## Aeronautics, No. 8 April 1914

Auf dieser Internetseite finden Sie ein Digitalisat der Zeitschrift „American Magazine of Aeronautics“. Die Zeitschrift „Aeronautics“ war in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (USA) das erste kommerzielle Luftfahrt- und Luftsport-Magazin. Die Zeitschrift wurde in englischer Sprache herausgegeben. Die Digitalisierung und Konvertierung mit Hilfe der automatischen Text- und Bilderkennungssoftware hat teilweise zu Format- und Rechtschreibfehlern geführt. Diese Fehler sollten jedoch im Hinblick auf den Gesamtumfang von weit mehr als 20.000 Einzelseiten als vernachlässigbar angesehen werden.

## PDF Dokument

Für das wissenschaftliche Arbeiten und für das korrekte Zitieren können Sie auch das originale Digitalisat im PDF Format in hoher Druckqualität gegen Zahlung einer Lizenzgebühr in Sekundenschnelle herunterladen. Sie können das PDF Dokument ausdrucken bzw. in Ihre Publikationen übernehmen oder auf einem eBook-Reader lesen.

T H

WHICH

I S

COMBINED

Official Organ and Bulletin—Aero Club of Pennsylvania The Aeronautical Society

Some Competitive Trophies Won in 1913—With

CURT1SS 0-X MOTORS

THE MACKAY TROPHY, won by Lieutenants

J. E. Carberry and Fred Seydel, U. S Army ;

flying 58 miles in 46 minutes. TIMES AERIAL DERBY, won by William S.

Luckey, flying around Manhattan; 60 miles\in

52 minutes.

TIMES AERIAL DERBY, second, Charles F. Niles.

AERO and HYDRO 1,000-mile Cruise Trophy, won by J. B. R. Verplanck and Beckwiih Havens; Chicago to Detroit.

MICHIGAN AERO CLUB 1,000-mile Speed Trophy, won by Verplanck and Havens; Chicago to Detroit.

Except by Their Products, the Curtiss Companies were not Directly Represented in Any of These Events

THE CURTISS MOTOR CO., 21 Lake Street, Hammondsport, N. Y.

■■■զ#9632;֡

llilli! ■■■■§■■

::::::: :::::::

■ mill

ՠ»«a»» ■■■>■■ռ/p>

■■Օ■■I ■ a)«a»a*

8597�9

B2/D

< BENOIST

ANNOUNCEMENT

The Benoist School of Aviation now open at St. Petersburg, Florida. The school is under the personal supervision of Tom W. Benoist and Tony Jannus.

We also conduct the first regular schedule passenger-carrying air line in the world, St. Petersburg to Tampa, Fla. Students who want to join the school and prospective agents who want their territory for the exclusive sale of our flying boats will do well to address

The New Benoist Flying Boat in Action

BENOIST AIR CRAFT COMPANY

St. Louis, Missouri or St. Petersburg, Florida

50 H.P.

160 POUNDS

GYRO MOTOR

80 H.P.

207 POUNDS

Endurance Flying Record

to Date 4hrs., 23min.

Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout

Send for Catalog

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

THE NAVY BOATS AT VERA CRUZ Send for

are equipped with Photographs of

PARAGON PROPELLERS "

The three-bladed PARAGONS used by the Navy Aviators give the highest results ever attained. The two-bladed PARAGONS are unequalled. Efficiency, Security, Satisfaction—are back of the name PARAGON—the mark of first-class equipment.

THE AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

AERONAUTICS, April 30, 1914

Page 115

SELECTING, MOUNTING AND MAINTAINING A POWER PLANT

A Lecture Before The Aeronautical Society, January 8, 1914. By H. W. ASHMUSEN

The science of flying has already advanced so far that a machine that cannot fly for six hours or more is now behind the times.

Suppose you own an aeroplane, or are about to purchase or build one for which you will soon need a power plant, that can take you up for a six-hour trip or longer, then the horsepower and fuel and oil consumption, and many _ other things, come under consideration.

Let us say that your machine belongs to that class requiring 50 (actual 50) horsepower, with oil and fuel for a six-hour trip. Such a power plant can be had that weighs 550 pounds complete, with engine and all accessories, as well as oil and gas and tanks for six hours, with about \x/2 foot square head resistance. A 75-horsepower plant may not fly you any better because there are reinforced parts to hold, in landing, a larger and heavier engine, larger tanks, and the additional fuel and oil would put the weight at least 900 pounds for a six-hour trip and, besides, one have more head resistance.

A very good showing for any aeroplane engine to make would be fuel and oil consumption of 1 pound per horsepower per hour; so, while an engine maker may state that his 100 horsepower consumes about 80 pounds per hour, perhaps it is an 80-horsepower engine or less at the speed in which it consumes that given amount. It is too bad that so many of the engine makers will overrate their engines in horsepower, rating at a speed at which they would not dare let their engines run continually for long runs.

If a maker gives you a horsepower rating, ask at what speed you get that horsepower, and then determine if your propeller would be efficient at that speed, if direct connected.

Probably the first and best step to take when ready for a power plant would be to write to several or all of the motor manufacturers and send a drawing or picture of your machine, giving as much data about your machine as you can—size, chord, camber, etc., and ask what size power plant they would recommend, what size propeller to use, size of the gasoline tank for a six-hour trip, weight of power plant complete with radiator and water (if water cooled) and all other parts; the size of radiator or any special mountings, as these add greatly to head resistance. If you can cut down 1 pound of head resistance you can carry 7 pounds of weieht in its place.

All things being equal, an air-cooled engine is most assuredly the better engine for flying purposes, and I dare predict this coming season will demonstrate the a;r-cooled engine's superiority. An engine with stationary cylinders has many advantages over the revolving cylinder type. A thing to guard against is an engine that breaks. There

Have been so many engines which actually broke crank shafts, crank cases, connecting rods, cylinders, etc., etc., that a buyer must actually guard against weak engines, and it is best to examine into the different parts that make up an engine, and satisfy himself that the maker is using the best of materials and hasn't left some weak point or two, as some makers do, and he should see the engine run a few hours at least, and take speed readings, and thus determine how reliable and steady the engine really is, and observe that the engine does not vibrate when mounted on a very light blocking, and that it does not throw oil all over, and that there are no compression grease cups and oil cups, for they are a nuisance. An engine with but one place to oil, the tank, with a single positive oiling system, is by far best, and an engine that will permit you to get into and examine the pistons, wrist pins, crank shaft and connecting rods in about fifteen minutes, and that in another fifteen minutes you can have together and running, will certainly save you a great deal of anxiety and time when you wish to examine a part, instead of an engine that will take you one or two days to do the same. The engine should have bearings that will accommodate both propeller and tractor type machine, or fly wheel for chain drive, and it would be an advantage if the engine could be set to run in either direction, right or left hand, in a few minutes.

Of course, the price of engines will vary considerable, as in all things, but while high-grade goods do cost more to make they pay in the end.

In mounting your power plant, try to get as near the three point suspension as you can so that the different stresses that fall on the machine, do not fall upon the engine. In some cases rigid mounting is best. If your engine has six or eight bolting lugs, it is probably because it vibrates too much or requires some assistance to strengthen the crank case. If the latter is true, then a cradle or frame of metal should be cast or built up and machined along two rails to within 4/1000 in. of being straight and parallel, and this frame should be so designed and ribbed as to not be distorted in fastening same to plane, otherwise a great pressure may be placed especially on the center bearings.

The propeller can be chain-driven to advantage if you use a highspeed engine and select a propeller for less speed. A short chain has advantage over a gear drive. With a chain you have less friction, and about half of the teeth on the sprockets are always in contact with the chain, and it is best to have an odd number of teeth on the driving sprocket (or driving gear), so that sprocket and chain (or driven gear) will ever keep changing relation.

The additional weight of a fly wheel and parts will be more than compensated for in correct design. With a water-cooled engine the radiator should be mounted prominently enough to allow a free passage of air through same. Mount the tanks as near the engine as you can safely, and use large enough and strong enough piping with bends enough in it to take up expansion and contraction and vibration.

If carbureter needs frequent adjustments, it is best to arrange a rod or wire so that the same can be done from the seat, and to have a direct reading speed indicator or tachometer to tell you when your setting is best. A tachometer is also a safeguard in flying, as it indicates immediately any loss of speed.

Always, first, before every start for a run, be sure to have plenty of lubricating oil in the tank and sec that it is not shut off, as more harm can come from lack of lubrication than from lack of gasoline. However, it is better that the engine starve for oil throughout all its lubricated surfaces, as it will then perhaps lose speed without damage, but if your engine has one or more places that require a squirt from the oil can, or filling up with oil or grease, don't forget them. If your engine has any exposed ball bearings, as some have, fill them full with vaseline, or, better still, house them in besides; this is to keep out moisture and grit, which would soon ruin them. When you start your engine, especially in cold weather, let is run a few minutes at slow speed to warm up. Chilled metal breaks easily.

LATEST LOOPING MACHINE.

The photograph of the aeroplane with two landing gears is that of the machine belonging to Gustav Tweer, who can land either upside

down or downside up. l'egoud is said to be building a machine of this order for his stunts,

TECHNICAL TALKS—by M. B. Sellers

AEROPLANE EFFICIENCY (Concluded)

As already stated, we can plot a curve having V for abscissas and (—+ 1) for ordin-n

ates; and by multiplying the value found on this curve for a given speed, by that speed we V2

obtain the speed factor V (—+ 1).

n

In Fig. 1, the full line ordinates are for miles per hour, and the dotted ordinates for metres per second; l'n" is taken as 1000 for metre seconds, a trial value which, on consideration, seems rather high. It would, therefore, favor the slower machine.

Now, I may have made some statements with which the reader does not agree, and I want to say something more in explanation. In dealing with aerofoils 1 have used the term efficiency for the lift ratio. And, similarly, for aeroplanes the ratio of lift to the total horizontal resistance might be termed the efficiency. In horizontal flight this resistance may be taken as the thrust of the propeller, and as one horsepower equals 375

375 HP e

mile-pounds per hour, we have: T =-,

_ V

"c" being efficiency of propeller for which we could assume a value. If we put 375 H.P.(? = P

P W W WV we have: T = —; E =-= — =-.

V D+R T P

Here the speed factor is V. But the trouble is, this equation makes no allowance for the necessary increase of head resistance, R, with speed; it would, therefore, favor the slow machine.

In Eiffel's work, in the calculation of full-sized machines from models, the equivalent resistance area. A, is taken as varying directly as the wing area, which, of course, is justified in that case; and, under those conditions, the WV

efficiency expressed by - will be the same

P

for different speeds.

But for full-sized machines, and within the limits of practice. A does not necessarily vary' as the wing area, when weight is the same (the slow machine can have just as small fuselage and landing gear, and the difference due to size of wings is unimportant).

On the other hand, it is true that "A" docs not vary exactly as the weight (as I have assumed it does), but this assumption is nearer the truth than the other.

It may be suggested that we assume "A" as

Fief. 2

 -LUU- 80 I fin uu 7//i /NT /V / P/9 // / / 5000

Miles

20

per 40 Hour 6i

constant—but this introduces other difficulties and is no nearer the truth. In Fig. 2 the V3

speed factors V and — + V are compared. ii

I shall say more on the relati.n between weight and resistance at another time.

 ioo< :>- for met I—i 1 ric units i ! i i i i 1 i 1 i i i \5 meters p.s. i i i i I :*> i i 1 i ]B 1 i f° '25 1 I i i i- 30 i I

10

miles so jper 30 hour 4o

50

60

70

ARMY TESTS FOR AEROPLANES.

The British War _ Office has decided to meet the wishes of private manufacturers and has agreed to test aeroplanes designed and built by the industry. The following sets out the nature and conditions of these tests, and is further interesting as it lays down the conditions which it is at present held in official quar-

(iv.) The constructor, when applying to have his machine tested, should state his reasonable expectation of the performances of the machine.

(v.) Aeroplanes submitted for test must be put through the whole of the tests unless damaged before their completion, or unless the Chief Inspector considers that the tests should be stopped for reasons of safety.

2. The Chief Inspector of Military Aeionautics is also prepared to examine and test aeroplanes which may 1. The Chief Inspector of Military be designed not for purely military Aeronautics is prepared, on the re- purposes, but to demonstrate some quest of an aeroplane constructor, practical or theoretical improvement to put an aeroplane through the or- in design or construction. 1 he tebts

ters a military aeroplane should fulfill. It would be of advantage to American makers to have a competition such as this practically amounts to. It would prove a selling argument :

 P. HFC ,M Va*,0, ~ Mil IT A R Y Tyff.s Light Scout Reco nna isaa nee AffopUue (a) Reconnaissance Aeroplane- (*) Fighting Aeroplane (a) Fighting Aeroplane {n) TinkaKe to give an endurance of 3l«l miles. 300 mile* 200 milt*. 2fx> milٮ 300 mile* To city .. .. Pilot only. Pilot and obvrver plus 80 IbR. U'T wirilesi e^uip- Pilot and observer plus 80 lbs. for wirele&s equip- P.U and purifier i^ndamm'u' Pilot and gunner pins 100 lbs. Range of speed 50 to S5 m.ph. I--. to 75 rap h. 35 tu 60 m p.h. 45 toQ5 m p h. 45 to 76 m.ph. To climb 3.500 feet in 5 minutes. 7 minuted. 10 minutes. 10 minute. 8 minutes. Miscellaneous qualities Capable of being elatt.-d by the Pilot sincle-hsmled. To land over a 30 ft vertical ohv&rle and pull taocV of* 100 yds. from that obstacle, the wind nut being more than 15 m p.h. A very- A elmr field of fire m every di-rcvtif.ii up to 30° F'om the line of flight. A clear field of fire in every di- y'from'' the lint of flight. 1862 sen tial.

THE MEANS SMOKE SIGNAL.

The smoke signalling device for military scouts, invented by James .Means, has met with more encouragement abroad, where Lreguet is pushing the apparatus, than here. A commandant of the French army has reported favorably to his superiors on the usefulness of the device for signalling results of range-finding shots to concealed batteries of artillery. The dots and dashes of the code can be seen with strong glasses a distance of 5 to 10 miles when the aeroplane is crossing the line of vision. To make them visible when the aeroplane is traveling parallej to the line of vision, the nozzle is turned forward and the signals are read hy the duration of the discharge. In this case the signals can not be seen at such a great distance as otherwise.

dinary military acceptance test under the following conditions:

(i.) Examination of workmanship and materials, speed test, fast and slow, climbing, weight of load carried, rolling test, and one hour's flight. The constructor must supply the pilot and passenger. For purposes of calculation weights of pilot and passenger will be 160 lbs. each.

(ii.) Stress diagrams in duplicate for the aeroplane must be sent with or before the machine. A minimum factor of safety of 6 throughout is essential.

(iii.) Xo machine will be tested for military purposes unless it fulfills the conditions of one of the types used for military purposed. These are given in attached tabic.

imposed in such cases will be at the discretion of the Chief Inspector.

3. Results of any test will be supplied to the constructor by the Chief Inspector, and will be kept secret, if desired by the constructor. Should the constructor wish to publish the result of the test, it is to be understood that the result should be published complete. Should only part of any report of the test be published, the Chief Inspector reserves the right to publish it in full.

4. The satisfactory performance of the tests laid down in paragraph 1 does not constitute a guarantee that the aeroplane in question will be purchased by Government.

5. These tests may be altered from time to time; notice will be given as early as possible of any alteration.

ASHMUSEN LATERAL

STABILITY DEVICE.

To the Editor:

During the past six years of experimenting, we have found that vertical rudders are not necessary for steering aeroplanes. Present-day types of aeroplanes can have their rudders fixed, thereby making fins or keels of them; then all that is necessary is a system for varying the head resistance at either end of wings.

The Ashmusen system consists of two small horizontal blades at each end of wings. In operating the two at one end, one pulls up and the other down to equalize the lifting and depressing effect, while the two at opposite side of 'plane remain stream-line. This system will operate for maintaining lateral balance, at offering head resistance on high side of 'plane will speed up

(or present loss of speed) on low side; and it has the added advantage in that it gives automatic banking in turning, due to the added speed of 'plane furthest from center of circle being made, and without the bad skidding effect of the rudder.

We believe this system infringes no known patents, and it is free to all to use.—Ashmusen Manufacturing Co., Motor Makers, Kings Park, N. V.

The signals arc given by puffs of lamp-black, large and small, corresponding to the dots and dashes of the Morse code. The puffs are made by utilizing the pressure of the exhaust of the engine. It has been made possible also to handle the exhaust of rotative motors.

A. lamp-black tank; 1!, exhaust pipe of flying-machine motor: C, shutter similar to the focal-plane shutter of a camera (this is normally kept shut by spring I)): E, pipe (of stream line form) leading to nozzle above the upper plane, or El to nozzle below lower plane; F, down-blast to assist gravity feed; G, wire to operator's hand.

The first tests made in service were at Ft. Riley, in November, 1912. In October. 1911, tests were made by the Signal Corps at College Park. At this stage the signals were easily read for a mile when the machine was travelling in a direction perpendicular to the line of sight of the observer, but it was impossible to decipher them when the 'plane was sailing straight away from the observer. The inventor has corrected this error by the use of a special nozzle.

KOUTCHINO INSTITUTE

The famous Institute Aerodyna-mique de Koutchino, of which Professor 1). P. Kiabouchinsky is director, has issued a handsome brochure on the occasion of the celebration of the tenth anniversary of the founding of the institute.

At Berlin there has been recently tried a signalling device using a reflecting mirror furnished with an electric lamp of 10.000 ( ?) candle-power, obtained from storage batteries. From this the light is visible during the day at a distance of about 5 miles. The complete apparatus weighs 10 pounds.

THE BLONDIN CONTROL. THE HAYOT AEROPLANE.

Claimed to be one of the most promising, practical and adaptable inventions designed to bring forth new, non-infringing and, perhaps, better control features to this end, is thai of Joseph A. Blondin, aeronautic engineer and pilot, of Los Angeles, Cal., description of which was first published in AERONAUTICS of December, 1912.

The system embodies vertical "keel-rudders" adapted to a wide-qauye skid frame, the rudder portions of which normally form part of the keel. These rudder portions are restrained from swinging inward and operate, one at a time, only in an outward direction. (See Fig. No. 1.)

In the monoplane diagrams, Nos. 2 and 3, the machines are landing at an unbalanced angle. As soon as a skid touches ground, the machines fulcrum around that point of contact and settle as shown by the arrows. Fig. 3 shows that with customary narrow-gauge running .gear (or central keel), the result would be, at least, a smashed wing. Fig. 2, having its center of gravity inside the point of contact with ground, would automatically regain balance. So much for the advantage of widely spanned skids, and consequent safe landings.

Losing lateral balance through any cause, the machine (Biplane No. 2) begins to "toboggan" in the direction of the low side. This action is resisted by a resulting air pressure against the keel and rudder on that side. Gravity (1') then acting inside this point of resistance will tend to lower the high wing and will be aided by the operation, outward, of the keel-rudder on the high-wing side (2'). This rudder will decompose the air pressure then acting against it, in two forces: one, tending to "right" the machine

The essential features of the Hayot aeroplane are: A low c. of g., a distribution of weights, giving a large moment of inertia, and a special method of supporting the wings from the fuselage, designed to overcome the objectionable results of a low c. of g.

For small inclinations, a low center of gravity exerts little righting effort, but for large inclinations the righting effect is considerable, so that it renders an aeroplane practically non-capsizable—or, at least, if overturned, it will of itself return to its normal position. A serious objection to low c. of g. is that the machine rolls and pitches. This is lessened in the Hayot machine by the breaking effect of the tandem surfaces, and also by the attachment of the wings to be described.

When, therefore, a small inclination or perturbation occurs, the wings will move in response to it, taking up a new position of equilibrium, so that the disturbing forces may be considered as acting at the point "a"—that is, as though the machine had a normally high c. of g. But for forces such as that, because of the limited motion, the wings cannot assume this position of equilibrium, the machine acts as a low c. of g. machine. Left to itself, the machine levels up and the posts assume their normal position.

To give the aeroplane a large moment of inertia, the weights are distributed along the fuselage. In front are the motors and helix, under the rear plane the pilot and controls, and about midway between these are the passenger and fuel tank. The aeroplane is, therefore, slow to respond to an air disturb-

The Hayot machine is designed to act like a high c. of g. machine for small inclinations and perturbations, and like a low c. of g. machine for large inclinations. As seen in the illustration, there are two planes tandem, the rear one smaller and set at a smaller angle of attack than the front one, thus forming a longitudinal "V." These are supported from the fuselage by the posts "h, h, h," pivoted at both ends, so that the planes may move freely forward and backward with a (sort of) parallel motion, preserving the same inclination relative to the fuselage. This movement is, however, limited by the bar "b," the end of which slides in the guide "c," as shown.

ance, therefore easy to control. The tandem planes act as a brake against pitching, and the longitudinal "V" promotes stability. The machine passes from one position of equilibrium to another, under control of pilot, without oscillation; small inadvertent movements of the controls are without appreciable effect. The position of the pilot below the wings facilitates vision and helps in landing.

An apparatus of this type is now under construction. Its dimensions are: Surface, 35 sq. m.; spread, 13 m., total length, 8.65 m.; weight, empty, 550 kg.; useful load, 450 kg.; power, 100; speed expected, 115 km. per hour.

NEW AIRCRAFT FABRIC.

A new fabric, which may be obtained in either cotton or linen, has been marketed by the Rose & Frank Co., of 136 West 21st St., New York. It can be had either bleached or unbleached, heavy or light weight, and is especially strong through >the method of running strengthening threads throughout the fabric forming large squares. Ripping of the cloth beyond one section or square of a few inches area is prevented. It is being used in the French army and on Farman, Breguet, Bleriot, Dep and R. E. P. machines. The fabric can be had in various widths.

through a side pressure exerted under the center of gravity of the machine (2'), and the other (3'), tending to turn tlie machine toward the high side, by reason of the rudder's (2') drift resistance on that side, thus increasing the speed—and consequent lift—of the low-side wing, and restoring balance. This latter action is, in its last analysis, the sole aim and accomplishment of control elements of all existing types of aeroplanes, viz., obtaining increased

lift on the low-side wing. So, in addition to this last-named power, the "Blondin system" supplies two others: one of which is automatic and, the inventor believes, capable, in itself, of restoring balance under most ordinary conditions of flight.

The system comprises the use of the usual vertical steering rudder, although it is conceivable that the latter might very well be eliminated, following a serious development of the system in question.

IN MEMORIAM.

Aero Club of Cincinnati, Aero Club of Colorado, Tufts College Aero Club, Aeronautical Society of Florida, Aero Club of Long Island, all of whose mail is returned by the Post Office: and the Pittsfield Aero Club, an affiliated club of the A. C. A., which has had no meetings for the past two years and is "as good as dead."

BLANCHARD MONOPLANE NOVEL.

The Blanchard Aerial Works of \merica has been incorporated to iuild in Omaha, Neb., a monoplane lesigned by James F. Blanchard, \L D., of 338^ S. Hill St., Los \ngeles. The idea of the inventor s to follow the lines of the bird, applying the principles of physiology md anatomy to the mechanical struc-ure.

Pressed steel in suitable form is mbstituted for the bony structure of he bird. Trussing of light steel ubing and laminated wood give a ine substitute for muscles, tendons ind ligaments. Fireproof cloth, sheet steel and aluminum take the olace of skin and feathers. The notor and radiator are substituted for heart and lungs; water, gaso-ine and the oiling system for the ymphatics and vascular system; steering wheel and controls for the lervous system. The special senses ire respresented by searchlights, wile-ess and an efficient aviator. The flexor surfaces of the wings and tail ippendages are strengthened proportionally to extensor surfaces ac-:ording to the functions they have :o perform. In this construction no wire is used.

machine gun fired, and pictures taken through them. Port holes can be closed with sliding steel doors. The machine is to be fitted with wireless outfit, searchlights and rain-vision windshield. Gas and oil tanks are mounted between pilot and motor over the center of pressure according to standard practice. Rubber rope or chain is used to transmit the power from the motor to the propellers. Air cushions are used to upholster the seats and cockpit of the fuselage.

flanges of the manifold and the carburetor. These prevent any flame from shooting out of the carburetor and setting a fire. The device works on the principle of the Davy rafety mine lamp, in that a flame will not pass through a wire gauze screen that is kept cool. By breaking up the particles of gas, a better mixture is claimed and a saving of fuel to the extent of 25 per cent.

AERIAL MARKSMANSHIP.

A rapid fire gun has been developed by the Hotchkiss firm which fires 100 shots in 9 seconds, and the tests made show that at a distance varying between 500 and 1,200 metres, 20 to 50 hits can be made on an aeroplane flying at a speed of 60 miles an hour. This is at a stationary target. It is figured that with the_ gun stationary and the target moving, assuming a dirigible of 20,000 cubic metres capacity, a greater percentage of hits would be made. Three hundred hits on a dirigible would make 600 holes, going through the envelope, which would cause a loss of gas of 1,200

Control of the machine is very simple. Ascent by pushing downward and forward of the steering wheel; descent, vice versa. Steering from right to left is accomplished by turning the wheel. Lateral balance is gained by operating a second wheel in conjunction with or independent of the steering wheel.

Landing chassis composed of two wheels and skid. Wheels are mounted on V-shaped members and suspended on twin coil springs, lying parallel with body of machine. After leaving ground, wheels can be folded upward and inward, disappearing through apertures in the body of the machine which are closed by sliding doors. Folding of wheels is accomplished by worm gears operated by the feet of the aviator.

Two three-bladed geared down propellers are used, mounted on the entering edge of main planes, five and one-half feet from sides of fuselage.

The seat of the observation officer can be turned from side to side or raised and lowered similar to a piano stool. This method of mounting the seat affords a wide scope of vision. The machine gun of demountable form, which may be raised and lowered or turned from side to side, is mounted on the cowl directly in front of the observation officer. Two port holes are built in the bottom of the fuselage just below the pilot and observation officer. Bombs may be dropped, the

cm. per hour. This would not involve an immediate fall, but would necessitate quick landing. The great trouble is in estimating the distance between two aerial combatants, and the solution is considered to be in very rapid and continuous firing. If the aeroplane is at a distance of 2,500 metres and the balloon estimates the range as 2,000, in 1 minute the aeroplane would advance 1,500 metres. Owing to the difference in bulk, the dirigible would be at a disadvantage.

KEMP BOAT OUTFIT.

Inquiries for air power plants for small hydros and canoes will be interested in the special outfit of the Kemp Machine Works, all complete on one base and ready to be bolted to a boat or even a sled or auto. The outfit includes a Kemp 2-cylin-der, 16-h.p. motor, mounted on a hardwood base 24 by 42 in.

All the purchaser has to do is to bore six holes at suitable points in this base, bolt to his boat or sled, connect up the gasoline tank, and turn the starting crank. Height from top of base to center of propeller shaft is 3 ft. The diameter of the propeller is, in most cases, 6 ft. However, propellers best suited to the individual machine are supplied, and diameter may vary somewhat from 6 ft., with corresponding change in pitch. The_ weight of the entire outfit complete is 156 lbs.

The motor is of standard 4-cycle type, 4-in. bore and stroke. Cylinders are semi-steel, with flanges turned from the solid stock, insuring uniformity ' and equal expansion with efficient cooling. The natural draft of the propeller will cool the motor perfectly under any conditions, it is claimed. On boats some shelter from the sun should be provided over motor. The Schebler carburetor and Rhoades unit spark system are standard equipment.

The price of the complete outfit, including motor, propeller, countershaft, chain _ drive, starting crank, and everything shown in cut, together with coil and batteries, is S265 net, f. o. b. cars Muncie.

S. P. VAPORIZER AND GAS SAVER.

There has been placed on the market by the S. P. Vaporizer Co., 125 East 23d St., New York, a device to prevent backfires into the carburetor and to break up the mixture for better burning. The device consists of a double wire gauze screen, dome shaped, with a button of absorbent material between the two screens in the center. The screens are imbedded in a sheet lead gasket adapted to fit between the

MILITARY AERONAUTICS.

San Diego, Cal., April 26.—Capt. The flights at the S. C. A. S., Cowan, ( ommander of the First San Diego, for the two weeks end-Aero Corps, received orders to-day ing April 11, 1914, were:

tice the aviator became quite expert in dropping these cards close to the battery, although at first some of them went quite wide of the mark, and on the first day two of them

Captain Arthur S. Cowan, charge of the army aviation work

429.

The card had marked on it a series of parellel lines, which were supposed to aid the observer to indicate

at San Diego, has'received orders DIRECTING ARTILLERY the amount over or short. It was to be prepared with the five ma- FTRF FROM 'PLANFS found, however, that a plain card chines now in service in the army r^nii^o. was more satisfactory, tiie measure-in view or the present activities in ~ln trials made by the artillery at ments of the amount over or short Mexico. The equipment includes Fort Ri'e>'- in connection with aero- being shown in terms of the bracket four Burgess tractors Renault 70 planes for the purpose of testing lajc] down on the ground. The white engines, and a Curtiss tractor with tllejr adaptability in getting ranges cards were difficult to see. The red 100 h.p. Curtiss motor. In Captain an(1, reporting results of firing, a and green were much more visible, Cowan's command are 10 cer ified card ,syste٠was. successfully em- and there was little difference be-militirv aviators 1 more wVm -ire ployed by the aviators, Milling and twecn them.

capabbTof S'but X have not a»d their °hs^' The system of signaling from the

received the title of militarv aviator, crsA , . . „ՠ . . enilarp aeroplanes by means of making a

and 86 men in the aviation detach- Cards aboVl 11 »e inches square, S]0rt turn t0 ngnt or ]eft was pro.

nent aviation detach of pasteboard and 0f various colors nounced by the aviators to be im-

The Burcress Co the Wrie-ht and ~7red,' g,reen an,d whl,te—were used- practicable, and was, therefore,

i lie J_.urge.ss u„ t he \\ right ana Attached to each card was a wagon abandoned

Curtiss companies have received nut fastened on by a piece of wire aL,anaolea- _

orders to be prepared to turn out attached to a corner of the card.

machines at quick notice. Two of i«efore dropping, each card was bent ^ T, , _ . ,

the Dunne type are already on hand ;nto an s]lape, so that it rotated F)e Lloyd Thompson is now loop-

at Marblehead available for use. It m falling, ensuring it being seen >"g tne looP m Los Angeles with a

is not known which type the gov- fr0m any"angle. After a little prac- Day tractor, Hall-Scott motor, eminent will order, should occasion arise. A Wright tractor, with 100

h.p Daimler engine, will be deliv- NAVAL AIRCRAFT SEARCH VERA CRUZ HARBOR.

ered to the armv shortly from Day- .

ton, this having been ordered a Vera Cruz, April 26.—Lieut. Bel- officers and men, so far, has been

long time ago, as is well known. lenger reconnoitered the San Fran- in getting shops, sheds, hangars and

The governent has also been of- cisco railroad bridge about 25 miles all aeroplane paraphernalia in good

fered the services of the 44 aviators inland. Both he and Ensign Stolz shape for carrying on the work of

—members of the U S Aviation were up 40 and 50 minutes, respec- instruction and experimentation.

Reserve, composed of practical Uvely, soaring over and around Vera 0n Sullday April 19th, about

civilian flyers from all over the ( r"Z- Admiral Fletcher reported:, ]2.30 p M & radio message was

country, organized by A. B. Lambert ^J٠*lJ£l* T^aCZ 8ULt u*a

received to transfer a section of the

the1" nr ncinal^concern's5 will have Balmoral. Fires along railroad track officers and men for operation afloat

their bandcP f„11 fill L^rl t0 JalaPa- Sout» of Vera Cruz the 0r aSn0re W3S transferred at °nce-

\c \hl I I . aeronaut saw the railroad bridges at One of the Mississippi's lower booms

As the government can not ac- Rico Moreno, on road to water was ri^ed on the Birmingham for

cept private offers of aeroplanes and works burning and also two bridges hoisting the machines out and in 11 1? ^at considerable money Saw n0 soidiers soutll of Vera assembled and ready for transfer.

will be_ spent in the trade. Foreign Cruz, or native infringing machines can be used by the government under

dy

At 6:30 A. M. next morning the Birmingham went alongside of the dock and received the outfit and

ihe rule of eminent domain, pav- The battleship Mississippi landed ,°Ji' „ ment for damages to be awarded by marines on April 26 at Vera Cruz J^" I, cm- :„ rtlf^l' nf this" a court of appraisers. CSee AFRO and two flying boats made scouting ^7^^ Aeroplane Section.

to establish a flying machine service. A communication from Lt. Comdr. First Lieut. Mcllvaine, U. S. M.

The new corps will begin operation Mustin, U. S. N.. commanding the C, has been left m charge of the

with a double tractor biplane, which U. S. S. Mississippi, shows the remaining outfits, at Pensacola, with

Francis has tried out. mobility and characteristic alertness 23 men and 7 marines.

_ of the Navy Aeronautic Service This evidence of flexibility in the

*9«;r» nnn aPAIM when acting under emergency orders. as Vet embryonic aeronautic organ-

It>Z;)U,UUU AUA1IM. The Mississippi has been in ser- ization of the navy, is encouraging

The $50,000 which was put back vice as an aeronautic experiment as the sudden orders were not an- in the aviation appropriation by the shin at Bensacola since the designa- ticipated and the outfits used are Senate has been cut out in the con- tion of that abandoned Navy Yard not the latest developments which i^rence, leaving the amount$250,- as the U. S. Navy Aeronautic Sta- ;s one of the chief aims of the new

tion and the chief interest of her station to test and perfect.

MILES FLIES 11,000 FEET WITH NEW MOISANT— LOOPS THE LOOP.

THE BENOIST AIR LINE.

ehanical troubles. As the operation jailed for 84 miles a day and as there were numerous other flights

In the entire season of three

.After demonstrating the standard On April 24 Niles again cut capers ڮ*% 'four^days' because" of 1ټ/p>

oisant 50 Gnome monoplane of the in the air with the new Moisant. ° ^ ^^js tose ofjK-

dtiebird" type designed by Kant- This machine and the other new one

ar similar to the machine used by of this type in the works have been ,

ood in his flight to Washington, offered to the U. S War Depart- tach day for the few machines'^nv

1 April 19, making complete loops, ment. ilucrta is said to have three ,,ioveri ,hP ln,7,J|l' f,, ih ,„ „

il dives and sidewise turns, Niles Moisant monoplanes, all of which ran 1 Z 1 TnnnJI L

■ok out the new Kantner machine have been reported as destroyed by both machine, no v i.dl „ "It

i the 21st and flew it to 11,000 a storm. Villa had one Curtiss !nd'l ։"" ^f\٦quot; sfta"^overhauled

֥t, qualifying for the 8,000 foot tvoe biplane and a Moisa.it mono- exSib ion and oasseneer cnr,v°hJ

st demanded by the Carranza plane. The new one just demon- fvo-k \,, t"fr, ?٠ ? ٭ Y 8

rent, W. A. Staats, who purchased strated and the one in the works ^sNver" caSed some two « "a

,e machine after the flight. This intended for the Constitutionalists £٠ /l" f r ,

the second to have been purchased cannot now be delivered on account ! dl'^tre,,^J r "

f the rebel leader and a third of the embargo and the deposits XZf n-L*, 1" " ' , i'^'

to be delivered shortly. Kantner made will be held subject to possi- \P1***'* > a s3e"?"f ha^

,„self took up Staats fater for 15 ble future delivery. To deliver *^Tess\Tsiness amt JeT o clm-

intites to 1,500 feet, at which point these during the course of a war parath el ,itt] j tonnage but was

le machine, painted a dull gray, of_ co.ur_s1ei'.. ^e cnmmal and very valuable.

lese parts, nonie.

tnan a ycai agu. ^ , , tor seini-.--

tenants Juan P. Aldasoro, hduardo thg motors used were old Roberts Aldasoro and Iloracio Ruiz, sixes it is not unreasonable that a

small amount of replacement should

NAUTICAL CONGRESS.

«t » -r a -r-.T-.z-> be necessary. Most of these repairs INTERNATIONAL AERO- were confined to piston rings and a

few small ball-bearings and on the old-style motors to spiral gears that wore out.

Send for the new brochure number 20, just issued by the Benoist Aircraft Co., St. Louis.

FEBRUARY IMPORTS AND EXPORTS.

Imports—none during February. An International Aeronautical

or 8 months imports totaled $26,233 Congress has been organized for or parts. Same period 1913,$51,- the purpose of holding a meeting

96. during the Panama-Pacific Exposi-

Exports of Domestic Make—4 .t,on in. !915" P3!?^5

eroplanes and parts, valued at ue r,cac ՠ eslf mad«j ,f Poss.be, etc.,

21,466. For 8 months, total was conducted along the same line as

S and „Ari<i vain* SQn Ficr tlie Uvo Previous congresses held m

,J<J ■ j i / ll§" Chicago in 1893 and in New York

ires for same period last year, ; 19g- T, intercsted may join 9,944 and $89,097 respectively. AERO MART AVIATORS PAY ATTENTION, PLEASE.—Voting man, 20, Russian tudent, having good idea of some upon the payment of$5, and will

Exports of Foreign—None. For receive a bound volume containing s

months ending February, 1 and the proceedings, admittance to the ncw inventions0, seeks position with

iarts, at $4,949. Same period last meetings, and other privileges. aviator for general service to learn ear, 9 and parts,$49,442. A meeting of the organizers will t(iat ijne. Wages no object llanv

In Warehouse—None. On Feb- be held June 10 m New \ ork. The Raisan. 50-52 "East 99th St, New

nary 28. 1913, there were 4, valued olhce of the Congress is 29 V\ est York.

» $13,884. 39th street, New York.__ - Scientific organizations from all ^m^^^ r over the world have been invited . 11I1°:h-P- MO I OR for sale. Spec- Gilpatric's pilot "license" has been to send delegates, and men of note «11 y buiIt 8 cylinder V 4j* by;, uspended for 4 months as a penalty m aeronautics from every part of «ater cooled built by Christie Ma- or flying over New York City. the world will be officers and com- chine o for C K. Hamilton. mitteemen. i'lown by hi in at Belmont and Sac- """"»" ("W Sc.nnn Perfect ramento. Cost$5,000. Perfect condition, ready to put in 'plane. Can be seen any day. Run not

VIEW INCORPORATIONS T0 LESSEN ,^T^-T more "than",*" hours total in flight.

Lincoln Beachey, Inc.. of Chi- SKIN FRICTION. $I;O„0. caslimily.^Address Hamilton, .ago: capital stock,$2,500, for pro- plonl tests for skin friction re-

c/'o AERONAUTICS.

notions of exhibition flying, racing. tcnt'lv'niade bySlM. Maurant and ִc. Robert Frankel, William II. ^ismon?, eit yis learned that the MORANE-SAULNIER — Latest 'Bill" Pickens and Albert G. Long. fr;ction 0f the air on a well varnish- type. Set of detailed working draw-Canadian Aviation Co., Ltd., To- ed aeroplane fabric is about the ings for sale at $200. Sale exclu-onto Can$5C 000. for he purpose same as that on polished steel hut s.ve. Morane-Saulmer holds best ifmanufacUnrin teaching, selling, that on the ordinary yellow balloon records cross-country. and speed fly-,t rnaiiuiactuiin, eauiN , s, greater by 70 per cent. ing. Owner of drawings can super-ָh.pitions, etc. William A. Dean is tan."t^1^ ;n the>reiisi£nce rcla. intend construction. Address A. F.,

tively to the increase in speed is not care AERONAUTICS, 250 \\ .

uniform. 54th St.. New York.

Atlantic Aerial Navigation Co.. "amden, N. L, $125,000. Kenneth uid Donald Robertson and James McCutcheon. The Ilvdro Airship Co. is putting up a building 100 by 12S ft. at West 21st St. and Surf Ave., Brooklyn, at 3i cost of$3,000.

OUICK FOR CASH—Two Curtiss-type double surface aeroplanes, each with 50-h.p. Roberts motor; both outfits in flying shape. Can be seen any time. Everything complete; $700 for the two outfits for quick sale: B., care AERONAUTICS.  MODEL NOTES the Mclaughlin tractor hydro. By Harry G. Schultz, il/We/ Editor. The model shown in the accompanying drawing was constructed by George F. McLaughlin of Brooklyn, N. Y., one of the most enthusiastic members of the "Aero Science Club." This model is of high finish and construction and ought to be a verv successful flyer. Frame.—The two 30-in. main sticks for the frame are cut from ing). Both spars and ribs are of bamboo. Curved and rear edges of planes may be made with light piano wire. It is desirable to use heavy bamboo paper coated with varnish for the wing covering. Eight struts each 4J/2 in. in length, are employed between the planes, these are cut stream line, from 3/32 in. x J4 in- spruce, tapering Trajcfor Hydro pontoons as light as possible, not taking into consideration the loss" of efficiency when the pontoons are warped out of shape, and not considering the damaging effect on the| pontoons when a hard landing is sometimes made on the earth. The cardboard pontoons were designed to eliminate as far as possible these defects. Three pontoons of same size are used, two at forward end of machine and one at the rear, below the tail. Greatest depth of! pontoon, \y& in.; greatest length.I <\y2 in.; uniform width \y2 in. A coat of varnish will make therni waterproof and another coat ofj aluminum paint will improve thw appearance. Two aluminum tubes.i 1/16 in., 1J4 in. long are runl through the tops of each of tht* pontoons for attachment to the| frame. Where the tubes enter the pontoons, ambroid will keep out the water. Light piano wire is used! for bracing and attaching the pontoons. Solder is used to connect the wires. Attachment is made tc pontoons by running the wire through the aluminum tubes. Rubber—Fifty feet of flat rubbei is used, divided into 10 strands on each side, each 2l/2 ft. long. De pending on material used, which legulates the weight of the machine it may be found less rubber thai" this will do. Propellers.—Two 8 in. propellers are used. Carved or bent wood. These are attached to bearings scj that in case of breakage they car be easily replaced. Keep plenty oi oil on the bearings, etc., to prevenl the rust. 3/16-in. x J-2-in. spruce, tapered to about 3/16 in. x % in. in the ends. Braces of light piano wire hold the main sticks 4 in, apart. These braces, are formed (as shown on drawing) at one end for the propeller bearing and at the rear of tne machine for the hooks for rubber. Two intermediate braces of spruce or bamboo are placed between the main sticks at regular intervals and the frame guyed with light steel wire. The bearings project 2 in. beyond the frame at each side, making a total distance of 8 in. between bearings. The bearing for propeller is but a piece of brass tube soldered along the piano wire braces. Care should be taken that the bearing is in line with the hooks for rubber at the rear of machine. The brace at rear of the frame is arranged to permit the hooks for rubber to project 1 in. beyond the frame at each side, making a total distance of 6 in. between the hooks. The span of the main planes is 24 in. and the chord 5 in. except at the center where it is 4 in. (shown on draw- from the middle along the rear edge down to about 3/32 in. round at the ends. Four struts are placed between the planes immediately over the main frame, and two struts 6 in, from these at each side. Light steel wire is guyed between the struts. Rear Plane.—This plane or tail is flat, greatest length 12 in.; width at center 4 in.; bamboo ribs 2 in. apart. A fin or rudder of aluminum is attached to the tail as shown on the drawing. Pontoons.—The method of pontoon construction is original with tiiis constructor, the pontoons being constructed as follows: These pontoons are made from cardboard (about the thickness of an ordinary business card) to the shape shown, and dimensions given, and cement the parts together with ambroid. Cardboard pontoons keep their shape and are not as heavy as one may imagine and it is possible to form the cardboard into all sorts of shapes not possible by other means of construction. Model builders attach two much importance on having Model Notes. Under the auspices of the "Aerc Science Club" an excellent exhibi tion of model aeroplanes, gliders and full sized machines was held at the 7lst Regiment Armory, on April 22nd, 23rd, and 24th, in connection with the "Spring Festival." The models were all highly finished and of excellent workmanship. Among the models exhibited were a tractor hydro-biplane of excellent workmanship by George F. McLaughlin; a speedy distance and altitude flyer by George B. Post, a model glider by Frank Schober, world's record hydro and "controllability of flight" models by George A. Cavanagh, and R. O. G. model by Andrew Surini and "Wading River" racers by Harry Schultz and George Bauer. Much interest was also evidenced in the model "Oscillators" demonstrated by Mr. Blomquist and he was recipient of many inquiries regarding the same. The full-sized machines exhibited consisted of the Sloane No. 50 h.p. Deperdussin monoplane flown over New York City by Gilpatric on April 14th, the Schmitt military monoplane, and a diminutive, monoplane of excellent construction by Harry Herzog and Cortlandt S. Barker The machines attracted much attention and, the exhibition was a great success in every way. DEPENDABLE POWER AT A DSABLE PRICE For nearly lour years we have been building air-cooled aeroplane motors, seeking constantly to make the best motor that could be built, incorporating every improvement that experience could suggest. Our 1914 models approach motor perfection. Kemp air cooling does cool, and we can prove it. <J This year we are bringing out a new model of 8 cylinders and 75 H. P., which will be the finished product of all our experience. It has the most compact and efficient fan cooling system yet devised, and can be set down in the hull of flying boats or otherwise enclosed without affecting its cooling ability. *I The demand for our motors, based on their merits and not on extravagant advertising claims, has forced us to double our output this year. We shall take advantage of the consequent saving in manufacturing to fix new prices, which now as always will be based on cost plus a moderate profit. When you buy a Kemp motor you are buying all motor, not graft, waste, extravagance, mismanagement, and exorbitant profit. The 1914 prices are: Model G-2 16 h. p.,$200; Model 1-4 35 h.p., $450; Model H-6 55 h.p..$600; Model J-8 75 h.p., $1250. These prices, which include full motor equipment and the famous Paragon propeller, are strictly net and the same to all. Beware of the man of many prices and fake discounts. Quality merchandise is always sold at a fixed and publicly known price. May we send you a catalog? KEMP MACHINE WORKS, Muncie, Ind. ^Thomas School OF AVIATION OFFERS SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES Address, Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. BATH, N. Y. NVENT0RS' MODELS Constructed of any material Estimates made from drawings. Low prices. H. C. BROWN, Machinist PARK AVENUE -:- BROOKLYN, N. Y. WE ARE HEADQUARTE fox model aeroplanes, accessories anil supplk Very complete catalog free on request Wading River Mfg. Go. Wading River, N. Y. Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs EL ARC0 RADIATOR COMPANY 64th St. & West End Ave., New York City Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators cf all types LA MURIEN I SMOKE II THE ■ FAMOUS ■ CIGARS ■ Made in all sizes from$6.00 to $15.00 per 100 HIGHEST QUALITY HAVANA CIGARS ADOLPH HIRTENSTE1N, 330 Fourth Av., New York Mention Aeronauties I I SL0ANE SCHOOL OF AVIATION Superior Training MONOPLANES and FLYING-BOATS -Address- Sloane Aeroplane Co. 1733 Broadway New York The Philadelphia Model Aero Club fast progressing. The little mag-inc published by this club and own as the "Model Aero Quar-rly" is growing rapidly both in :e and quality. It is edited by illiam J. Hewitt, the able secrc-ry of the club, and deals with >dels, records, notes and any her matters of interest to the idel enthusiasts. Altogether it is very interesting little brochure. AERO SCIENCE CLUB BULLETIN III. The last few meetings of the \ero Science Club" have been a eat success. They were well at-nded and the club is rapidly be-ming a strong organization. At the first meeting, held on April 4th, the officers were elected as follows: Charles V. Obst, president: George Bauer, vice-president; Frank Scho-ber, 2nd vice-president: George A. Cavanagh, 3rd vice-president; Harry G. Schultz, secretary; Andrew Su-rini, librarian. Arrangements have been made for an intercity model flying contest to be held on May 30th, 1914, at Church Ave. and 91st St., Brooklyn, N. Y. Five medals have been offered as prizes and there is a likelihood of more prizes being offered. The contests are for duration from the hand and duration rising from the ground. These contests are open to every one. No admittance fee is charged. A cordial invitation to attend and compete is hereby extended to the Philadelphia Model Aero Club, the Boston. Schenectady and other mo.dcl flyers. Any flyers having intentions of entering please notify Harry Schultz, secretary Aero Science Club, 23 West 106th St., Xew York City, N. Y. 29 West 39th Street, New York OFFICIAL BULLETIN. Next General Meeting. The next general meeting will be held May 14. It is expected that George Clifton will deliver his postponed lecture on "Aerial Photography" at this meeting. The evening will also be devoted to late developments in aeronautics as portrayed by lantern pictures of new aircraft and accessories, with a popular series of pictures of general aeronautic interest. The next scheduled meeting thereafter will be held on June 11. New Members. George Kudlort, 365 West 5()th street, New ^ ork; J. C. Cadegan, M.D., Glace ISay, N. S.; A. P. Prooks, N. Y. Athletic Club: Otto Pennekamper, 2(17) 7th avenue, New York; L. K. Hunt, 179 Clinton place, Newark, N. J. Data Sheets. Thf first of the data sheets have been sent out. These cover strengths of wire and cable, horsepower formulae and charts, formula for calculating length of chain, horsepower table, table of decimal equivalents, metric system equivalents, airhole formula and table of lifting power of gases. The following manufacturing companies have kindly co-operated and have supplied data sheets of the same standard size covering their materials: Hess-Pright Mfg. Co. New Departure Mfg. Co. Other companies which have agreed to furnish data sheets are: Standard Roller Hearing Co. Posch Magneto Co. Whitney Mfg. Co. Gray & Davis. National Tube Co. Edison Lamp Works. Lavigne Mfg. Co. Power Roller Bearing Co. Hyatt Roller Pearing Co. Leather loose-leaf books may be had for binding these data sheets at$2, provided a number _ of orders can be secured at one time.

The data sheets are issued free to members as fast as they can be prepared.

Membership dues in The Aeronautical Society are $10 a year, no initiation fee. Members receive data sheets, the magazine, AERONAUTICS, engraved certificate of membership, free monthly lectures. For further information address the Secretary. ^e*o Club ^NNSYLVA*^ r OFFICIAL BULLETIN OFFICERS. Clarence P. Wynne, President. Jos. A. Steinmetz, ist Vice-President. Wm. D. Harris, 2nd Vice-President. George S. Gassner, Secretary Laurence Maresch, Treasurer. DIRECTORS. Arthur T. Atherholt. Harold H. Knerr. 11. F. Pamberger. Wm. II. Sheahan. Dr. Samuel C. Falls. Walter S. Wheeler. Office of the Club, Cellevue-Stratford, Phila., Pa. The general meeting of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania, held at the Franklin Institute on March 26, 1914, proved to be a particularly successful meeting due to the very interesting paper read by Colonel Samuel Reber, U. S. A., during his lecture on "Recent Progress in Military Aeronautics." Colonel Reber covered the field very fully, not only during the course of the reading of his paper, but while showing many interesting lantern slides which covered aviation in the foreign countries as well as at home, and his paper likewise took up the development abroad as well as here. The meeting of the club on Friday evening, April 3, was addressed by Henry W'oodhouse, editor of "Flying," who chose tor his subject "The Meaning and Influence of the Recent Developments in Aeronautics." As Mr. W'oodhouse is, perhaps, one of the best informed men on the subject of aeronautics in America, his talk was particularly instructive as well as interesting, and many points showing the great development from scientific, commercial and sporting standpoints were brought out by him. At the end of his talk, Mr. Woodhouse suggested in connection with the "Around the World Race" that a machine be entered in the name of the city of Philadelphia, which would prove a far-reaching advertising advantage due to the publicity that it would bring forth. Mr. Wynne, the president of the club, took up the subject enthusiastically and a movement is on foot to raise$50,000 for this purpose, the thought being that $35,000 would he required to manufacture, equip a maintain the machine and extra pa in the race, while the additio$15,000 should be offered as pri of events centering in l'hiladelp during the course of the race, ll the intention of those in charge this project to make their entry the race conditional upon the offic-of the race agreeing to change route so that Philadelphia will one of the control points and suggestion has been made that order to make it a State as well a city enterprise, that some of money he used in offering pri for the fastest time made across State of Pennsylvania, say fr Pittsburgh to Philadelphia.

The matter is to be taken up w the various trade and business me organizations and for that rea: the president of the club is to point a committee to have charge all such negotiations.

The next meeting of the club \ be held on Friday evening, May at the Pellevue Stratford, at wh time it is expected that the em tainment committee will have prominent speaker to address members, and as this is the 1 meeting of this character until af the summer recess, it is expec that there will be a large tendance.

The ballooning season will o; during the last week of April i as many engagements have aire; been made for the use of the I loon, it is expected that great terest will be taken in this sp during the coming season.

Dinner.

An informal dinner, held on April 16, was attended by 70 members and guests. The speakers were: Hudson Maxim; ()rrel A. Parker, toastmaster; Captain Thos. S. Paid-win, Leo Stevens, Walter L. Prock. A most enjoyable time was had by all present. It was voted a success, and it is urged that these informal dinners he held at frequent intervals.

Catalog File.

A catalog file has been inaugurated. In this will be found the catalogs, data sheets and other printed matter of aeroplane, motor and accessories' makers and dealers.

Every manufacturer is requested to keep this file complete with the latest bulletins and pamphlets of his goods.

LEO STEVENS IN TH AIR.

A. I.eo Stevens piloted a mov picture person from New Roclu to Prookville, L. L, on April after rescuing the young lady ii thrilling movement from the r of a building where she had bi entrapped by wily masculine perso "Doctor Churick" reports the f most satisfactory.

1R0XAUTICS, April 30, 1914

Page 125

blished semi-monthly in the best interests of Aero-.itics

by

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th Street New York Telephone, Columbus 8721 Cable, Aeronautics, New York

RNEST L. JONES

B. SELLERS, \RRY SCHULTZ,

\. BEIER,

Editor Technical Editor Model Editor Advertising

ttered as Second Class Mail Matter, September 22, 38, under the Act of March 3, 1879. $3.00 a year, cents a Copy. ֳtage free in the United States, Hawaii, the Philip-les and Porto Rico. 25 Cents extra for Canada d Mexico. 50 Cents extra for all other countries. le magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each jnth. All copy must be received 6 days before te of publication. If proof is to be shown, allow-ce must be made for receipt and return. ake all checks and money orders free of exchange d payable to AERONAUTICS PRESS. lbscribers will kindly notify this office if discon-luance is desired at the end of their subscription riod, otherwise it will be assumed that their sub-ription is to be continued. I naiad I Aeronautical Cloth AND Aero Varnish + t + We were the first in the field, * and the test of time is proving J that our product is the best. * * * * * *!* + ■J Sample Book A-6, Data and Prices on Request the c. e. conover co. MANUFACTURERS 101 franklin street, new york j o 5 3 1 I N looping the loop flying upside down side roll, etc. >pen for engagement Moisant International Aviators 1790 Broadway, New York From LA CONQVETE DE L'AJIi Brussels, Belgium Five or six months ago 31. Bregnet, of Paris, acquired a license for France of n system invented by an American, Mr. Means, and they have not delayed in applying it to their biplanes. Underneath one finds a reservoir of lamp black of a capacity of ■_'(! litres. There is also a reservoir of compressed air which is kept filled by a small air pump. A tube connects the two tanks. In this tube is a valve which is operated by the observer. A pull of one second makes a dot—a pull of three seconds makes a dash. Thus is the Morse code revealed against the sky. From L'ILLUSTRATION. Paris An American engineer, Mr. Means, lias invented for the service of military scouting: on hoard aeroplanes a system of optical telegraphy of remarkable simplicity. The signals Morse are shown against the sky with lamp black. FOR 1.1CESSK APPLY TO james means 196 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. AERO ENGINEERING DATA TABLE OF DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS 8ths, 16ths, 32ds, 64ths of an inch  8ths. n/32 = .34375 21/64 = .328125 Ys = .125 13/32 = .40625 2%4 = .359375 X = .250 15/32 = .46875 2%4 .390625 % X % % % = .375 .500 .625 .750 .875 17/32 19/32 21/32 2%2 2%2 = 53125 .59375 .65625 .71875 .78125 2%4 2%4. 31/64 3%4 8%4 = .421875 .453125 .484375 .515625 .546875 16ths. 27/32 = .84375 3%4 = .578125 VlG - .0625 2%2 = .90625 3%4 = .609375 3/lG 5/lG 7/l6 %6 n/l6 13/l6 = .1875 .3125 .4375 .5625 .6875 .8125 31/32 = .96875 64ths. i/64 = .0 1 56 25 %.t = .046875 %4 = .078125 41/o4 iS/m 4%4 47/64 4%4 = .640625 .671875 .703125 .734375 .765625 15/l6 = .9375 %4 .109375 51/64 - .796875 V32 %2 32ds. = .03125 = .09375 %4 ^04 13/G4 = .140625 .171875 .203125 5%4 5%4 57/04 = .828125 .859375 .890625 %2 = .15625 15/G4 = .234375 5%4 = .921875 %2 = .21875 17/G4 = .265625 61/64 .953125 %2 = .28125 19/g4 = .296875 6%4 = .984375 GUY WIRE AND CABLE DATA. Aeronautical cord consists of a number (usually 19) of fine wires of great strength stranded, together. It is furnished in five diameters, with a minimum thickness of 1/32" and a maximum of 1/8". The strengths of the different sizes run, approximately from 200 tc 2,300 pounds. For steering gear a more flexible cord is provided. This is composed of six strands of seven wires each, with a center of either cotton or wire, as ordered. The cord with the cotton center is considered more pliable than that with the center composed of wire. The standard sizes for the flexible cord are 1/16", 3/32" and 1/8", other sizes being made to order. Wire differs from cord in that it consists of a single wire instead of a number of wires twisted together. Like the wires in the cord, it is made from the highest grade of steel and given a plated finish that secures best results in soldering. This wire is made in 12 sizes. Care should be taken by users to make good connections, so that the entire strength of the steel can be developed. The following tables (Roebling) give information as to strength and we:ghts: ADVERTISING TALKS—IV. Does the trade have on its mailing list for semi-monthly distribution the names of commanding officers, heads of departments, chief aviators, school instructors, official librarians, etc., in the armies, navies and governmental branches of the United States, Italy, France, GALVANIZED AVIATOR CORD  Diameter. No. of Wires. Approximate breaking strength in pounds. Weight ir pounds pe 100 reet. X" 19 8,300 13.80 w 19 3,500 7.20 %2// 19 3,000 5.50 %" 19 2,300 3.60 %4" 19 1,465 2.80 %2» 19 800 2.00 Vie" 19 500 0.96 VS2" 7 200 0.35 EYTRA FLEXIBLE GALVANIZED AVIATOR COR 6x7 Cotton Center.  —- _ — — ------- Size. Approximate breaking strength in pounds. Weight in pounds per 100 feet. 3/l6" 3,000 5.35 Vs" 1,015 2.35 %2" 780 1.50 Vi6" 420 .84 6x7 Wire Center. 3/i6" 3,200 6.15 1,235 2.65 %2" 930 1.70 VW 530 1.03 SPECIAL HIGH STRENGTH PLATED AVIATOR WIl NO.B.C&S. r Gauge. )iameter. Approximate breaking strength in pounds. Weight i pounds pe 100 feet.' 10 .102 2,000 2.91 11 .091 1,620 2.27 12 .081 1,300 1.82 13 .072 1,040 1.45 14 .064 830 1.13 15 .057 685 .891 16 051 540 .718 17 .045 425 „.555 18 .040 340 .436 19 .036 280 .355 20 .032 225 .264 21 .028 175 .227 Austria, England, Japan, Russia, Greece, Be gium, etc.? Through the reading and advertising pag<-of AERONAUTICS all these are reached wit unbiased information, and for less than would cost the advertiser for printing ar. postage on his own circular matter. Leading Sportsmen use a Stevens Outfit AIRSHIPS, AEROPLANES AND BALLOONS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION USED BY NINETY-FIVE PER CENT. OF THE CLUBS IN THIS COUNTRY AND CANADA GAS GENERATORS, PARACHUTES, SAFETY-PACKS If It's in the Aerial Line, Let Me Estimate Box 181, Mad. Sq., New York IEBEBSS£SBBKEBB£f&B!EBBBBBB^!2BBBEflB@HBflflflBBflBBnBflflBEEBEBBBBae! In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. IflBBaBaBBflBBBHlBflBBBEflBBflEflflflBBUflBBflBBflSBflBBflBBSSBflBaflflBBBBSjl Aeronaut Leo Stevens | Leading Balloon Builder g of the World f Balloons j to carry One to 5 Fifty Passengers Send sketch or model for FRKE search of Patent Office record. Write lor our Guide Books and What to Invent with valuable List of lovenlions Wanted sent Free. Send for our speciil list of p'i/es offered for Aeroplanes.$600,000 Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of Patents in Airships, 10 cents each.

PATENTS

SECURED or FEE RETURNED VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY Mai"ofte: 724^l^T%T^EET'i!w-

PATENTS PATENTS

C. L. PARKER

Ex-member Examining Corps, U. S. Patent Office Attorney-at-L«w and Solicitor of Patents

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bids. WASHINGTON, D. C.

THAT PROTECT AND PAY nnr BOOKS, ADVICE AND SEARCHES r KtL.

Send sketch or model for search. Highest References Best Results, Promptness Assured.

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawy< 624 F Street, N. W. Washington, D.

FREE

I will attach my Auto- PRP V* matic Balancing; Mechan- AYmjmu ism Patent No. 1,092,888 to first three aeroplanes without charge. The most simple and efficient for this purpose.

A. AHLBRECHT

1 Chianti Street E. E. Pittsburgh, Pa.

Frederick W. Bark!

Attorney and Expert PATENTS, TRADE MARKS AND DESIGN 28 Years in Practi

Cases pre/tared and prosecuted with the ureatest care and thoroughness, to ensuie broad scope and validitu

Direct Connections in Foreign Countries 113 Broadway, New Yi

BOLAND AEROPLANE AND MOTOR COMPANY

THE BOLAND MOTOR

8 cyl. " V " type 6o H.P. 240 pounds.

RELIABILITY DURABILITY

MAXIMUM POWER. MINIMUM WEIGHT.

THE BOLAND TAILLESS BIPLANE

equipped with the Boland Control (two movements) and BOLAND MOTOR.

THE BOLAND CONTROL is the embodiment of utmost safety and simplicity in a new system of control which is basic in principle. Write for particulars.

Factory: Ft. Center St., Newark, N. J.

The

Wright

Company

(The

Wright

Patents)

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly condacted during the past ten years.

The Wright Company

DAYTON, OHIO New York Office: 11 Pine St.

6-cylinder, 100 H. P.

Builders as well as Aviators are

MAXIMOTORS'

most ardent supporters

Built in Four Sizes from 50-150 H. P.

DETROIT

1528 JEFFERSON AVENUE E.