturally, not be given out for publication. To show the absurdity of some rumors that go about, Colonel Keber was called up a few days ago and asked if the report that was circulating in New York that the Army was buying thirty aeroplanes was correct. There was absolutely no foundation for the statement. In these days, when everybody is trying to sell all the machines in the world to the Government, one can naturally expect a crop of rumors.

For the week ending April iS the total number of flights were 68; total time in air, 27 hours; passengers carried, 37.

Summary, Jan. 1 to April 18: Total number flights, 944; total time in air, 257 hours, 50^ min-ntes; passengers carried, 466.


()n May 7 it was reported that an aviator in a rebel biplane dropped two bombs into Mazatlan, killing 4 and wounding 8 other persons. The biplane was operated by a nephew of General Carranza, the leader of the Constitutionalists. The people were panic-stricken over ■the explosion of the bomb and many fled in terror.

On May 14 there was a report that the Federal gunboat Guerrero has been disabled by bombs dropped by an aeroplane piloted by Captain Salinas Carranza, a nephew of General Venustiano Carranza, according to report to General Carranza received today from General Alvaro Obregon, commanding the Constitutionalist forces at Mazatlan.

General Obregon said the aeroplanes had done effective work in dropping bombs on the Federal in-trenchments and had caused the abandonment of several strong positions.

"War aeroplanes continue their activity at Mazatlan, according to a dispatch received at the Navy Department from Admiral Howard. Two bombs were dropped from the rebel aircraft into Federal intrench-nieuts yesterday, but whether they killed any one is not stated."

The Mexican Federals, according to recent press accounts, have three monoplanes suitable for scout and bomb throwing purposes. The Federal aviators include Lieut. Gustavius Salinas, Alberto Salinas, Juan Al-derso, H. Ruiz and Rodriguez Sala-zar. The aeroplanes are said to he in the vicinity of Vera Cruz.

William A. Staats, New York representative of the Mexican Constitutionalists, has been ordered by

telegraph to ship the two monoplanes recently built for General Carranza at the Moisant factory to some point in Texas near the Mexican border. The message was signed by Alberto Salinas, a nephew of General Carranza and a member of the staff of the rebel chief. It was sent from Torreon.

Salinas also says he has been ordered to join General Villa in the Saltillo campaign and that General Carranza is on his way to Durango.

The message does not say whether the rebels will try to smuggle the machines into Mexico, but Mr. Staats infers that they will be held in Texas until the embargo is lifted. One of these machines is at Hempstead ready to ship. The other will be ready in a few days for the 8,000 foot altitude test exacted by General Carranza.

Charles F. Niles will make the altitude test. He flew 11,000 feet high with the other machine several weeks ago, and Mr. Staats accepted it for General Carranza and paid a deposit.

On April 30 Calexico, Calif., was thrown into a fever of excitement by the report that about 11 o'clock at night an aeroplane had passed over the camp of the First Battalion, N. G. C, now guarding the border together with the regular troops at this point.

A soldier machinist familiar with all styles of airships claims that the invader was of the French type of biplane. It is known that some trme ago the Constitutionalists smuggled across the border a biplane to be used against the Federals at Guay-mas. This machine was afterward captured by the Huertistas, who are now in control at Mexicali.

The aeroplane made a second at, pearance over the military cam* about 2 a. m. and was plainly see" near outpost number four.


As previously announced excli sively in AERONAUTICS, Rilei E. Scott, the inventor of an atj paratus for dropping bombs froil an aeroplane and winner of thl Michelin prize for bomb-dropping i J 1912, is now at the Signal Corp« Aviation School at San Diego, Call carrying on a series of tests fo I the army.

These tests include the dropping of high-explosive bombs varying ill weight up to 100 lbs. Mr. ScotJ has again demonstrated that bomb* can be dropped with great ac curacy, and the results of his test I with high explosives are awaiteil with great interest by the arm; I authorities. As these are the firs I experiments ever made with larg<| charges of high explosives droppe< with a scientific apparatus ,the dat; obtained ought to be edifying a well as conclusive. Scott will re turn to New York about June 1st

(See AERONAUTICS, August' 1911; November, 1911; February 1912; September, 1912.)

Fort Sam Houston, at San An tonio, will eventually be an avia tion center, as approved over a yeai ago. This is not the aviation cen ter of the Signal Corps, but the station for the First Aero Squadron.


The first time in which naval aircraft have been operated on practically a war airing was at Vera Cruz, when the U. S. Navy aviators reconnoitered the country round about the city.

Following the first successful work, Lieut. Bellinger flew inland 20 miles on April 29 and reported seeing "two detachments of Federal troops, one of 5,000 infantry and the other of 2,000 men with artillery, near Tejeria, whither General Maas went after leaving Vera Cruz."

The navy aviators the next day made several more scouting flights to the west, south and north and found only the "force they saw previously, about 1,000 soldiers out along the tracks, apparently moving further west. It looked as if the railroad could be destroyed very quickly for many miles into the mountains. There were fires, showing that ties were being burned and rails removed."

On May 6 Bellinger was fired on as he found two boles in the wings.

On May 10 another report comes of a flight by Bellinger with Capt. Newbold of the Army as observer. Bellinger, Saufley and other flyers

are now well acquainted with the territory for 25 miles around.

The Navy aviators are distributed as follows: On the Birmingham at. Tampico are Lieut. J. II. Towers, Lieut. B. L. Smith, Ensign G. de C. Chevalier, with 10 men from the Pensacola aeronautic station and two Curtiss flying boats and 1 _ hydroaeroplane On the Mississippi at Vera Cruz are: Lieut. Comdr. H. C. Mustin, Lieut. P. N. L. Bellinger, Ensigns XV. D. La Mont and M. L. Stolz, with two Curtiss flying boats and a Curtiss O. W. L. hydro.

Left at Pensacola are": Lieut. W. W. Mcllvaine and 30 men Lieut. F. D. Herbster is on inspection duty of unfinished machines.

Credit should be given Captain W. I. Chambers for the efficiency of the aeronautical equipment of the Navy, which is ahead of that of any other Navy in the world at the present time. It was Captain Chambers who evolved the O. W. L. type of machine, the launching catapult and the latest flying boat of Curtiss make. His application to the improvement of Naval aeronautics was at the expense of personal advancement.


which Webster caught (that is, he caught the rope, not the boat), and the seaplane was made fast to the boat." For a few minutes the machine "floated on the choppy water without tipping or sinking in any \\ ay. '

Webster started the motor again and "took his hands off the levers. The machine glided for about 250 feet, then rose in the air, the pilot's hands still off the levers, where they remained until the seaplane had reached a height of about 40 feet."

Following some short speed trials, Webster "described four circles, just over the observers' boat, during which the machine banked at a steep angle. In the last two circles Aviator Webster held his hands over his head, to the amazement of the observers, in turns when the machine banked steep, and held his hands up until the machine had resumed even keel. At the end of the last circle, with the wind blowing again at 40 m.p.h., Webster rose to a height of 1,200 feet, then cut off the power and took his hands off the control. The seaplane glided down at a slight angle. At about 40 feet from the water Webster re-assumed control, forced the machine to a steep angle of descent, then straightened and landed lightly

That "The Burgess-Dunne solves wings, no matter how rough the %/ew feet from the observers' boat, le problem of inherent stability and water may be. as other aeroplanes 1 he time occupied by the glide was

hich drawings and description glasses, watched Webster "take his tai"ed its h,eiS.ht without the slighter published in AERONAUTICS hands off the controls as he ap- fst dr,°P; during the flights uncon-

published or March 31st.

proached, and "the machine con- trolled by the pilot the machine cor-Manager F. II. Russell explained tinued its flight without the slightest !"ec1t,ed Us lateral deviations mechan-0 the committee the principle of change of evenness. Then followed !ca] V and maintained even flight;

lie machine.

He"%aidr'H,"The four°circular"flights, atT YeTght" "o^f ;" landing it glided lightly on "the

lurgess-Dunne aeroplane is con- about 200 feet. During the fourth wat,erA appeared easily, controlled

tructed on a principle which affords circle the pilot took his hands off and floated well.

nherent stability in flight, the wing the controls and held them over his , . e Photograph shows the mauds checking each other during head for practically the entire cir- chine gllding down with a passen-light, counteracting changes in the cle. Although the wind was stiff ,on .an absolutely level keel, elative lift of bow and stern, and (about forty miles), the seaplane's 1.',e fact IS> the seaplane is dropping becking all tendencies to dive when flight was not perceptibly affected. Ilke a parachute. One will notice lescending with motor cut off. On At the end of this circle the sea- tlle propeller is still, neeting side gusts, the nearer wing, plane rose to a height of about 500 >eing broadside 011 and at an un- feet, where the pilot cut off the avorable angle for lifting, acts as motor and put his hands up over

l weather vane to turn the machine his head. The seaplane descended CURTISS HAS NON-IN. nto the teeth of the disturbance, in a spiral, during which the 'plane FRINGING CONTROL.

Clcnn II. Curtiss has announced

.vhile the further wing, offering was but slightly inclined. At the ittle head resistance, is speeded up height of about 100 feet, the aviator

md so prevented from falling, the resumed control and rose again and that tllere llas been perfected at his

results being that the aeroplane made another circular flight. Then, P!a"t a lateral balancing system

veeps on an even keel. The steer- from the height of about 500 feet, which, it is alleged, does not infringe

ng and elevating of the Burgess- the pilot took his hands off the the \\ right patent, as construed by

)unne is controlled by a single set levers and glided in straight line the Court decision, and yet one

3f levers, and ailerons are used toward the boat of the observers, which is perfectly practical.

>nly as rudders, and not for lateral At a height of about 50 feet he re-

:ontrol. The machine is supported sumed control, threw the machine "-

}y a single pontoon, but the ends to a steep angle of descent, then

of the planes are equipped with straightened it and landed lightly In the Austrian flying contests for

floats which touch the water, so within ten yards of the point first the Schicht prize held April 19 to

that while the machine is on the touched, and 'taxied' to three yards 26 last, all the machines finishing

water it always has three points of from the observers' boat. A rope the course used ltosch magnetos,

contact and cannot submerge its was then thrown from the boat, Bosch plugs and Bosch starters.


Reese Sharp, of Ord, Neb., has sued the Aeroplanes, Motors and Equipment Co. for the recovery of $250 sent by Sharp on account of the purchase price of an Anzani motor.

The plaintiff alleges that he proposed to wire $250 on account of the purchase price, if on receipt thereof the Aeroplanes Company would ship the motor to Sharp C. O. 1)., subject to examination; that the company accepted the proposal by wire, and stated the motor would be sent on receipt of the $250; that the $250 was sent; that the defendant company advised him the motor had been taken from the Custom House and would be shipped the following morning; that two days later the defendant wired Sharp that motor could not be sent as at first promised, but only upon receipt of the balance of $250; that Sharp was unwilling to send any more money to a concern that had so "flagrantly broken its agreement," and that either the defendant company ship the motor C. O. D., subject to examination, according to agreement, or return the $250; that the defendant failed to do either. The case will be tried in the near future. __


Although the season of the year is still quite early for any considerable activity at aviation schools, there is much work being done at the Wright land school at Simms Station, where Howard M. Rine-hart, tlie expert Wright pilot, is training three new Wright pupils, Lloyd V. Norman of Chicago, 111., Jesse A. Carpenter of Chicago, 111., and Earl Utter of Columbus Junction, Iowa.

The school machines now used at the field are equipped with the new Wright elevator and the inherent stability given to the machines by this latest invention of Mr. Wright enables the pupils to acquire longitudinal control very rapidly and precludes the possibility of any false maneuvers causing serious disturbances in equilibrium.

In view of the Mexican ciisis there is considerable activity in aviation matters at Dayton, and work on the new Government machines is being rushed to conclusion.

Announcement will be made shortly of the newest type of Wright Aeroboat built for the United States Navy, which it is said is an unusual innovation in flying boat practice.

The honor of being the first pupil to graduate from the Wright School in the year 1914 falls to Lloyd V. Norman, of Chicago, who successfully completed his test flights on Saturday, May 9, after having spent only three weeks at the Wright School. In addition to Mr. Norman, Instructor Howard H. Rine-hart, the expert Wright flyer, is progressing rapidly with the instruction of Jesse A. Carpenter, of Chicago, and Earl Utter, of Columbus Junction, Iowa.

Instruction on the school machines is made particularly easy by their equipment with the new type of rudder, which tends to make the machine automatically stable, but at the same time gives a degree of pre-ciseness and delicateness to the control which is most satisfactory.

In addition to the flights of the pupils at Simms Station, during the past week, Mr. Wright has made many flights in his constant endeavor to improve aeroplanes. Although the weather has not been good, the pupils have been kept quite busy practising on the training machine and in learning the construction of aeroplanes at the factory. The number of pupils who are coming to the school in the course of the next few weeks makes it likely that the school term this year will decidedly be a record breaker.

hardly possible to tell. Harris either was thrown or jumped from the machine while still about fiftjj feet from the ground. He landed clear of the machine, and was still living when picked up.

The machine was a Curtiss type. John Gammeter, of Akron, is the moving spir.it in the Silver Lake! Aviation Company.


Akron, C, May 3.—"H. P. Harris" (E. G. Rich), aviator, fell to his death in an exhibition flight north of here today, lie drew only a few breaths atter being taken from the wreck, and died in an automobile on the way to a hospital.

It was simply a matter of the machine breaking down under the force of a very steep dive, with too sharp a turnup at the bottom, frobably one ot the wires or vertical struts was the first to break, but the whole wing crumpled and broke away from the rest of the machine so quickly that it was


Los Angeles, Cal., April 28.—■ Charles C. Roystone, an aviator, fell 800 feet at Dominguez Junction, south of here, to-day and died shortly afterward. Roystone, flying a monoplane, was on his way tdj San Diego to demonstrate an aerial bomb-hurling device to the army of-l fleers at the government aviation camp. An examination of the wreckj showed "the steering rod had snapped." The machine was a Dep copy.


Percival Van Ness, of Utica. N. V., was killed on May 8 in makinjT the second flight with a new ma-' chine. Eye-witnesses state the cause-was too fast climbing.


The recent offers by self-styled colonels of volunteer aviation corps of assistance in the war (?) with Mexico recall the voiced sentiments of army officers on the uselessness of civilian aviators for scouting and for offensive operations in the event of war, even where the aviators were experienced exhibition flyers and were actually experts and owners of machines. It is obvious that a corps without machines, and without even pilots of experience, would be worse than useless.

As urged in AERONAUTICS, provision should be made for the encouragement of bona fide civilian aviation corps, and actual experience with troops in war games be arranged, in order that aviator-owners would be of value in case of need. It would be a profitable investment, should Congress be induced to furnish money enough for the expenses of a two-weeks' training camp in connection with regular army or national guard maneuvers.

That military training is needed to make soldiers of civilian aviators was urged by well-known officers in the hearing before the Committee on Military Affairs last year.

Gen. Sciiriven: If you should scrape the country over, I doubt if yon could find 20 aviators who are suitable for the military service.

Col. Reber: The mere idea that a man has taken a pilot's license does not mean everything. That may mean a man's ability to control a machine under given conditions in still air, but it means nothing so far as ability to fly a machine across the country is concerned. There are not ten men in this country to-day, out of 247 licensed pilots, .who could make a flight of 200 miles overland. They have not the experience. They have grown up as exhibition flyers, and some of them have made wonderful records, but I do say that there is not one of those ten aviators who would be of any value to

a military commander with his machine. In the maneuvers held las year, under the direction of th Signal Corps of the State of New York, an aviator, who was consir1 ered a wonderful flyer, volunteereo his services. He was given thel same problems that were given the military aviators, and was asked toi submit his report in the same wayl that they did. He went up and' came down, and came to me—II happened to be in charge at thej time—and he said: "I went up all right, and I saw something, but It have not the faintest idea of whafl it was. I do not know the differl ence between a wagon and a ten* when I get up at that height." In other words, he had not the train-, ing necessary to give him the proper military foundation; he had not the training necessary to pick out the different given objects when viewed from a great height. You must give these men some military training; vou must make soldier men of them, so they can gain the information required; and then, of course, the aviator will utilize his ability as a flyer to bring it back.

Lieut. Arnold: It does not take long to teach a man to fly, but it takes a long time to make a military aviator. It is easy to teach a man to fly. They are doing it now at the Wright school in ten days, and a man can learn to fly in ten days. To make a man an expert military aviator cannot possibly be done under one year.

Lieut. mrlltng: I have heen associated with civilian flyers, both in meets and at the last maneuvers at Bridgeport. As a rule, these men fly around a field, but they do no military work. They cannot read a map, and half of them, if attempting cross-country flights, will get lost. Finding the way through the . air across country is one-half of the game. Now, from our experience there, it was found that these men were absolutely useless.

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Silas Christofferson, with a Cur-tiss-type biplane of his own make, Curtiss 100 H. P. motor, landed first at Bakersfiekl in the race from San Francisco to that point on April 21-22. The actual time flying is given as 4 h. 39 m.

II. \Y. Blakely was second in arriving with his 100 H. P. Hall-Scott-Curtiss type biplane. Lost above the clouds, Blakeley landed first at Sacramento, flying thence to Stockton, 126 miles out of the course, night stop there, and on to Dinuba, where he caught up with Christofferson. Christofferson left 15 minutes ahead. In getting off at his next stop at Ducor, Blakeley broke a strut, and flew in this way

to Bakersfield. Actual flying time was 4 h. 8 m. The course actually flown was some 450 miles, an average of 108.8 miles an hour.

Arthur Rybitski, who flew an 80 II. P. Curtiss, motored Curtiss copy, finished the third day. Rybitski had various troubles all along the route.

The course was irregular, compulsory stops being at Stockton and Dinuba, while certain other towns had to be flown over. The map seems to show the figures given. Blakeley states that over a mile race course the measured speed was 110 m. p. h. Blakeley reports on the motor are most enthusiastic. The propeller. 7 ft. 6 in. by 7 in. pitch, turned 1,400 r. p. m.


First trials made on May 11 at the Hempstead aviation field with the wire launching and landing device of .Tames T. Amiss, of Baton Rouge, La., demonstrated the practicability of landing and starting aeroplanes on wires from battleships or on bad grounds.

John Guy Gilpatric, using a Sloane monoplane equipped with rollers, alighted successfully on the wire pathway, but the machine not being equipped with brakes, which are part of the design, rolled off the end of the runway.

The apparatus consists of a landing platform made of a network of wires ten inches apart stretched be-

tween two rows of posts 200 feet apart. Any aeroplane or hydroaeroplane can be adapted to land on these wires by a simple attachment of1 rollers underneath the chassis and the fitting of a special arrangement of hooks which catch on the wires' when the machine alights and prevents it from bouncing or tipping over. When it is desired to start thd aeroplane these hooks are turnedl so that they disengage from tha wires and the aeroplane runs along on its rollers just as it would on wheels. _.


A very interesting and instructive catalog giving descriptions, photoT graphs, drawings and prices of thJ Anzani, Gnome, Le Rhone ancl Austro-Daimler motors has just beerl issued by the Sloane Aeropfantt Company.

The catalog which tells all aboul these motors is well gotten up an<| is -nicely illustrated.

No one at all interested in flyingj should be without a copy of thil catalog, which will be sent free tr| any address.


Do you manufacturers have the names and addresses of all those known to be interested in flying in the United States? If you had the mailing list of every aeronautical magazine in this country, how much would it cost to print 144 or more pages and mail to each one? The cost would he prohibitive.

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OFFICIAL BULLETIN. Next General Meeting.

The next meeting will be held June 11. Mr. James Means is expected to deliver a paper on smoke signalling in the near future. At the June 11th meeting a new aeronautical wireless set will be described and shown by its inventor, Mr. Dubilier.

Data Sheets.

The first seven data sheets issued by the Technical Hoard have been sent out. Others are now ready for publication. All members in good standing are entitled to these.

These data sheets provide mem-hers with information which could be obtained only at great expense by subscribing to every aeronautical publication issued in the world, by buying every book published, by obtaining reports of every laboratory and testing plant, with the attendant expense of translation and time of abstracting.





Clarence P. Wynne, President. Jos. A. Stein metz, xst Vice-President. Wm. D. Harris, 2nd Vice-President. George S. Gassner, Secretary Laurence Maresch, Treasurer.


Arthur T. Atherholt. Harold H. Knerr.

H. F. Bamberger. Wm. H. Sheahan.

Dr. Samuel C. Falls. Walter S. Wheeler.

Office of the Club, Bellevue-Stratford, Phila., Pa.

Leather loose-leaf books may be had for binding these data sheets at $2, provided a number of orders can be secured at one time.

The data sheets are issued free to members as fast as they can be prepared.

Membership dues in The Aeronautical Society are $10 a year, no initiation fee. Members receive data sheets, the magazine, AERONAUTICS, engraved certificate of membership, free monthly lectures. For further information address the Secretary.

On Friday evening. May 1st, the Aero Club of Pennsylvania entertained Lieut. John Cyril Porte, R. N., at a reception in the Clover Room of the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel, in Philadelphia. Lieut. Porte was thus honored for the reason that he has been selected as one of the pilots in the trans-Atlantic flight, which it is expected will take place during the course of the coming summer, and which is being financed by Mr. Rodman Wanamaker, a member of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania, and the machine for which is now being built by Curtiss.

About 300 guests attended the reception, and after the formalities were over, Clarence P. Wynne, president of the club, called upon several of the more distinguished guests for short addresses. The first of these was Lieut. Porte, who spoke very confidently of the prospects of their meeting with success in their undertaking. During the course of his remarks he referred to the fact that many people spoke of the flight as being impossible, while others stated that it was perfectly easy. As a matter of fact, Lieut. Porte looks upon it from neither of these extremes, but considers it a difficult

undertaking, which can be accom plished.

Among other speakers were Si| Wilfred Powell, British Consul General at Philadelphia; Captaiil William S. Benson, commandant 0 the Philadelphia navy yard; Georgii S. Bliss, director of the Philadelphia Weather Bureau, and Will Gash, of the Aero Club of America. /' special reception committee, con sisting of Walter S. Wheeler (chair man), Robert Kelse Cassatt, Jame | Spear, Arthur Wheeler and MarshaJ Earl Reid, had charge of the afj fair, and prior to the reception thi. committee gave a dinner at tin/ Racquet Club, at which they enter tained as guests Lieut. John C Porte; Clarence P. Wynne, presi dent of the Aero Club of Pennsyl vania; Will Gash, of the Aero Clul of America; John Wanamaker, Jr.. and M. F. Bergen, Esq.

The reception was one of the most successful functions that ha;< been held by the Aero Club of Pennsylvania, and it is likely that affairs of this kind will frequently take place in the future, and at each of which some person notable in aviation will be the guest of honor.

New Members.

Emile Brouard, 470 West 34th street, New York.

Meeting of May 14.

George Clifton delivered an illustrated paper on "Color Photography" which was hugely interesting and profitable. Iiy means of a balopti-con and lantern, several hundred photographs of interest were shown, many of which had never before been seen. Wilbur R. Kimball read an abstract of the hydromechanic experiments with flying boat hulls made by Naval Constructor Richardson, the report of which has been issued by the Langley Aerodynamical Laboratory.

Notice to Delinquents.

Delinquents in payment of dues are earnestly requested to place themselves in good standing at the earliest possible moment in order that they may receive the official bulletin, AERONAUTICS, semimonthly, the membership certificates and data sheets.


The spring meeting of the New Haven Section of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers was held in the Mason Laboratory of Mechanical Engineering. Sheffield Scientific School, on Friday afternoon and evening, May 1st. The Committee on Meetings, consisting of Mr. E. S. Coolev (chairman). Professor E. H. Lockwood (secretary). Professor L. P. Breckenridge, Mr. II. B. Sargent and Mr. F, L. Bigelow, arranged for a program dealing with the subject of '"Aeronautics and the Internal Combustion Motor." The meeting was largely attended by local engineers, and by President James Hartness and Secretary C. W. Rice of the society.

Mr. John J. Long, of Brown University, Providence, R. L. read an illustrated paper on "A Review of Aeronautical Progress." The "Proportions of Propellers and Engine Cylinders" were discussed by David L. Gallup. Professor of Gas Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic In-

stitute, Worcester, Mass.^ A paper on "Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines" was read by Mr. D. B. Pangbnrn, of the Mechanical Engineering Department. A letter was read from Mr. Evarard Thompson, of the Connecticut Aeroplane Company, who was unable to attend the meeting. Mr. Joseph A. Steinmetz, of Philadelphia, talked about the "Aircraft in War, for Offense and Defence."

A too-h.p. Gnome motor was on exhibition in the laboratory, having been loaned for the meeting by Mr. Edson F. Gallaudet, Yale '93. of Norwich, Conn.

Mr. Howard Huntington read an illustrated paper on "Internal Combustion i\lotors in the Field of Aviation."


On May_ 10th, at Governor's Island, Louis , A. Fenouillet made some thirty towed flights in his hipkme glider, ranging from 200 to 1.000 feet. in the presence of Brigadier-General R. K. Evans.



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are equipped with


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the three-blatled paragons used by the navy aviators give the highest results ever attained. the two-bladed paragons are unequalled. efficiency, security, satisfaction—are back of the name paragon—the mark of first-class equipment.

THE AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.


Constructors, as well as Aviators, are

MAXIMOTOR'S most ardent supporters.

90-100 H. P. MAXIMOTOR being successfully tested for brake horse-power, developing 110 actual brake horse-power, at 1300 revolutions. Weighing 370 pounds complete with Magneto, Carburetor and propeller Coupling.

There will be a new 8-cylinder "V" type 120 H. P. motor addition to the MAXIMOTOR family.



Watch for the developments

Catalog on request


Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs


64th St. & West End Ave., New York City Also Maonfacturers of Automobile Radiators cf all types


New and Enlarged Edition, Commencing January, 1914

The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to the Technique and Industry of Aeronautics

(FOUNDED 1907) Yearly Subscription One Dollar Eighty-five Cents : Post Free (Money Orders Only)

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From LA CONQUETE DE L'AIR Brussels, Belgium

Five or six months ago Mil. Breguet, of Paris, acquired a license for France of a system invented by an American, Mr. Means, and they have not delayed in applying it to their biplanes. Underneath one finds a reservoir of lamp black of a capacity of 20 litres. There is also a reservoir of compressed air which is kept filled by a small air pump. A tube connects the two tanks. In this tube is a valve which is operated by the observer. A pull of one second makes a dot—a pull of three seconds makes a dash. Thus is the Morse code revealed against the sky.


An American engineer, Mr. Means, has invented for the service of military scouting on board aeroplanes a system of optical telegraphy of remarkable simplicity. The signals Morse are shown against the sky with lamp black.



196 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A.