Aeronautics, October 1913

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X,... No. 4 ^ Qcfff% 1913 '^'^Cents


M YORK AERIAL. DERBY, October 13 . WM. S. LUCKEY, Winner-Second, CHARLES F, NILES-61 Miles in 52 Min. 54 Sec.

WPORT. R. I., to NEW YORK, October 5 . . . . WILLIAM THAW-230 Milet in 220 Minutes —STEVE MacGORDON

8ANY to NEW YORK, October 7......BECKW1TH HAVENS—172 Miles in 153 Minutes-J. B. R. VERPLANCK

ehind These

events of a week, a score of achievements this season, and hundreds of them during the past ten years, you find the

Curtiss Motors

{RE YOU WASTING TIME, MONEY, PATIENCE, OPPORTUNITY by using motors that "just answer the purpose"?

>k the facts in the face! Why not insure success by booking with us for 1914 motors? Investigation is cheap insurance; write us for information, booklets, photographs, and particularly for proposition to the trade.

URTISS MOTOR CO., 21 Lake Street, Hammondsport, N. Y.



October, 1913


PLANES hold Ibe lollowiuu records:

World's lon£ distance hydro record with one passenger. World's lon§ distance hydro record with two passengers. American endurance record, aviator and three passengers. Have more world's records than all other m'f'rs combined. The first successful Tractor Biplane built in America.

Records indicate superior efficiency.


Why not get an efficient machine "white you are about it ?

The New Benoixt Flying



50 H.P.



80 H.P.


Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout

Endurance Flying Record to Date, 4 hrs., 23 min.


"AERONAUTICS" (London) August, 1913.

"Beatty's Gyro (50 h.p.)—beyond doubt a remarkably efficient

engine—must be capable of producing something like 60 h. p."

Send for Catalog

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.









Over 100 complete drawings. Scale 1" to foot; some full size


AERONAUTICS. 122 East 25th St.. New York


HflN'T write us unless

ested in a reliable, efficient and economical power plant. Thai is the only kind we build. Four sizes.

Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works Muncie, Ind.



Stands for Highest Quality, Lowest Price IN PROPELLERS and Certain Satisfaction

The Enterprise and Integrity—the Character and high Engineering Skill rrought into Paragon Propellers have won for them the highest and widest ecognition, both Government and private, of any propellers in America.


Our facilities have now developed far beyond the demands of the present American trade, lur factory capacity with the special propeller machinery now in operation is more than prty blades per day in two, three and four-bladed propellers.

We therefore solicit QUANTITY CONTRACTS with responsible dealers and manu-icturers in all countries.

We desire to form trade connections in every large city of Europe and America. By our tethods of production we can deliver highest grade propellers in wholesale quantities at European arts for less than pervailing costs of manufacture.

We can furnish any preferred styles, materials or construction, original or copied designs, or |bmit samples for specified service—all subject to most rigid inspection and test. Any kind of ketal protection at little, if any, additional cost.

Every Paragon user must have full satisfaction or his money returned. We serve.


(43-249 E. Hamburg Street - - Baltimore, Md., U. S. A.

Burgess Flying Boat

Built for U. S. Navy


is another record breaker. Built to comply with the strenuous requirements of the U. S. Navy, it fulfilled its test flights and was immediately accepted. Already a number of orders have been placed by sportsmen for similar machines.

Burgess Aeroplanes and Hydro-aeroplanes are still unexcelled. Foreign or Domestic Motors installed to meet the preference of individual purchasers. We recommend .the Sturtevant motor as the most reliable American type.

We have a number of used motors and hydro-planes which we are offering at greatly reduced prices.

Training school patronized by both the Army and Navy, is located at Marble-head adjoining the works. Early application is necessary to secure enrollment.



By Chas. D. Lynch Chairman Sports Committee Perry Centennial Celebration

Certainly nothing can beat leaving the water and alighting on it with a flying-boat when it comes to sport. Planing through the water at 50 miles an hour sends a wonderful thrill through you. Starting out of the water gives you a sensation more thrilling. Alighting on the water and skipping along over a few waves, then settling a little and planing along, caps the climax and you are a flying-boat-fan right!

For yachting men who like to handle the stick when "she has a bone in her teeth" the writer recommends a trip in a flying boat as they will be most likely to fully appreciate the I pleasures to be experienced. Sailing high in the air for a long time at 65 miles per hour was intensely interesting and a great experience. Viewing the map below, noting the bays and inlets, the islands, the farms, the boats, the docks, etc., has studying geography backed off the boards. No map ever conveyed ideas such as an air trip will give.

As we circled and soared upward, constantly driven on our course as a first-class motor yacht would be, the writer was greatly impressed with the fiying-boat's possibilities for sport and for use in scouting or dispatch-carrying. Sitting in a comfortable position, in a boat wth plenty of "freeboard," enjoying a sense of safety instilled by the substantial construction of the boat and the wonderful operating devices over which the pilot had perfect control, it was a great treat to go around an aerial race-course encircling the bay where Perry had put in after his victory in 1813, then to seemingly "bank*' at the turns as it would seem natural we should, then turn and incline downward, not with a drop or slide, but with a steady drive on a down grade, then easily incline upward and drive on an upgrade—all this seemed wonderful to the observant and grateful passenger who was being initiated into the new sport he had been hearing about but never indulged in before.

My flight was made during a four week's regatta at Put-in-Bay, Ohio, a part of the big-Perry Centennial Celebration, celebrating the One Hundredth Anniversary of Perry's Victory in the Battle of Lake Erie, and a century of peace between Canada and the United States, was held this August under the auspices of the Inter-Lake Yachting Association, from the 19th to the 26th.

There were regattas for sail yachts, power boats, naval militia cutters and whaleboats, canoes, rowing shells, swimmers, and probably for the first time, "aeroyachts." The sport of flying in and over the water was classed with other aquatic sports.

All the advance fine weather dope was upset. The week proved the worst in August and the worst in August for years. A northeast gale of magnificent proportions, even the kind that would have worried the sail yachts or power boats, proved the only "worry"

the committee had on Tuesday morning of August 19th, the date for things to begin.

The day before the ever-surprising Tony Jannus hove in sight over South Bass Island of which Put-in-Bay is the anchorage, coming straight from Sandusky, over Lake Erie, in his Benoist flying-boat which was destined to be the real "thriller" of the meet. A few minutes after "Tony" landed the crowd sighted another craft in the distant atmosphere. Beck-with Havens, in his big Curtiss flying-boat of Chicago to Buffalo fame, came down from the higher altitudes and made a beautiful landing. Havens had come from Toledo, right over Lake Erie for forty miles, with his friend Chenevert, of Detroit, as passenger. They had enjoyed a delightful forty mile cruise in thirty-six minutes—just an afternoon sail.

On Sunday the 17th, Walter Johnson, with' his Thomas flying boat with his new Austro-Daimler motor; Frank Burnside and Fred Eells, of Thomas Brothers, with a pontoon-type hydroaeroplane, and William Bleakley with his Benoist pontoon-type hydro had arrived at Put-in-Bay and started to assemble their "yachts" at convenient "mooring" points assigned by the committee.

The assembled pilots and aviation representatives, together with the yachtsmen on the committee, all in great enthusiasm over the plans the committee had laid down, turned in that Monday night feeling that things couldn't be any better.

The first day a gale broke and the whole week was stormy, one day flights being completely impossible. Despite the winds and waves every man flew. On Saturday, the 23rd, Havens waved goodby and flew to Cleveland with a passenger.

The next day Jannus concluded his flights and flew away to Sandusky, where he caught a train.

The accident to Bleakley the first day of flying, the 20th, is of interest to builders.

William Bleakley climbed into his seat in the Benoist Tractor of the pontoon-type and slipped into the water heading out into the bay. Bleakley had an enviable reputation as a flyer before. His reputation didn't suffer by what happened. It was not his fault. The wind was too strong. As he cleared the water between the piers and tried steering to "starboard" to head into the wind his pontoon was barely lifting from the water.

As it would leave the water it would be slapped back into the trough of the waves which were rather large out in the open water. There was a struggle with the hydro and pilot pitted against the waves and wind. Bleakley in his rather high seat in the fuselage and {Continued on page 132)


October, 1913


By M. B. Sellers


In a recent contest between bicycles driven by aerial propellers, the first prize was won by Rene Bernard, who covered the 100 metres in 8 3/5 seconds (about 26 miles per hour), and the 2 kil. in 3 minutes, 25 seconds (22 M. P. H.). This race was organized by the journal 'TAuto" in order to help solve the problem of propulsion of the Aviette. Because no flapping wing machine had been specially built to make the turns of the Pare des Princes, the prize of 500 francs offered by M. Dubos was not contended for.

This calls to mind an article by M. Constan-tine, in which he shows why there is no hope for the Aviette as a practical means of aerial locomotion. His reasoning is briefly this : The maximum speed of a bicycle rider is about 22 miles per hour; at this speed most of the resistance is air resistance; an Aviette flying this fast will require about 200 sq. ft. of surface ; at a slower speed the area required would be impractically large. As we have assumed that a bicycle rider uses about all his power to propel the bicycle alone at this speed, he certainly cannot maintain the same speed when overcoming the additional resistance due to the drift of the wings. This, of course, refers to the aeroplane aviette.

On the other hand we have the flapping wing machine, the ornithopter, and it would seem that if there is any hope for the Aviette it would be in that direction, as the ornithopter seems to be specially adapted to this purpose. To operate a rotary propeller by muscular power, a slow reciprocating motion must be transformed into a rapid rotary motion, this is not necessary with beating wings. Furthermore, it would seem that while large beating wings, for a power driven machine, would present grave mechanical difficulties, the smaller ones required for a lighter, man-propelled machine would be more practicable.

By beating wings I mean those designed for use in so-called "rowing flight," where the wing acts as an aeroplane, attacking the air at a small angle, on both the up and down stroke. This method of flight, practiced by large birds, is pretty well understood, but, so far, does not seem to have been successfully imitated mechanically. Lilienthal studied this mode of flight, and his book, "Bird Flight as a Basis of the Flying Art," deals chiefly with this subject. He estimated that the air reaction due to reciprocating motion was nine times as great as that due to uniform motion. In some early experiments with a valvular wing machine, actuated by foot power, he obtained a lift of 88 pounds (the estimated effort being 1 H. P.). This machine, however, did not reproduce rowing flight, and I merely cite

it because the lift obtained was considerable. For support in rowing flight rapid forward motion is essential and the flexure of the wing arm must be automatically adjusted to the forward speed and stroke speed. I have made a model travel about 8 feet per stroke. Large birds travel a considerable distance with each stroke.

Some writers are of the opinion that the wing feathers act as valves on the up stroke. This maj- be true in rising or hovering flight, but it can hardly be the case in rowing flight, in which the whole wing has probably a small positive angle of attack on the up stroke; or, at least the inner portion of the wing acts as a supporting surface throughout the stroke. In my opinion a machine with valvular wings will not operate efficiently.

M. B. Sellers.

To the Editor:

Will you be so kind to state, if possible, a fixed table which is the simplest and safest way to calculate a power plant for an aeroplane, a monoplane will take place first to get the right size power for a given load. Planes placed any practical angle. How to determine now the diameter and pitch of propeller according to speed of motor for a desired mileage in minimum winds. Or will name a book which practically deals more to solve these problems.—/. H. B., Texas.

Answer—The power required to drive an aeroplane depends (among other things) on the weight, speed, efficiency of wings, and resistance of the fuselage framing, etc. Unless these data are given the power cannot be computed. The efficiency of the wings depends on their section, aspect ratio, shape, number and spacing, and on the angle of attack required.

The best book for determining the probable value of these data for a proposed machine is: "Eiffel's Resistance of the Air and Aviation." Price $10. Ordinarily, a power plant is determined from the weight carried per horsepower by machines in use and these data are given from time to time in AERONAUTICS and other magazines. M. B. S.

Think very highly of your paper and wish you every success.—R. R. B., Boston.

I want to say that your journal is, in my estimation, the best of the aero papers and I find it of great interest— W. D. B., Ohio.

Page 127


Looking at the Thomas flying boat one begins to wonder whether or not this is really a descendant of the old four-cylinder guess-the-horsepower grass mower built by William T. and O. W. Thomas in the year 190S at Bath, N. Y., which has since been put on the map. However, both the "boys" affirm the verity of the boat's family tree and we can take their word every time. They also promise a later type with a regular limousine body, glass windows, speaking tube, shades and all.

This machine is of just the ordinary conventional pattern but does the work. The boat is of the one-step type, there are wing-tip floats and in general follows accepted practice so far as there may be "practice" in this new branch of the flying family.

The upper plane spreads 43.5 feet; the lower, 33.5 feet. Chord 5.5 feet, spaced 5 feet 4 inches apart. Total area of supporting surface is approximately 350 sq. ft. The curve is fairly deep, being 3.75 inches, about one-third back. The planes are built in sections.

amply guyed with Roebling 3z inch wire cable with special turnbuckles.

Goodyear fabric covers, top and bottom, the planes. The laminated spruce ribs (spaced 11.5 inches apart, .375 inches wide and 1.125 inches deep) join to the main spars by metal strips. The lateral spars are D-shaped. laminated, measuring 1.125 inches by 1.75 inches for the front one and the rear spar is approximately the same in cross-section size but rectangular. The spars are spaced 44.5 inches apart. Struts are, of course, of stream line form and join the beams by the quick detachable Thomas sockets, described heretofore in AERONAUTICS. These struts are of solid spruce and measure i*4 inches by inches. The rear edges of the wings are flexible. The gliding angle is about one in eight, it is claimed.

Ailerons are used for lateral stability, hinged to the rear spar of the upper plane only, and measure 13 feet by 2 feet. Cable (Continued on page 142)


October, 1913


Three 70 H. P. Renault engined tractors ordered in the summer from the Burgess Company and Curtis to be built along the lines of the Burgess Tractor delivered to the Signal Corps in the summer of 1912 are now completed.

Dimensions of the new machines are exactly similar throughout to the original. (See May-June number, 1912). Many refinements are noticeable. The wing sections have been made of the same dimensions top and bottom and are thus interchangeable. The center upper panel is of the same width as the fuselage with the two small sections on either side, thus doing away with a central juncture of the upper wing and the uprights immediately in front of the operators.





A wind shield is provided and ample room for instruments. Seats are upholstered and neatly finished in leather.

The machine is supported on two pairs of vertical braces instead of diagonal braces as formerly; simplifying not only the number of spare parts required for emergency equipment, but also greatly reducing time required for installation.

The new Burgess treated Irish linen is furnished on the fuselage, wings and rudders.

This has been found to increase the speed of the machine considerably and is absolutely weather proof.

The gasoline supply is carried in two tanks supported on each side of the fuselage and is fed to the engine by gravity, thus doing away with the added complication of pumping devices at a cost of slightly additional head resistance.

The machines are equipped with mahogany Burgess propellers of the two-blade type.

The photograph shows the Model H Burgess Tractor, three of which have been ordered by the U. S. Signal Corps. The first two machines have been tested out successfully.

The hydroplanes on which the tractors are mounted are of special type. The machine is easily convertible into a land machine, the work being accomplished in less than fifteen minutes. The whole machine can be taken down ready for shipment inside of half an hour.

The speed of the machine is increased over the 1912 type by three or four miles on account of the refinements in construction and the use of the Burgess linen. It now has a speed ranging from 45 to 60 M. P. H.


The details of the Signal Corps' test of its 100 H. P. 12-cyl. air-cooled Renault motor for the big biplane now completed by the Burgess Co. & Curtis, are of interest. The test was made at the Naval Experiment Station, Annapolis, Md., under the supervision of Lieut. X. H. Arnold. The motor was mounted

[through the medium of adjustable pillars and [wooden beams to a cast iron testing base. [It was clamped to the wooden beams, which Iwere in turn clamped to the wrought iron pillars. Adjacent to this base was a second [test base, on which was mounted a water [brake with its necessary piping and scale beam. The half time shaft of the motor was rigidly coupled to the shaft of the water brake. As this type of Renault motor drives [through the half time shaft, the revolutions delivered by it are one-half the actual speed of the motor itself. On a third base adjacent to the water brake, a 70 H. P. Sprague dynamometer was mounted, connected by rigid coupling to the free end of the water brake shaft. The cooling was effected by a 60 H. P. turbine driven blower connected to an air shaft about 18 inches diameter. The nozzle was shaped to drive the air over the cylinders, the blower being about 10 feet from the motor under test. The motor at 1,800 R. P. M., the half time shaft being 900, developed easily 100 H. P., about 75 H. P. being con-

sumed in the dynamometer and 25 H. P. in the water brake.

The aeroplane, which must be able to fly as low as 38 M. P. H., weighs 2,600 pounds, has armor plate protecting aviators, consisting of Disston's steel .08 inches thick, 3.4 sq. ft., and has a carrying capacity in excess of any previous American aeroplane. The striking features are its immense size and separation between planes. A large amount of steel tubing is used in place of wood struts and wing members. The landing chassis is particularly strongly built.


A new switch put out by the Bosch Company will interest every aviator. With this the magneto is "on" except when pressure of the foot shorts it; or it may be instantly locked in either "on" or "off" position. It certainly "looks bad" to find a knife switch in use—and it is more than occasionally.

The Bosch press button key switch is extraordinarily simple in form and meets the approval of those who desire a positive and mischief-proof method for either temporarily or permanently short-circuiting their magnetos.

It may be located on the floor board and by the pressure of the foot the magneto can be temporarily short-circuited. This is an obvious advantage when gliding down. Release of the foot pressure immediately removes the ground connection, afforded by the switch, and the magneto will resume its intended operation.

When the button key is inserted and turned to the right or left until it snaps into position, the connection between the magneto primary circuit and ground is open ; when pressure is placed upon the key, or the key is removed, which is accomplished by turning it one-quarter turn to the left or right, a connection is made that grounds the primary winding and the magneto is made inoperative.

The Bosch press button key switch is furnished only in nickel finish with the button key as a standard. List price $1.50.


The new military tractor recently shipped to the army aviation camp at San Diego is very similar to that of last spring, described in the February number. Following are the principal dimensions and chief points of difference.

Wings, one piece, upper, 41 feet by 66 inches; lower, 31 feet by 66 inches.

Ailerons, 12 feet by 3 feet; in order to do away with the usual diagonal strut _ at the end of the wing Farman flaps were tried out, but the control proved so much less positive than with the standard ailerons that the latter were restored, the outer ends secured to posts or struts depending from the trailing edge of the upper surface.

Fore and aft, the machine measures 25 feet; tail of fuselage, 14 feet; body, including motor, 7 feet; rudder 4 feet. Tail surfaces and rudder same dimensions as "English" flying boat-standard, described last issue.

The "full floating" fuselage, as shown by the pictures, appears to be new and patents have been applied for. Three sets of heavy rubber bands on each side support the fuselage in the heavy four-wheeled chassis, assisting very decidedly in absorbing the shock of hard landings. The same system has been tried out on the Curtiss hydroaeroplane and the flying boat.

The wings of this machine are practically the same as used on the standard machines, except that they are made in one piece each side of the chassis, instead of the panel construction, which gives them a little greater strength. The beams are very strong and heavy at the inner end and taper all the way out to the tip of the wing, giving them the maximum of strength in proportion to the load at each point and reducing the weight. The planes are very rigid and quickly demountable by the removal of four bolts, one each at top and bottom of either plane.

The chassis with the wings removed is only 42 inches wide at the points where the wings

attach, and the over-all width of the running gear is about 65 inches. The tread of the wheels is 56 inches, which is standard road gauge so that the chassis may be towed along a standard road if necessary.

The tail surfaces and elevators are the same general shape used on the flying boat.

The fuselage is constructed of four members of white spruce, which are tapered from the rear beam out to the extreme end, thereby reducing the weight in proportion to the strain at each point.

A new system of wiring and bracing is used which does not require any holes through these corner members, so a lighter piece may be used and the same strength secured as a larger one fastened in the ordinary way with holes through at each joint.

The lateral balance is by ailerons, separately connected so that they can either be operated in unison or independent of each other. It is claimed the machine can be balanced by either in case of accident to the other.

The tail surfaces are quickly and easily detachable for packing up. The entire fuselage is covered to reduce head resistance and the seats are placed side by side as in all standard Curtiss construction. The field of view from this machine is exceedingly good, as the seats are about midway between the front and rear beams over the lower plane' so that a good downward angle of vision is obtained and for looking directly downward a space of 12 inches is left alongside the fuselage out to the first rib on each side.

The engine is located directly in front of the operators and the carburetor projects through the dashboard into the cockpit where it may be adjusted by either operator and is at all times under observation.

The gasoline tank is placed under the seat and has a capacity of 40 gallons. There is an auxiliary tank on the dashboard which has a capacity of two gallons and is kept supplied by a mechanical pump driven by the engine from the main tank. There is a plate-glass

window in the front of this auxiliary tank which answers two. purposes—the level of gas in this tank may be seen and also the stream of gasoline coming in from the pump, and this being directly in front of the pilot, any failure of the pump to work would be quickly noted. If, for any reason the pump should stop working, it is only necessary to throw over a small lever on the front of the tank which controls a distributing valve and give a few strokes on a hand air pump, which is located within easy reach of either operator, when the level in the auxiliary tank will be

maintained as before by air pressure in the main tank.

The propeller is a 9-foot by 8.5-foot pitch two-blade Curtiss, driven direct from a Cur-tiss OX 90-100 H. P.

The radiator is mounted on the forward end and just back of the propeller and the hood over the engine is attached to the rear edge of the radiator, similar to an automobile. The air coming through the radiator and around the cylinders is deflected out on each side and away from the operators by curved metal shield which forms the dashboard and closes the cockpit away from the motor.

The hood over the engine has a small up-curve which deflects the air over the heads of the operators and stops the strong blast in the face, which is common to the ordinary tractor.

This machine is much more convenient for tearing down or reassembling than the standard machine, as the power plant and running gear stay intact when packed for shipment.

The fuselage is easily and quickly attached when setting up, the wings being in one piece are more easily handled so that the assembling can be done in a very short time.

This machine handles exceptionally well on the ground and may be turned around without outside assistance on the ground in a very small space. It is fitted with a standard folding shoulder yoke and dual wheel, which gives either operator control at will. It can, however, Le fitted with a single throw-over wheel if required for military work.


(Continuedfrom page 125)

with his big pontoon offered great resistance to the wind and his efforts to "point up into the wind" proved unavailing and he was sheered off his course, along the trough of the waves, with wind "abeam," and in about a minute from the time of his start at the platform was dashed "head on" against a rocky end of the Island of Gibraltar. Committee boats laying out for emergencies headed for the rocky point quickly. Bleakley emerged from the wreck of his craft saying, "I'm all right," and he was, too. Had Bleakley gotten to windward 50 feet he would have cleared the rocky point. In the absence of a rudder and with a straight-sided pontoon offering the greatest possible resistance to the waves and with a high wind to boot, there was only one outcome—a smash.

Leaving the water clean and quick, and soaring at will in the air, circling the harbor, swooping down near the water, then up, then turning, over steamboats, docks or shore, sometimes close and sometimes far away, always smiling and occasionally waving to those on the piers. Control seemed to be the predominating virtue about the flying-boats in all their flights at Put-in-Bay, whereas, the pontoon-type hydros seemed more awkward in the water and less in their element. In the air, too, the flying-boats seemed more pleasing to the eye of the yachting crank on account of their more shipshape lines and more bird-like appearance which seemed to give them grace and make them seem better adapted to flying, at least, about the water where comparison could be made with the lines of the sail and power yachts anchored nearby.

At last the enjoyable occasion was over. The engines had worked perfectly, the Roberts motors in the Benoist machines, the Curtiss and the Austro-Daimler in the Thomas Bros.' machines and the big 96 H. P. Curtiss in the

This tractor is the one ordered to be fitted with a 160 H. P. Gnome over which a suit was brought against the seller, DeVillers, alleging motor not up to standard required. (See drawings February issue.)

The disappointment occasioned by the failure of the motor to meet test requirements, after the Curtiss Co. had paid some $10,000 in cash for it, was accentuated when the motor itself was attached on a writ of replevin by a Mr. Prince of Boston. The Government was then asked to allow the maker to enter a machine equipped with one of the new Curtiss 150 or 200 H. P. motors now under construction, the loss to be entirely on the maker in case the machine failed in any way to meet the requirements established for the machine equipped with the Gnome motor.

"Find enclosed check for $3.00 for my subscription. I would not be without it. I was one of your first ones and will stick."—G. E. Y., Omaha, Neb.

Curtiss flying-boat. Not once, to the committee's knowledge, did any body fail to start when he intended to. Barring the accidents the machines were under perfect control, except it appeared that there should be some sort of a rudder for the pontoon-type machine that would act in the water, and probably a larger rudder on the flying-boats to give them a deeper action and more "sure-footedness" in the water, to prevent leeway and to insure their being able to turn into the wind to get their elevation at all times. It appeals to a yachtsman to have as good a rudder as possible on a flying-boat when it starts with the wind abeam and has to turn into the wind to get up out of the water.

The novel experiences, the knowledge gained, and last but best, the enjoyable companionship with the good fellows connected with aviation who were at Put-in-Bay will always be remembered by the Committee on Aviation of the Perry Centennial, all of whom are boosters for the new aquatic sport —flying-boats. _

"There ought to be a law against aviation," said the humane citizen.

"There is one," replied the cold-blooded man. "The law of gravitation is continually interfering with it."—Washington Star.

Dr. A. F. Zahm and Naval Constructor Hunsakcr are in Europe getting information on foreign laboratories.

It (AERONAUTICS) is the only book on aeronautics that is worth while.—W. B. E., Utah. _

Witty Chap—"Learning this piece of music makes me feel like an aviator." Dense Girl—"How so?"

Witty Chap—-"Trying to conquer the air."

The Globe.

Aviator Weds Nurse.—Headline. The ideal bride for an airman.—Evening Sun.


In mooring the army's machines, five hands are used, two on the engine section, one on either side of the motor, and one at either end of the planes. The tail is held down by a fifth band thrown over the tail spars, the elevator being held in position by a couple of tripods. These bands are drawn taut and held in position by tent pins. The motor and propellers are protected by covers made especially to fit them.

The bands are made of double thickness ten-ounce duck with a six-foot rope attached to either end. The bands are ten feet long by two feet in width. This method of mooring proved very successful, the machine at times being subjected to wind of 60 miles an hour and severe rain and sleet storms.

Yon certainly put out an interesting book. —I'alentine & Company.


The Deutsche Flugzeugwerke (German Airship Works) in Lindenthal near Leipzig, produces the Mars biplanes and monoplanes and have obtained success with their machines. The Mars biplane is "distinguished for its great stability, unusual gliding ability, enormous carrying capacity and ascending fitness." In the biplane all parts correspond to the Mars

monoplane, inasmuch as the carriage, the body, the installing of the motors, the seat arrangement and the rudder are the same.

By those means it is possible to substitute parts of a monoplane for a biplane and vice versa.

The total carrying surface of the Mars biplane amounts to 46 square metres; the upper deck has a span of iS metres, the lower one 13 metres. The span can be reduced to 13 metres for the whole apparatus by folding the exterior ends of the upper deck, so it can be placed without difficulty into a small hangar. The length of this machine is 9 metres. In constructing this and the Mars monoplane especial emphasis was laid on quick demounting and speedy re-erection of the same, and the machine responds in this point to all requirements of the military department.

The speed under full load (i, c, pilot, passenger and gasoline for 4 hours) is 120 kilos. The material used is of the very best quality and consists of seamless steel tubing, knotless ash, pine and spruce-wood veneering. The Rami covering is especially impregnated and is protected against climatic influences by a particular varnish.

In front of the body are comfortably and ingeniously sheltered the motor, benzine tank and a little further back passenger and guide, and the body itself consists of a fish-like boat of little air resistance and greatest firmness. The radiator is situated in front of the motor.

The propeller is directly affixed on the motor-shaft. The high-profiled wings are strongly outlined and possess inherent stability through upward bent end-flaps. All control cables are of piano wire. The steering wheel is attached to a lever and by tilting the former-down or putting it back the rudder is put inaction. By turning the steering wheel the-lateral stability is maintained, while the lateral steering is obtained by means of a foot-lever in such a way that by Dressing down the right


foot the steering corresponds to the right and by pressing down to the left will result in steering to the left side.

The extremely staunch carriage consists of generously dimensioned steel-tubing resting upon four running wheels. The dampening planes can be "displaced while in flight by a patented contrivance which is operated by a specially adjusted hand-wheel. This innovation makes it possible that the pilot doesn't need to attend to the elevation rudder while in flight, with resulting relief in guiding the machine."

minate the demonstration I have described the letter S with the lateral righting of the machine (i. e., turning over sideways)."

At Brooklands, England, he repeated his performance in a strong wind on September 25, making, in different words, a slow spiral in_ the longitudinal sense, the axis of the spiral being approximately horizontal, after a vertical dive and turning the machine on its back. Again he looped the loop by diving for a comparatively short distance with engine on, dropping his tail, rising vertically bv momentum.


The first illustration shows the complete loop made by Pegoud with his Bleriot on Sept. 21. Three different times he "tried" to upset sideways by a side slip on the wing, but could not accomplish this, the c. of g. of the machine being too low to permit this. In an opening of blue sky among clouds, a glimpse was caught of the machine in a tail first plunge in a vertical position. The machine was then righted after a side slip on the wing (the machine sliding sideways


downward). Pegoud next tried a complete revolution, taking a vertical drop and turning over sideways. His fourth experiment consisted in flying vertically upward from the force acquired by a sudden descent. Pegoud then did another tail first dive, then ascending to about 8co metres. From this height he suddenly dipped towards the earth and succeeded in making a complete "loop-the-loop," the loop being about 100 metres in diameter. Having accomplished this Pegoud again described the letter S, his head downward, and turning over sideways, as described last month. Then he let go of all controls. The machine descended at first in a dive, then ascended and then made a tail first dive, Pegoud then taking hold again of his controls, these slides producing "a delicious sensation." "I have executed what appeared to be the most difficult feat, the turning over sideways completely and bringing back to equilibrium. Besides I have vertically ascended and have looped the loop. To ter-

The machine used has the top pylon increased in height so that the upper bracing to the planes is at a better angle and the bracing is by stranded cable. The elevator flaps are those of the 70 H. P. Bleriot and straps pass over the aviator's shoulders.

Pegoud proves it is possible to capsize a machine and right it again by exercise of cool judgment if there is sufficient air room and no disturbing air currents.

Later, at Buc, these stunts were continued, Pegoud doing the loop five consecutive times. Lieut. Poulet, of French army, has also flown upside down. The simple "S" was illustrated in the September issue. The second illustration is from Pegoud's own sketch.

One, Chanteloup, on a Caudron 80 H. P. biplane is reported to have turned his machine "over on its side and let it sideslip for some distance, and then gradually got it upside down, and flew in that way for a few seconds before making another dive and regaining the normal flying position."


The Zeppelin L-2, which burned in the air on October 17, killing the entire party aboard, numbering 28, was the first of the new ships of battleship class built under new specifications.

A third car has been added, way for'ard and the two engine cars have been re-balanced. This bow cabin is the "bridge" of the new ship.

The L-2 represented the highest engineering development of the rigid airship. Dwarfing all preceding Zeppelins, it was the first true unit of the German navy in its fleet of "aerial battleships," of a type and power which answered the Admiralty's demand for offensive action.

The L-2 was sustained by the enormous volume of 27,000 cubic metres of hydrogen, disposed in 24 entirely separate gas chambers, placed end to end throughout the 526 feet length of hull. Her tremendous buoyancy sustained her own weight of 24 tons and an additional cargo of 12 tons. Her four Maybach motors each developed 225 H. P., 900 H. P. in all. These engines were disposed in pairs, one pair in each engine gondola, fore and aft. One engine of each pair could drive both propellers above the gondola, on either side of the hull. Two of these engines—one forward and one aft engine—could drive the airship up to an altitude of a mile and a half.

The radius of action of the L-2, fixed by the attainments of preceding Zeppelins of proportionately smaller size, was given as 2,000 miles by employing only three-fourths of her fuel capacity The percentage of gas leakage in the case of the L-i, which was lost recently in the North Sea, was 1^2. the gas chambers in the L-2 being supposed to be virtually impermeable.

Both of these latest Zeppelins were known to have attained absolute control of the expansion and contraction of their gas lift, due to the perfection of a system of circulating currents of air, driven by pumps through the


air space between the gas chambers and the inclosing hull.

In the captain's "bridge," were placed the valves, pressure gauges, thermostats, barographs, steering wheels and navigating charts. The whole gondola was closed in with a steamer deck canopy and glass windows. Leather divans were placed for the captain and his officers.

The officers' quarters were amidships, built closely into the bottom of the hull. This was a comfortably furnished cabin, 100 feet in length. A long gangway of V shape ran from the bow to the stern of the ship and connected the navigating "bridge," motor gondolas and quarters. It continued upward in a curve to the rudders at the stern, which was reached by a companionway.

The speed developed by the L-2 during her first "shop trials," over Lake Constance, before she proceeded to Berlin, was 54 knots, or 62.iS statute miles an hour. This was accomplished with 390 more horsepower than the L-i possessed. The Alauretania's fastest average speed is 27.04 knots. The L-2 made this great speed with motors weighing only 3,924 pounds, or seventy-six pounds lighter than the same motor that drove the L-i. Motors and the crew of twenty-two represented 3T/2 tons. Fuel for a 2,000-mile run amounted to six tons, leaving 2J/2 tons for wireless equipment, guns and ammunition.

The airship's armament, as demanded by the specifications, published last year by a semi-official army journal, was to be four guns of the quick-firing type, each weighing fifty pounds. One was to be mounted on top, and three to be carried at equidistant points along the gangway, one forward, one aft and a third amidships, in the officers' quarters. The ship could carry two tons of ammunition, or when leaving three guns behind could carry one and a half tons of bombs, according to the mission undertaken.

The L-2 was not the largest airship which the German Admiralty contemplated. Her successors, according to the published estimates by army journals, were to attain sizes

up to 30,000 cubic metres. Zeppelin engineers had expressed the opinion that airships of that size were entirely feasible. A ship of 30,000 metres would arrive at the colossal dimensions of 650 feet, with a diameter of eighty feet, and command 1,400 to 1,500 H. P.

T. R. MacMechen.

The reports state that the cause of the burning, or explosion, of the L-2 was a fire amidships. No definite information is available and from the lack of information it is assumed the Government knows the cause and is not disturbed. As the engines are nowhere near amidships it is possible, if there was a leakage of gas, due to a defect in any of the gas chambers inside the hull, the hydrogen would escape into the air spaces between all the gas chambers and the inclosing hull. Entering the stairway shaft, it would rise to the top, and if the top hatchway was open would escape into the air. Mixed with air, hydrogen will explode instantly, or coming in contact with a spark. If the accepting commission was testing the quick-firing gun a spark might produce the explosion, although it was said that the gun's silencer made the ignition flameless.

The cable dispatches state that the flames first burst from the point where the officers' quarters are located. In the ceiling of the cabin is the hatchway, opening into a shaft through which a spiral stairway ascends between the two central gas chambers and comes out on top of the hull in an observatory, in which a quick-firing gun is mounted for protecting the airship from attack by aeroplanes overhead.

The two motor gondolas are situated, one 160 feet forward and one 160 feet aft of the amidships section, where the officers' quarters and wireless equipment are located. Above these engine gondolas the bottom of the ship's hull is fireproofed with aluminum sheeting. A ladder reaches from the deck of the gondolas to the gangway above. The gondolas are partly exposed, in order that any escaping gasses may be blown away. It is difficult to understand how they could climb the ladder and enter the hatch above.

A writer in La Genie Civil, before the late accident, in discussing the relative merits of dirigbles, mentoned that of the nine destructions of Zeppelins since 1906, two were caused by explosions. "This relative frequency of explosions deserves some consideration and we may state that the system itself favors these accidents. There is between the outer cover and the small elementary balloons closed spaces where the least escape of hydrogen—and there is always an escape of hydrogen—forms a detonating mixture; afterwards, all that is needed to cause the catastrophe is some little casual circumstance. The material of the covering is not stretched and there may be developed between this material or somewhere on the framework a rubbing of some sort that would develop a little bit of electricity and cause a spark."

As the day of the catastrophe to the L-2 was fine one would eliminate the chance of explosion by induction of electricity.

Count Zeppelin has under way in the Zep-| pelin factory a new and greater dirigible andl this he plans to pilot himself across the At-| lantic to the United States and may everl cross the continent to the 1915 World's Fain at San Francisco. The North Sea is nowl a mill pond to the Zeppelins and crossing the Atlantic in two days' will make it nothing more than a large lake. The Hamburg! American line, which is heavily interestedf in the Zeppelin Company even plans regular! trans-Atlantic passenger trips.


Berlin, Oct. 29—The explosion is attributed in the official report to a partial vacuum! formed in the centre gondola behind a nevJ kind of windshield, used for the first time. It sucked the gas escaping from beneath thej aluminum structure of the dirigible into thej gondola, where it was exploded by a spark from the motor.


Apparently few have given the subject thought, but there seems to be no reason why there should not be practical airships which do not use hydrogen for sustentation. A hot air dirigible ought to prove useful-—its first cost would be less, upkeep less, operation cheaper and almost equal to hydrogen in lifting capacity.

In the March, 1909, issue of AERONAUTICS is an airship of this type roughly out-l lined by C. W. Sirch ; one made in sectionsl a la Zeppelin, using fireproofed fabric for a covering over a frame work composed of a central tubular spine with truss rods extending outward therefrom like spokes of a wheel and wires for rims, burners in every compartment, companionway underneath the length of the bag, air compressor, propellers at extremities of the bag, etc.

A curve plotted by Mr. Sirch after calculating the per cent, buoyancy of air at temperatures rising to 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit shows that air at approximately 440 degrees has the same buoyancy as hydrogen gas. Materials have been subjected to a temperature of 440 degrees without damage, although it is designed to raise the temperature only about 100 degrees over atmospheric. The textiles used which are subjected to a high temperature exhibit a remarkable immunity from the effects of heat. It is claimed the contents of the bag will lift 65 pounds for every degree of rise in temperature.

In manceuvering it is necessary only to additionally heat the air sufficiently to rise above obstructions. Either end can be elevated orj lowered by warming or cooling the air in tha compartments situated there.

The use of air disposes at once of the cost-j liness of hydrogen, danger from inhalationl explosion and fire, leakage and replenishment* in transit, ballast and the difficulty of obtain-i ing a supply requiring a generating plant.


A patent just issued to Orville and Wilbur Wright, assignors to the Wright Co., will be read and digested with great interest by all in aviation.

This patent was filed Feb. 10, 1908, and issued Oct. 14. 1913. The number is 1,075,533.

From the following it will be seen that it is intended to provide automatic means whereby the fore and aft balance of the machine may be maintained at a determined angle of incidence, and means whereby the angle of incidence at which the machine is automatically balanced may be varied at the will of the operator while the machine is in flight: and an automatic mechanism for maintaining the lateral balance of the machine, the automatic controlling mechanism being adapted to adjust the angles of incidence of the opposite lateral portions of the aeroplanes and the position of the vertical rudder to restore the lateral balance of the machine if the same should be caused to tilt to one side or the other.

The device consists in short, according to the claims, of the combination with an aeroplane and means for maintaining balance:

(1) Of {for automatic longitudinal balance) a movable horizontal "vane" actuated by air currents when the course of the machine varies, means controlled by said vane for operating the elevator, connections allowing the angle of incidence at which the machine is automatically maintained to be varied by the operator, a vane so mounted it can rise and sink without changing its angle with aeroplane, means for adjusting the angle of the vane with the aeroplane, means for securing same in adjusted position.

(2) Of {for lateral automatic balance), in a machine whose wing tips may be "twisted" a pendulum mounted to move laterally, means for producing said twist, connection between pendulum and means for twisting, manual means for same, means for separating the one from the other, means to allow pendulum to operate on a turn as well as otherwise, a fluid pressure cylinder, pistons, valves and connections.

Another claim covers the simple combination of means carried by a plane and co-operating therewith to automatically twist said plane, or to move lateral and portions to different angles of incidence, so that if ailerons should be decided in the suit pending to be an equivalent of warping, the system would be barred as far as automatic operation of ailerons is concerned. There are 42 claims in all, concisely and strongly drawn.

The other Wright patents in this country are: 821,393, issued May 22, 1906, now in suit (see AERONAUTICS, page in, Sept., ■913) ; 987,662, of March 21, 1911, covering the use of vertical vanes and ailerons. (See AERONAUTICS, page 192-193. May, 1911.)

The new patent described in this issue is similar to one issued in England, described

in AERONAUTICS, Sept., 1909. This device has been lately used most successfully in a simplified form.


A fluid pressure cylinder 32 is suitably mounted and comprises an enlarged portion 34 and a reduced portion 35. The enlarged portion is provided with a piston 36 which in turn has a member 37, adapted to serve as a piston rod for the piston 36 and as a piston for the reduced portion 35 of the cylinder. A crank arm 58 is suitably connected to the disk 26, which, in turn is adapted to be connected to the drum 22, said arm being provided at its opposite end with a wrist pin 59 adapted to extend through a slot 60, preferably formed in the wall of the reduced portion 35 of the cylinder, and engage the piston 37, thus causing the drum 22 to be rotated as the pistons 36 and 37 reciprocate within the cylinder 32. The reduced portion 35 of the

Page 139

October, 1913

cylinder is connected with an air storage receptacle 39, by pipe 40, normally in open communication with both the cylinder and the air tank. A constant air pressure is exerted on the piston 37. The enlarged portion of the cylinder is connected with the air tank by means of a pipe 41, which is provided at a point between the cylinder 34 and the tank 39, with a three-way valve 42 adapted to be automatically controlled to regulate the admission of air to the cylinder, as shown in Fig. 8. The port 46, is of such a size that it is at all times in communication with the outlet portion of the pipe 41. The other ports are so arranged to bring either the port 47 into alignment with the inlet portion of the pipe 41, or the port 48 into alignment with the exhaust port 44 in the casing 43, or the valve member may be turned so as to move both of the ports 47 and 48 out of alignment with the respective ports of the casing, thus closing the outlet pipe 41 against the passage of fluid and locking the piston against movement. The valve member 45 is provided with a suitable operating handle or arm 49 which is adapted to be connected to the automatic controlling mechanism.


The automatic controlling mechanism preferably consists of a small horizontal plane 50, mounted upon the frame of the machine, at a small negative angle with reference to the main aeroplanes, free to have a limited vertical movement, and so connected to the arm 49 of the valve member 45 as to actuate the valve as the regulating plane moves up or down. But in order to rise or descend it is necessary to change the angle between the regulating plane and the main aeroplane and adjustment of some kind to permit this change at the will of the operator while the machine is in flight is desirable. There are provided one or more arms 51, which are rigidly mounted on a shaft 52 pivotally connected to the frame of the machine and which extend downward. Pivotally connected to each of the arms 51 are links 53, which are approximately parallel and extend outwardly from the arms 51 and the frame of the machine and support between their outer ends the rigidly mounted plane or vane 50. They are pivotally connected at their outer ends by a connecting member 54. The two upper links 53 are rigidly mounted on a shaft 53'. The vane 50 may be mounted upon a single arm, as shown in Fig. 6. A suitable counterbalance 55 is provided for the vane 50. The frame supporting the vane 50 is connected to the arm 49 of the valve 42. As herein shown, one of the upper links 53 of this frame is connected to the arm 49 by means of a pivoted connecting link 56. The pivotal supports for the arms 51 permit the frame supporting the vane 50 to be moved relatively to the main frame of the machine and thus adjust the vane 50 so that its plane forms any desired angle with the plane of the main aeroplanes. A suitable friction clutch is provided for locking the arms 51 in their adjusted position, such as the spring clip 57.

If desired, suitable stops 61 may be provided for limiting the movement of the links 53 and the vane 50.

In use, the vane 50 is adjusted by means of the arms 51 to such angle with the main aeroplanes as it is desired that the aeroplanes shall maintain with relative wind. If the relative wind at any time strikes the aeroplanes at an angle of incidence greater than the angle between the aeroplanes and the regulating vane 50, it also strikes the vane on the underside and forces it upward and rotates the valve member 45 to bring the inlet port 47 in alignment with the pipe 41, thus permitting the air from the storage tank 39 to pass into the enlarged portion 34 of the cylinder 32. The difference in the area of the piston 36 in the cylinder 34 and the piston 37 in the cylinder 35 is such that the air pressure in the cylinder 34 overcomes that in the cylinder 35 and moves both pistons longitudinally of the cylinder, thus actuating the crank arm 58 and rotating the drum 22 to adjust the elevator to such a position as to cause the forward end of the machine to move downwardly, thus decreasing the angle of incidence of the aeroplanes and also of (Continued on page 142)


The Wright Company has recently brought out a new type of machine for exhibition work called Model "E," which is the first product of this company equipped with only one propeller. This machine is a small single propeller biplane with the customary Wright controls, but differs considerably from previous products of this company in details of construction.

A 4-cyl. Wright, water-cooled motor, 30 H. P., is mounted alongside of the operator. The motor drives by chain the single central propeller, which is 7 feet in diameter. The tail spars supporting the rudders are spread wide apart so as to clear the propeller. The motor, seat, gasoline tank, radiator and propeller drive are all concentrated in one center section which is 4 feet 6 inches wide. On either side of this, by means of readily demountable fittings, are attached the wings, consisting of a cell of only two panels. The tail spars are likewise attached to the center section by demountable fittings, so that to take the machine down, it is only necessary to take off the wings on either side, and the tail at the rear, making the largest remaining dimension about 14 x 5 feet.

The wire fittings at the base of the strut on this new machine are a novel hook arrangement of great simplicity, making it possible to undo the wires merely by taking out the strut and loosening them up. As in previous joints on Wright machines the strut is held in place by a pin, and in this fitting the hook plate is the base plate of the strut. With the wires in the hooks, as soon as the strut is put into place the wires are locked in.

The landing chassis is exceedingly simple, resembling very much the landing chassis on the well-known Wright type "C." Two 24 x 4 inches wheel are mounted to the customary Wright skids.

A finished detail which is very effective is the manner in which the front blinkers are constructed of wood, quite rigidly fastened to the front of the skid, and doing away with much of the wire bracing formerly used.

The details of the control mechanism between the levers and rudders are quite different from other types of Wright aeroplanes, because of the necessity of clearing the propeller end of protecting the wires and cables at points in the vicinity of the propeller tips. The vertical rudder is 16 inches in depth, 3 feet 11 inches in height, of the usual biplane form, pivoted in a balanced position. The elevator is 12 feet wide by 2^ feet deep. The wings of this machine are covered with linen, treated with a new preparation which has been evolved after a long series of experiments at the Wright plant, and which gives an excellent finish to the cloth, without at the same time causing it to tighten too much. The finish given to the entire machine is typical of the fine work that is being turned out at the Dayton factory, and the neat appearance of the machine is most pleasing.

This machine has been designed particularly to meet the requirements of exhibition

flying, which calls for a light, handy machine, easily taken down and set together, occupying little space, and possessing plenty of climbing power and speed.

The span of Model "E" is 32 feet, the chord is 5 feet and the surface area approximately 316 sq. ft. The total weight ready for flight is only 730 pounds, which makes the machine all the easier to handle on and off cars, and in getting around from place to place.

During the past month on various occasions, Mr. Orville Wright has been flying this new machine at Simms Station, putting it through a long series of tests. The machine handles well in the air, is remarkably easy to land, and quick to start. A recent test of the time it requires to take down the machine


was made, and it took only 12 minutes after -oiling it into the hangar at the conclusion )f a flight to get it ready for shipment.


The new Wright six-cylinder motor, which s a development of the "six" first brought out it Dayton in 1911, has lately demonstrated ■ery high efficiency, and excellent reliability. Tarry X. Atwood, who is flying a Wright ype hydro-aeroplane at Toledo is the first to ise one of these new motors, and the unusual lerformances of his machine with the new quipment at Toledo have created a very ound enthusiasm. Though not trying for stunt" records, but rather to demonstrate re-

141 October, 1913

liability and consistent good performance, Atwood has been carrying passengers, among them F. R. Coates, of Toledo Railway & Light Co.; Xathaniel Paige of the General Electric Company, and E. Lee Miller.

The new motor, 4^ inches by 4^2 inches, as were the old ones, has been vastly improved in construction. The ports have been made larger, and both exhaust and intake are now mechanically operated. A novel feature which insures economical use of fuel and a safe and convenient means of throttling down is the fitting of Zenith carburetors.

As this is the type of motor to be used in the new type of Wright aeroboats, the demonstration of its excellence for water flying is of considerable significance. The weight of the motor complete is only 265 pounds, and it is said that the power developed is over 70,

on the Wright type machine. The A. L. A. M. rating would show the motor as developing but 46 H. P. It is common knowledge the A. L. A. M. rating is often exceeded, as in the case of the four-cylinder Wright, for instance.

Atwood consistently succeeded in making his Wright type machine with this new motor get off the water with a passenger in less than 15 seconds, climbing at nearly 300 feet a minute, and with an air speed that is easily varied from 42 to 56 miles an hour, a combination of greater safety, due to the low landing-speed, with higher speed for cruising being' obtained.

I wish to continue reading AEROXAU-TICS as I find it * * * far better than the rest. ' V. D., Detroit.


(Continued from pag e ijg)

the vane 50 and causing the air currents to come in contact with the upper surface of the vane moves the same downwardly, as shown in dotted lines, Fig. 5 and reverses the valve member 45, moving the elevator in the opposite direction and again moving the aeroplanes to an increased angle of incidence. These operations are repeated successively until the movement of the vane 50 has been gradually reduced and the vane has but a very limited movement. By providing means for varying the angle of the vane to the aeroplane, there is provided means for varying the particular angle of incidence at which the aeroplane is automatically maintained, and thus the driver is enabled to direct the machine up or down without interrupting the working of the automatic controlling mechanism.

In Fig. 6 is shown a modified form of the controlling vane and arrangement for varying the angle of incidence. The operation will be apparent from the above details.


Any suitable means may be provided for warping the wing-ends and for compensating inequalities in the resistance of the right and left wings. This need not be gone into as readers are familiar with the Wright rudder and warp system.

For automatically operating the warping and rudder drums 65 and 74 of the Wright machine, is provided another air cylinder 78, pistons, etc., similar in construction to the cylinder 32, and connections which operate similarly to above. The arm 83 of the valve 82 is connected by means of a link 84

with one arm 85 of a bell crank lever which , is pivotally connected to the frame of the machine at 86 and has its opposite arm 87 ofl considerably greater length than the arm 85 and extending downwardly to a point near! the lower aeroplane, where it is provided with a suitable weight 88, thus forming a pendulum. Suitable stops 90 may be provided to regulate the motion of the pendulum. Normally the pendulum 87 is substantially vertical and maintains the valve 82 in its closed position, thus holding the piston in the cylinder 78 against movement. But should one 1 end (side) of the machine rise the pendu- I lum 87 will swing toward the lower side, operating the valve 82 to admit pressure at one end of the piston and move the same longitudinally of the cylinder. Thus through the medium of the connecting rod 79, and the disk 69, the drums 65 and 74 are rotated, thereby warping the wings and turning the vertical rudder 10. The first swing of th^ pendulum is such as to carry the rudder and aeroplanes beyong the neutral point, and consequently the pendulum will swing back and reverse the position of these parts. These operations are successively repeated until the pendulum 87 loses its movement and comes to rest. If it is desired to drive the machine in a circle, the drum 74, which controls the vertical rudder and which is held in place on the axle 66 by friction only, may be turned to a new position on the axle 66 and thus set the vertical rudder at an angle to its normal position, and with the parts thus reset, the automatic-controlling mechanism will oper-j ate then in exactly the same manner as when the machine is being driven forward in a straight line.


(Continuedfrom page 127.)

of .0625 inches diameter runs through copper leaders with bell mouths where turns are made to the steering wheel, rotation of which operates the rudder.

The rear of the boat carries a fixed stabilizing surface of 10 sq. ft., triangular in shape. This is set at a slight angle, 2 degrees. To this stabilizer are hinged the two elevator flaps,

which have a total of 16 sq. ft. of surface. Movement of the steering column fore andl aft operates the elevators by .0625 inch wire cables, which enter the rear part of the boat and continue to the column out of sight in the interior of the hull. The rudder measures in rough outline 3 feet by 5 feet and has I total area of 9 sq. ft. A foot lever operate; this by concealed wires in the hull.

The boat is 26 feet long, 2 feet deep, with ;i 3-foot beam. There are four watertight com partments, cross braced cedar bulkheads be ing used. Internal cross ribs spaced 8 inche apart, are used throughout the length of th boat. Cedar planking, in cross diagonal nar row strips, is used in building the hull. Thi is nailed on the framework with wire bradl Linen and white lead is placed between thi two layers of planking. The hull is entirel covered with sheet steel, painted gray. Th cockpit is formed in the hull itself. Th' spray shield, of Goodyear fabric, is detach able. Side doors permit easy entrance. Th boat can carry 750 pounds in excess of il own weight. The boat weighs, empty 4c pounds, and the total weight of the complel machine, empty, is 1,200 pounds. The powe plant is a 65 H. P. 6-cyl. American-bui engine. It drives direct a propeller, 8 fe> diameter by 5 feet pitch.




October, 1913


^ , ^ -Mr






By Harry Schultz, Model Editor

The model shown in the accompanying awing was constructed by Rudie Funk, of ; Long Island Model Aero Club. Although has not been tested very extensively up to : present time, it has many good qualities :1 no doubt will prove itself a prize winner. The fuselage is constructed of spruce

of an inch and is 36 inches long. The ;elage is 3 inches wide at the center and braced by an "X" bracing of bamboo as )wn. It is brought together and glued at front and rear. At the front where the ) main beams are joined together, is at-hed the bearing block and at the rear is 00k for the reception of the rubber motor, 'he main plane is 32 inches in span with a >rd at the center of 6 inches. The edges I ribs of the plane are constructed of li flat steel wire, and the main beam is of ite pine % by % of an inch in thickness

1 is rounded off to a stream line form.

2 sketch shows the construction of the le.

The tail plane is constructed with its edges of wire and the two ribs are double ribs of bamboo. The planes are covered with silk fibre paper and coated with Ambroid varnish, the main plane being covered on the upper side and the tail double surfaced.

The propeller is carved from a block of white pine and is 10 inches in diameter with a pitch of about 14 inches. The concave edge is the entering edge. It is driven by 12 strands of l/$ inch flat rubber.


By the Model Editor

The writer has been asked a number of times the following questions: "What is the purpose of flying models; is it merely a sport for boys, or is there any knowledge to be gained that would aid in the construction of man-carrying or full-sized machines?"

Model flying can be considered in different ways. Some of the model flyers indulge in it for the purpose of whiling away their time while others indulge in it for the purpose of

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October, 1913

learning whatever can be learnt, and which would aid them in the construction of man-man-carrying or full-sized machines?"

If the new ideas of would-be inventors were first tried out by means of the flying model there would be thousands of dollars saved yearly and less "flying tenement houses" on the scene. When these "inventors" are spoken to on the subject, they no doubt will state that their ideas were embodied in a model, said model being in the form of a glider, the same being cast from a balloon or high elevation and because of the fact that the glider descended safely to earth they consider themselves to be the possessor of a remarkable "invention." This is merely a halfway method of testing out a new idea. Let the invention be embodied in a model equipped with power, let the model be adjusted and placed on the ground. If it will rise and show good stability and good qualities of flight, it is then time to think of embodying the same in a full sized machine. If this is done much of this wanton waste of money will be avoided.

The model aeroplane of today has reached the stage of being practically perfect. It will fly in winds that will keep a man carrying machine on the ground. When equipped with skids it will rise from the ground, show perfect stability, soar away for over fifteen hundred feet and alight perfectly at the end of a flight. When the model is equipped with pontoons or floats it will skim the water, rise gracefully from the surface and fly off. Anything that can be done by a man-carrying machine can be duplicated by its miniature edition, the model aeroplane. Scarcely had the first hydroaeroplane risen from the water when this feat was duplicated in model form. One young enthusiast has attached a parachute dropping device to his model (see AERONAUTICS, Aug., 1913), which enables the parachute to be dropped at any predetermined time.

The canard type machine such as the Valkyrie, Boland, Voisin, and Bleriot, was known to the model flyers years before the above machines were put upon the market, and, in fact, is the type of model that holds all records today.

In conclusion, therefore, I desire to state that those who take up model flying as a sport, will not find a more exhilarating sport, and those who take it up for the purpose of gaining knowledge, will find that there is something new to learn every minute, and they will never regret the time spent.



The stability of a Dunne type aeroplane may be readily demonstrated with an easily made paper model.

A strip of fairly stiff writing paper i1/^ inches by 10 inches, doubled up, then folded along dotted line, as shown in sketch "A," is the glider. A slight bend should be given the

wings; slight at the center and near the for ward edge to more convex towards the enda "B." A piece of tin about % inch by 1 incH is bent so as to clamp on the keel. This ma;| be moved back or forward till the machinj flies best. Best results are gotten by launcrj ing with a slight forward movement, as i| "C." E. J. Bachmann, Jr.


The progress of aerodynamics has been ii timately associated with that of the perfec ing of the motors as well as with the increa: of knowledge as to the action of air upon su faces in movement. As to the dynamics < the air, considered with regard to aviatio we may distinguish between the theoretic and experimental results. Among the form there is the important study of Soreau on tl propeller, of which he spoke at a conferen last year of the Societe des Ingenieurs civi Soreau remarked that there are two schoc devoted to the theory of the screw. One co siders the elements of the screw itself, wit out taking into account the movements of t fluid molecules; the other school, better coi( prehending the flow of liquids, finally reach an avowal of their powerlessness and becai strengthened in that avowal as the study _ the physical phenomena showed increasi complexity. Soreau says that, after havi sided with the latter school at first, he nc believes that it is possible to analyze the ; tion of the blades of the screw, with t double reservation that the action takes pk 1 in a limited space and that we be content w approximate laws. These laws lead to f( mul?e no longer wholly empirical, because, thus developed, they show the parts pla>| by the various dimensions, indicating th > order of magnitude and relative influen Starting thence, the author has comment to analyze, guided by preconceived ideas, 1 better experiments on the subject and hqj to get some general results. For some ti analagous ideas have guided the Naval En neer Doyere in the study of marine sere' for which investigations the Academie < Sciences, in 1911, bestowed a part of the V; lant prize. L. Lecornuj

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'Page 146


Sept. 4—Gsell (waterplane) flies with three passengers, 3 hours 11 minutes 4 seconds, a new world record.

Sept._ 5-7—Friedrich (Etrich) flies, Berlin to Paris, with a passenger; 3 intermediate stops; 950 kils.

Sept. 9—Reichelt and mechanic (Harlan) fly from Berlin to Paris, making 5 intermediate stops; 950 kils.

Sept. 13—Friedrich flies to London, with Etrich as passenger.

Sept. 13—A Seguin (H. Farman) flies from Paris to Berlin, non-stop, in 10 hours 51 minutes.

Sept. 13—Guillaux (Clement Bayard monoplane, Clerget motor) flies from Paris to Savigny-sur-Braye, 190 kils., with a passenger.

Sept. 14—Chevillard flies Copenhagen, Denmark, to Gottenberg, Sweden, with passenger, 260 kils., non-stop.

Sept. 15—Figueroa (Bleriot) flies from An-tofagasta to La Pampa, Chile, a distance of 210 miles.

Sept. 15—Stoeffler (Aviatik) flies from Mulhausen, Germany, to Plotsk, near Warsaw—Poland, 1,200 kils., during the night in 8 hours, 6 minutes.

Sept. 16—Flying daily at Etampes since Aug. 25, an average of 694 kilometres, Fourny covered a total of 15,990.8 kilometres in 23 days (Maurice Farman biplane, Renault motor), in competition for the Michelin prize for pilot who covers greatest distance in any number of days, flying at least 50 kils. a day. This in miles, is 9,929.54, representing a straight flight along the 40th parallel from Feking to Cape Breton, Nova Scotia.

Sept. 16—Emile Yedrines (Ponnier monoplane. 100 H. P., see AERONAUTICS, p. 101, Sept.) attained 161 M. P. H. cross-country with the wind.

Sept. 16—Stievator flies from Freiburg to Konigsburg, Germany, 700 miles, with passenger; two stops.

Sept. 16—Guillaux returns with passenger in 50 minutes from Savigny, at a speed of 210 K. P. IL, with a strong wind behind.

Sept. 16—Friedrich and Etrich leave Hen-don, and arrived back in Berlin on Sept. 20, made three intermediate stops.

Sept. 22—Noel (White) carries 7 passengers for 17 minutes 25 2/5 seconds, a world record.

Sept. 23—Garros flies non-stop from St. Raphael, France, to Bizerta, Tunis, crossing the Mediterranean Sea, a distance of 560 miles, the longest non-stop over-water flight yet made. It represents a flight from Philadelphia to Charleston, S. C, in distance. He was 7 hours 53 minutes in the air. (Morane monoplane, 60 Gnome).

Sept. 24—Moreau in "aerostable" machine flies 20 kilometre circuit without touching lateral controls in wind not less than 5 kils. per second. He used rudder and elevator entirely.

Sept. 24—Thuelin (Farman) flies across Baltic Sea from Landskroma, Sweden, to Stralsmund, Germany, a distance of 180 kils. norr stop.

Sept. 24—Oct. 2—Chevillard (H. Farman) with passenger flies Stockholm to Gefle, Sweden, ISO kils.; to Falon, 95 kils.; Vasteras, 149 kils.; Upsala, 80 kils.; to Nordkoeping, Sweden, 300 kils.; to Carlstad, to Orekra, 300 kils.; touring Sweden.

Sept. 26—Langer flies 9 hours 1 minute 57 seconds, making German duration record.

Sept. 26—Victor Stoeffler flies from Warsaw to Berlin, 550 kils., non-stop, 4 hours 2 minutes.

Sept. 29—St. Steffen flies from Berlin to Brussels with one intermediate stop. Distance, 420 miles.

Oct. 1—Sablatnig took 3 passengers to a height of 2,800 m., at Berlin; 4 to 2,080 m., and 5 passengers to 1,000 m.

Oct. 2—L. Noel (White) took up 10 passengers; reached 600 feet height.

Oct. 3—Noel flies at Hendon with 9 passengers for 20 mintues, making a new world record.

Oct. 3—Sablatnig took up five to 1,015 m.

Oct. 5—Roland Garros (Morane—160 Gnome) makes new hydroaeroplane speed record in Lake Coino race—127,72 kils. per hour.

Oct. 10—Victor Stoeffler (Aviatik) flies from Warsaw, Russia, to Berlin, Germany, nonstop, in 4 hours 2 minutes. Distance, 341 miles.

Oct. 12—Reiterer (Etrich) with passenger, flies Berlin-Copenhagen, non-stop, 229 miles.

Oct. 13—Seguin (H. Farman) flies from Paris to Bordeaux, and back, non-stop, 1,040 kils., in 13 hours 5 minutes, beating the world's distance and duration record for nonstop flying.

Oct. 14—Stoeffler (Albatross) makes longest flight in one day, 1,376 miles, in 22 hours 47 minutes, actual flying time, from Berlin to Posen and return, Berlin to Mulhausen, and to and from Mulhausen to Darmstadt. Total elapsed time 24 hours 36 minutes. This was in the attempt to beat the record of Brinde-jonc des Moulinais, from Paris to Warsaw, 1,382 kils., who beat Guillaux, who flew from Biarritz to Brockel, Germany, 1,340 kils.; both flights in 24 hours elapsed time. Among other attempts made for the Pommery Cup were Letort (Paris—Dantzig), 1,350 kils; Ja-noir (Etampes—Berlin), 1,000 kils.; Gilbert (Paris—Caceres), 1,300 kils.; Guillaux (Paris-Bermillo), 1,160 kils.; Seguin (Biarritz— Breme), 1,350 kils.

Oct. 15—Thelen (Albatross) flies 867 miles with passenger in one day, making three stops.

Oct. 16—Garros (Morane—Saulnier) flies from Marseilles to Paris, a distance of 836 kils., non-stop.

Receiving orders to join the maneuvers, Lieut. Collard recently flew from Epanile to Agen, his destination, a distance of 600 kils. He encountered very rough weather, especially in the neighborhood of Bordeaux, but accomplished the trip without a hitch.


n d if it

Mr. John D. Cooper, the Curtiss aviator, has completed the demonstration of a recent shipment of Curtiss water-flying machines for the Imperial Russian Navy. The trials were perfectly successful, all the machines being approved and accepted by the government within two weeks after their arrival there.

Curtiss flying-boats and hydroaeroplanes now form

the entire aerial equipment of the naval aviation corps, some sixteen machines having been accepte during the past year, with others under course o construction in America, and arrangements abouti completed for the establishment of a branch factory^ in St. Petersburg. Extensive experiments were madd during the year with hydroaeroplanes turned out bw leading European builders, but none of these proved as satisfactory as the American machines.


It is generally admitted in inner circles, and, fortunately, the general public is aware of ; fact, that there is a "slump" in aero-utics.

Ballooning is not quite as popular as it s been but one could scarcely assign a defi-e cause for the decline. The races here s coming year will have a great beneficial iect and we anticipate increased activity, [llooning is comparatively inexpensive. The lit cost is less than that of an aeroplane; rties can make trips at moderate expense d there is no shed to rent and little repairs. Che dirigible is coming back and we are iking hopefully to the time when we will : two-man sporting ships sailing about, and ssibly a big passenger cruiser or two. Zertainly we have less cause to worry over : prospects of the ever-delightful balloons' sport than over the outlook for aviation. Without a doubt it is probable that the eths in aviation so conscientiously chron-ed and totalled in the daily newspapers ve scared off a great many, who have no towledge of the "other side." That aeroplanes have been used almost en-ely for exhibition work and not for sport >ne has deterred the so-called "sporting .ss" from taking up aviation with avidity. We have looked to the flying-boat to bring iOUt a reversal of public sentiment and to 'luce sportsmen to take up over-water avian. With regret one must admit the flying-.at has not wrought the change expected— Issibly it will in time.

Perhaps a reduction in the selling price would )rk wonders. The automobile has ceased be a rich man's toy—it is the necessity of e man of smaller means. Let the aeroplane, id or water, come within the limit of the cketbook of the bulk of the citizens. We do not want to assume to prescribe for iation but from the following thoughts mething may be worked out. With the novelty of the aeroplane worn f, spectators at "the flying fields are now w and far between. They are no longer ntent to sit around for hours waiting for chance hop or two. Flying fields are gen-ally too far from city limits to make quick-cess feasible and this disadvantage militates ;ainst popularization.

Assuming that New York is the hub of a ֥at wheel, and that it has peculiar advan-ges for the furthering of any industry and 'Ort, let us make it a great aeronautical cen-r. Select the best available field, one as :ar the city as possible and with the quick-t means of transportation. Let every manu-

facturer whose future is dependent on activity in aviation lend his aid to making this field the scene of his work. Locate the factories at this field, if possible. At least, here conduct the flying schools.

We find Curtiss training military officers and citizens at San Diego, at Hammondsport; Burgess, at Marblehead; Benoist, at St. Louis; Thomas at Bath; Wright, at Dayton; Moisant and Sloane at Hempstead, and so on; one finds fields scattered all over the country with a machine or two at each. There are individuals conducting schools or experiments at scores of other places. There is little interest created at any one of these individual grounds. No benefit is derived from the public's witnessing the desultory flights at these scattered grounds.

Imagine all these military, naval and civil schools, and some factories, propeller workshops, repair shops, individual exhibition or sporting flyers, making headquarters at one great center! There would certainly be no greater expense conducting schools at one place than another.

With practically all the interests grouped in one place, there would be flying constantly going on. The general public on which we want to draw for recruits will have their enthusiasm returned to them, they will be going to this center to see the flying. They will be sure of seeing machines in the air at any time of any day. They will be making passenger flights, taking lessons, buying machines.

Entrance fees could be charged on every day. Weekly meets could be held at no expense. The students and instructors are flying anyway. Let them make the weekly flights competitive and afford enjoyment for a crowd. The income from attendance could be distributed pro rata among the men flying, among the manufacturers and schools. Soon we would see people in line for passenger flights.

The public would be paying for the privilege of increasing its own interest in flying.

The doings at this great field would be chronicled in the newspapers—we see nothing in the papers about the flights now at our present scattered fields.

A centering of interests like this would absolutely create wide attention. There is no good to result from complaining of lack of interest and doing nothing to make interest. Let the manufacturers do something themselves to help themselves.

A national center such as suggested should be conducted by the manufacturers and school

Page 148

concerns—by those whose interests are most affected—free from any club alliance.

One could add pages of suggestions for making such a center a wonderful missionary movement, a manufacturing and industrial center, a selling institution, profitable from the start.


Colonel Samuel Reber is now at the head of the Aeronautical Division of the Signal Corps which has been practically reorganized under the present Chief Signal Officer. Heretofore, aeronautical work has been done under the direction of Major Squires and Major Russel, who succeeded the former, but these officers were hampered by other duties in the Signal Office. Good work it has been with the limited funds placed at command by a penurious or short-sighted Congress. Many remember the whole-souled endeavors of General Allen, now retired, and appreciate the labors of his successors, General Scriven and Major Russel.

Acquaintances of Colonel Reber know him for a man with directness of purpose and an adequate knowledge of aeronautical needs. Things will move along just as fast as Congress will permit by provision. The recent bill before Congress to take aeronautics out of the hands of the Signal Corps and make it a separate arm has not yet been passed, praise be!

Captain Chambers, head of aeronautics in the navy, is big-hearted, informed and competent in aeronautical matters. He knows the needs of the navy in aeronautics, is conversant with all that has been done in foreign navies in aeronautics, and is endeavoring to accomplish still greater things than those which have in the past been enumerated in the press.

The ways, routine and red tape, of army and navy secretaries and Congress, are inexplicable to the layman and because every ship of our navy afloat is not equipped with a complement of aeroplanes and aviators is no reason to assume that we are in the ruck-on this particular point. We haven't heard of any foreign armored ships with air scouts


in actual service and it may be that befol another year rolls around we will be fair! well fitted to hold our own.

Somehow or other we get the idea thl Europe is so far ahead of us that we'll nevl catch up. If we had the public temperamefl here and an open-minded Congress we migll do a shade better.


Mr. McCormick has abandoned his $50,000 experiment station at Cicero flying field

* * *

Failure of the models in which Mr. Mcl Cormick has been interested is said to be th| cause of the closing of the experiment station. On one design, known as the umbrella plan, because of its shape, he is said to have spent $25,000.—Chicago Journal.

Those who disagreed so forcibly with ouj editorial on the ways and ways of spending in aeronautics, may now find their opinions changed.


In days gone by the expression was: "Lo, the pool Indian." Now, however, it is the more up-to-thel minute: "Lo, the poor aviator!"

Eugene Heth, better known as "Wild Bill," spenl a few hours in Memphis yesterday. Incidentally, Hetl says that aviation is fast becoming so commonplacl that before long the birdmen will find that the rel muneration is not sufficient for the risk.

"There are too many aviators, and the country L flooded with machines, good and bad," explained Hetrl "Then another thing that is working against the real artists in the game is that a crowd of amateurs arl glad to make contracts for a few hundreds a day.—I til em phis Appeal.


THE AIRMAN, by Captain C. Mellor, R. E., lj mo., cloth, 123 pp., illustrated. Published at $1.0(1 postage 10 cents, by the John Lane Co., 120 W. 32nl St.. New York.

This book contains the experiences of a young EnJ lishman, who in three months was to learn to fl; and then present his certificate to the War Office. Hi elected to try the school at Etampes, France, and trl Maurice Farman biplane was the machine he chosl He graphically describes his school, his first flighl his visit to the salon to see the exhibition of aeril locomoton. his first flight in a monoplane, etc. H gives many useful notes for the prospective pupil, an| his experiences will be invaluable to every woulJ be pilot of the air.

"Published Monthly by Aeronautics Tress j 122 E. 25th ST., NEW YORK

Cable: Aeronautic. New York 'Phone, 9122 Madison 5q. ERNEST L. JONES. Pres't — — THOMAS C. WATKINS, Treas'r-Sel ERNEST L. JONES, Editor - M. 8. SELLERS, Technical Editor HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor SUBSCRIPTION RATES

United States, $3.00 Foreign, $3.a

No. 74 OCTOBER, 1913 Vol. XIII, NoJ

mt, » ~,,f!!le,reA?i s«ond-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice, New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879.

*i AbKONAUTlCS is issued on the 30th of each Month. All copy must be received by the 2otr Advertising pages close on the 25th.

<2 Make all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not sen currency. No foreign stamps accepted.

To the Readers of this Journa):

Please accept my thanks for the hearty response to my letter of last issue. It was a surprise to really find such a heavy response.

Now, won't those who have not yet responded make the appeal ioo per cent, fulfilled by replying at once? The encouragement given by those who did co-operate is great. With replies reaching the hundred per cent, mark you'll create enough dynamic energy to last a long while.

This magazine is published for the benefit of those who find profit in it. It is neither a money-making proposition or purely a philanthropy.

That some profit by its publication I know, for they pay their subscriptions. That others profit by its publication I know, for they say so. Now there are still some who speak not; neither do they pay.

These do I address. There are but three propositions. Pay, promise to pay, or say frankly you don't want the magazine.

I am doing my best to furnish the best there is If you find a better magazine, subscribe to it; and then tell me you've found it. That will help me, perhaps. If you object to certain features, tell me.

I can't speak to you all with sounding words I must ask you to read what I write. If you don't want the magazine, say so. If you have found a better, tell me! If you do want it, may I have your renewal order or your check?

Thank you in advance.


Winter flying has already started in California. The following well known aviators have iheir water planes equipped with HALL-SCOTT motors: —





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HE international balloon race was won for Uncle Sam for the fourth time in the eight years of the existence of this event by Ralph H. Upson and R. A. D. Preston in the balloon "Goodyear," with H. E, Honeywell and J. H. Wade in the "Uncle Sam" second.

The race started from Paris, October 12th. There were 18 balloons in the contest. Upson landed al Bempton, England, on the North Sea, within 200 yards of the cliffs. Honeywell landed in France neai Brest. The distance covered by the "Goodyear" i: about 400 miles. No new records were made.

This achievement was only accomplished througl the scientific handling of the balloon by these younj aeronauts. They were competing with men of fa greater experience, and under foreign conditions tha from the beginning were considered a big handicap

Air. Upson has made a study of ballooning an was well informed on the various currents of ai that were to be encountered along the coast. Ui son and Preston have the honor of being the onll two contestants who sailed their balloon outside c France. When the balloon _ "Goodyear" headed fc the ocean, Upson was familiar enough with the prJ vailing air current to know that counter-winds woul be met that were sure to blow him back over tr continent. This proved to be the case. They crosse' the English Channel and traveled miles over tl Atlantic, however, before these winds were ei countered.

Their scientific study of ballooning and the g: tightness of the fabric were the main reasons f( enabling them to win.

The "Goodyear" is the same balloon that won tl National Championship Balloon Race at Kansas Cit Tuly 4th, 1913. It was also in the national race 1912. -


Oct. 10—Win. Assmann and Joseph O'Reilly in t; "Mill. Pop. Club" from San Antonio to Russellvill Mo., a distance of about 725 miles in 22 hours 40 mi utes in endeavor to beat Lahm Cup record.

Oct. 1—R. H. Upson and R. A. D. Preston in t "Goodyear" from Paris on a trial trip, landing at Poi a distance of 78 miles.


Sept. 22—"Ed" Steele in a hydroaeroplane flew over the Pacific Ocean from North Bend, Ore., to Florence, with one stop at Gardiner, a distance of 40 miles. Finish is intended to be at Yaquina.

George Dyott has again gone to England.

Oct. 4-5—William Thaw and Steven McGordon (Curtiss flying boat) flew from Newport to New Haven, a distance of 94i/% miles, in 93 minutes. The following day Thaw and AlacGordon continued their flight, 84}^ miles more, and landed near The Aeronautical Society's grounds at Oakwood Heights, S. I., after one intervening stop at Hunters Point.

The steamship distances, Oakwood to Newport, are given above.

Oct. 7—Beckwith Havens and J. B. R. Ver Planck (Curtiss flying-boat) flew from Albany to near Oak-wood Heights, S. I., with a stop at Chelsea, N. Y., a distance of 148.5 miles via route. The total elapsed time was 2 hours 45 minutes. The flying weight was approximately 2,000 pounds. The first stage was 81 miles.

I have always found your magazine invaluable.) R. P., Willianistown, Mass.

Oct. 16—Havens and Verplanck flew from O: wood Heights, S. I., back to Fishkill, arriving the the 18th, a distance of 64 miles.

Oct. 22—Raymond V. Morris in Gerald Hanle Curtiss flying-boat, with a passenger, made the loi est flight made around Providence this season, covered, according to the Government charts, a c tance of 145 miles in 125 minutes. Bristol, F River and other points on Narragansett Bay wi flown over. Sixteen gallons of gasoline were c< sumed. Morris's passenger was William Batcher, motor expert from the Curtiss factory. During I three months the lfanley flying-boat has been in cc mission it has flown approximately 6,500 miles at average speed of sixty miles per hour.

Oct. 8—W. C. Robinson, carrying copies of a n j newspaper, flew from Montreal to Ottawa, cover ' about 109 miles in 2 hours 55 minutes actual fly time. He made five stops on the way, of which th i were scheduled for the delivering of copies of paper.


harry bingham


Retires from Aviation. Will Dispose of his GENUINE


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Prevost won for France the 200 kilometre Gordon Bennett "international" aeroplane race, held Sept. 29th, Rheims, France, in a 20-foot span Dep with flat wings, 160 Gnome motor, making new world records as follows:

10 kils. (6.2 m.)............... 2 min. 56 3/5 sec.

20 kils. (12.4 m.)................ 5 min. 54 1/5 sec.

30 kils. (18.6 m.)................ 8 min. 52 1/5 sec.

40 kil. (24.8 m.).................11 min. 50 1/5 sec.

50 kils. (31 m.)..................14 min. 48 1/5 sec.

100 kils. (62 m.)..................29 min. 40 sec.

150 kils. (93 m.)..................44 min. 38 sec.

200 kils. (124 m.).................59 min. 45 3/5 sec.

]4 hour ................................... 50 kils.

y2 hour ..................................100 kils.

1 hour ....................................200 kils.

Greatest speed ......................203.85 K.P.H.

His fastest lap was at the rate of 126.9 miles an hour and his average for the entire distance was 124.69 miles.

Emile Vedrines (Ponnier—160 Gnome) was second in 1 hour 51.4 seconds.

Gilbert (Dep—160 Le Rhone), third, in 1 hour

2 minutes 55.4 seconds.

Crombez (Dep—-160 Gnome) was the only foreign contestant, and his time was 1 hour 9 minutes 52 seconds.

America was not represented by Weymann, as expected. He claims he was named by the F. A. I.'s representative in this country and advised hy the club that a syndicate was being formed by Norman Prince to buy a 200 H. P. Dep, the club declining any responsibility. After many cables the Dep was not forthcoming and, according to interviews with Weymann, he was never able to get a satisfactory explanation of Mr. Prince's intentions. 1 can only imagine that the whole business was a big bluff. 1 have telegraphed to him saying so.

"Now, without a machine it is, of course, impossible for me to compete in the race, much to my regret. I understand that another American pilot, named Kant-ner, was also bluffed in the same way. Who is Mr. Prince, I should like to know?"

Prince denies he's a "bluffer" and replies:

"I countermanded the order for a Deperdussin monoplane because Mr. Weymann stayed at Gynard for one month after the Paris-Deauville race without answering cables sent by me instead of being in Paris attending to the delivery of the machine, or at Rheims practising for the races.

"In other words, he failed to stay on the job and I cancelled the order for the machine."

Harold Kantner was first named by Prince and Kantner went ahroad. When Weymann seemed available, Prince decided Weymann offered a better chance for winning and offered the machine to him.

The International Race Winning Dep.


Under the auspices of The Aeronautical Societal for prizes aggregating $2,250, offered by the NeM York Times, five aviators covered a 51 mile cours| around Manhattan Island in a 42 mile wind October 13th in a race held to celebrate the tentl anniversary of man's first power flight, that ol Wilbur and Orville Wright, December 17, 1903. Oil of those who had entered the celebration flights anl the race, the following five actually started on schefl ule time, in a wind measured by the Weather Buf eau at 36 to 42 miles an hour, from the field of the Society at Oakwood Heights, across Staten lslanl and the Bay, up the East River, over the HarleJ and back down the Hudson to the field: William S. Luckey (Curtiss, 100 H. P.), Charles F. Niles (Cul tiss, 100 H. P.), C. Murvin Wood (Moisant monl plane, 50 Gnome), J. Guy Gilpatric (Sloane Monfl plane, 50 Gnome), Tony J annus (Benoist Tractor, 7l Roberts); and they finished in the order nameol The two monoplanes were blown wide of the coursl and the old passenger carrying Benoist was no speel match for the Curtiss machines. Not an inciderl marred the race and each engine drove along witB out skip. Luckey found his intake pipes freezhm but was able to knock off the ice and keep goinjf Coming down the Hudson with the wind at the bacM a speed of 75 miles an hour was attained by him. He used a propeller from a flying-boat which gave standing thrust of 650 pounds.

Wood made the fastest time from Spuyten Duyvl to Oakwood Heights, covering the 24 miles in 14| minutes 19 seconds, a speed of 100.7 M. P. H. IlH took 58 minutes 19 seconds to get to Spuyten Duyyil" Luckey and Niles both beat the monoplanes goina up the East River against the wind in speed but WoojB beat both in speed on the return. Figures seem toJ show that Niles made 90 miles an hour on the returf leg, evidently getting a better breeze, or else servers figures were not taken accurately, at Spuj( ten Duyvil.

Exhibition flights had been arranged to take plac' during the afternoon but the high wind kept th, other machines on the ground. Burnside with hi Thomas, Daimler motor, was not able to set up in time and another tractor was disqualified by reasol of alleged poor condition. Other machines preseiB were Ray Benedict (Gressier, 60 Anzani), Ruth LaB (Wright 30), Allen S. Adams (Sloane-Dcp, 60 AM zani).

Luckey received first prize of $1,000, Niles til second, $750; and Wood the third, $500.


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Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O. New York


Page 154

October, 1913,

ACCIDENT TO WALB. Capt. Walb started from Hempstead in a Schneider biplane but fell in the Bay Hearing the shore of Staten Island. He was rescued by a boat and his machine towed ashore.

FLY FROM HEMPSTEAD. Wood flew from the Moisant sheds at Hempstead to Oakwood Heights for the race.

AERO CLUB PLACES NILES FIRST. The race was supposed to be open to un-"licensed" aviators as well as licensed pilots. Luckey was an unlicensed man. Every aviator in the race went in with the knowledge that the race was open to anyone and each expressed himself in public as caring nothing one way or the other—whether he had a license or not, however, sanction from the Aero Club of America was asked for by President Twombly of the Society and granted by the Club. At a meeting of the contest committee of the Club, held after the race, it was decided that Niles was officially the winner, moving up the succeeding contestants a place. As the money had already been paid to the winners by the Times this action on the part of the Club is ridiculous. It is the rule to punish licensed pilots for taking part in unsanctioned contests by suspending them, barring them from any sanctioned contests and failing to record their exploits as "official." The club states that the contestants in the Air Derby asked the judges immediately before the race if it was sanctioned and received an answer in the affirmative. The club also states that the race was sanctioned by it and that, therefore, no punishment could fall on the contestants, save Luckey, who had no license. The Aeronautical Society, it seems, never authorized anyone to apply for a sanction. THE RETURN OF LINCOLN BEACHEY. Lincoln Beachey was one of the first to enter in the round-Manhattan race and had a special machine built by the Curtiss Company. A grievous accident occurred, however, during his trial flight which resulted in the killing of a spectator and the wrecking of his machine, which put him out of the contest which would signal his return to aviation.

The figures, as agreed upon by the New York-Timers' Club, and the judges, who struggled through as best they could without the sanction, are as follows:

Luckey .................................. 52:54.0

Niles ................................... 54:55.0

Wood .................................. 58:19.0

Gilpatric .................................1:08:53.6

Jannus ..................................1:13:57.0

_ Cups were also awarded by The Aeronautical Society to Luckey and Niles, the cups having been originally offered by 0._ Chanute_ through the Society to be given for meritorious service.


For month ending July 31, foreign parts were im-j. ported at a valuation of $4,531; of domestic exports! one aeroplane and parts at $3,113; in the warehouse] July 31, 3 aeroplanes and parts valued at $6,708. No] exports of foreign made material.

We exported during August 4 aeroplanes and parts valued at $12,221. Three foreign-made machines and parts remain in warehouse, valued at $7,708. Onlj parts were imported, valued at $53S.


Albert H. Jewell, a graduate of the Moisant School at Hempstead, started early in the morning on Octo-13 to fly to the Oakwood Heights aerodrome to go in the Air Derhy. Nothing has been seen or heard of him,or his 50 Gnome Moisant monoplane. Search parties have failed to find him. It is generally believed that he has been swallowed up in the marshes and quicksands on the south shore of Long Island. Some cling to the opinion that he got out to sea and was drowned. No wireless reports have been received of his having been picked up by any outgoing steamship. The Aeronautical Society has offered $400 for information and the Moisant Company $350.


The Hudson River Aviation Company of New York, Inc., of Manhattan, motors, engines, etc.; $30,000. H. W. Kays, George J. Foley, Thomas L. Cunningham, 46 Hamilton Place, New York.

The Intermountain Aviation Company of Salt Lajce City, has filed articles of incorporation. The capital stock of the company is $20,000. C. A. Tyler is president, J. A. Kaufman, vice-president; S. D. Huffaker, secretary and treasurer. These with A. S. Ash, W. N, Hill, D. E. Howard and N. G. Morgan form the directorate. All of the officers are of Salt Lake City except Secretary Huffaker, whose home is in Tooele.


The new tariff admits the importation of foreign-built aeroplanes at 20% ad valorem instead of 45%, as formerly. An aeroplane is considered as an en-tfrey ڮd comes under the heading of structures composed principally of metal. Motors alone are subject, also, to 20% duty.

I know of no better magazine published H. C. R., Othello, IVash. _

Since the first of the year exports of domestic aeroplanes and parts total 4, with a value of $18,395.


Lulu Joyce has sued the Silver Lake Aviation Co. of New Berlin, O., to obtain judgment on a $500 note The motor mortgaged as security was not valaubl enough to cover the note and she asks for executio on other assets. Judgment was confessed and fort closure granted.

The case of Dr. D. S. Quickel, asking for the a] pointment of a receiver for the Arbogast Aero Con pany, Anderson, Ind., will be called. The Arboga' Company, in which Dr. Quickel was a stockholder ii vested several hundred dollars in an aeroplane an it is alleged the contrivance flew over into Wisconsi somewhere and has not been seen since.

How Joseph C. O'Flaherty, known in the aviatic world as Joseph C. Stevenson, did his flying on nurse's money until he finally met his death, at Bi mingham, Ala., on Oct. 8, last year was broug out Sept. 30 in the Surrogates' Court, New Yor in the course of an inquiry demanded by the aviatoi brother, William F. O'Flaherty of 152 West Fort eighth Street, administrator of the estate.

One matter in dispute was the ownership of Hall-Scott motor. Mr. O'Flaherty learned that t motor was still in the possession of Miss Libbie Dixon, of 246 West Fifty-first Street, and she w subpoenaed to the Surrogates' Court for examinatic

She said that she first met the aviator while was ill in a hospital in which she was a nurse. S had come into an inheritance of about $50,000 a gave up nursing. She bought his aeroplane and ՠvanced $2,165 in payment for the motor. When met an untimely death at Birmingham the only thi she could do was to take possession of the motor.


A final meeting of the creditors of the Herrij Curtiss Company is called for the 1st day of. Novd ber 1913, to be held at the Court House in Bal N Y., at which time and place an application willl made for a final accounting. by the trustee in J proceeding and for an order directing a final d dend to be paid to the creditors.


Washington, D. C, Oct. 4—President Wilson | signed an executive order forbidding the operat of aeroplanes or_ any other aeronautical craft o the canal zone without the written permission of j chief executive^ of the canal zone. The order ( forbids the taking of pictures from any aeroplane balloon over the zone without similar permission. ' penalty is a fine of $1,000 or a term in jail not cecding one year or both fine and imprisonment the discretion of the court.


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Some of the other regular features are

Articles on practical and timely photographic topics.

Illustrations showing examples of the work of the best American and foreign pictorialists.

Foreign Digest.

Camera club happenings, exhibitions, and photographers' association notes. Items or Interest.

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Reviews of the new photographic books.

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New York, Sept. 27th, 1913.—A very exciting contest for duration for models rising from the ground was held at Van Cortlandt Park today. In spite of the strong wind prevailing, excellent flights were made. The contest was won by Carl Trube, a 12-year-old_ Yonkers boy with a flight of 60 seconds. Truhe, in spite of his youth, has proven a wonder at the "game," and has been a winner of most of the contests held here lately. Excellent flights were also made by Kipp, Radcliff and McLaughlin. The prize was a bronze medal donated by the Aeronautical Society. Official timer, Mr. Edward Durant.

New York, October 24th, 1913—Carl Trube again proved to be the winner of the contest held here at Van Cortlandt Park on the above date, with a flight of 61 seconds. The prize was a copy of "Harper's Aircraft Rook for Boys," donated by Mr. Edward Durant of the Aeronautical Bureau.

Oakwood Heights, S. I., October 13, 1913—A number of contests were held here in connection with the flying tournament of The Aeronautical Society. In spite of the strong wind prevailing in the morning, which kept the full-sized machines on the ground, at times the air was literally "full of models." The antics and capers of the models in the strong wind demonstrated their stability and seemed to greatly amuse the crowd. Much amusement was caused by a model striking the roof of a hangar, bouncing off and continuing its flight as if nothing had happened.

The contest for models rising from the ground was won by \V. F. Bamberger with a flight of 65 3/5 seconds. He was hard pressed by G. A. Cavanagh, who was forced to withdraw from the contest, owing to a mishap to his model. The Tractor contest was also won hy \V. F. Bamberger with a flight of 25 seconds. Lester Ness was second with a flight of 24 seconds.

Many of the flyers were provided with models unsuitable for entry in the contests and they proceeded to demonstrate the flying qualities of the models.

Excellent flights were made by L. P. Steinberg, a diminutive member of the New York Model Aero Club, \V. F. Bamberger, L. Bamberger, Harry Her-zog, Olson, Braun, Ness and others too numerous to mention. Among those ^present was the former world's champion, Armour Selley, who, although not provided with a model of his own, endeavored to entertain the spectators by showing that he could fly others' models as well as his own. Mr. Nicholas S. Schroeder, the well-known model flyer and writer on the science was also present and endeavored to explain to the various model flyers, the proper method of flying their respective models. The contests were a great success in every respect.

All questions regarding models and model flying may be addressed to the model editor, Harry Schultz, 23 West 106th Street, New York City, N. Y.

club, has experimented with and has lately perfectei a new type of rubber motor by which a model can rj flown with about one-fifth the length of rubber usei The power is the same and a great saving in weigl is made. He has also constructed a new style modi glider which has proven to be a remarkably steady an efficient flyer. Tractor models are being given mucl prominence by the club members and excellent flight have been made with models of this type by Obst Braun, Ness and Funk. Persons in the vicinity c the club interested in models and model flying ca not do better than to join this club. All applicatioi can be addressed to the president, C. V. Obst, 4( Grant Ave., Cypress Hills, L. I.


Captain G. L. Bumbaugh, the veteran balloon m:J is responsible for furnishing the songsters of the lii above Indianapolis with piano music for he recen ,1 ascended with a Baldwin player piano attached t( one of his balloons with a young lady operator pi 1 ing sweet tunes and Bumbaugh reclining on the tl of the piano just under the load ring. On landil the drag rope was caught by spectators and to shin the piano to be still playable Miss McDonald favoil the natives with another tune.


Charles H. Schmidt, brother of George Schmid who met with a fatal accident at Rutland, VI Sept. 2, writes regarding it:

"When at an altitude of 500 feet the motor beg£ to miss fire—dirt in carburetor—and George imm diately_ started a volplane. Spcllman, the passengf lost his head, rose from his seat and stood on thr rear control wires which passed between his let This terrible strain broke the rudder wire. Then t passenger reached forward and seized my brothe shoulder control and pulled that toward him. Tl J of course, threw the plane on a steep bank. Wi the rudder control gone, George was powerless straighten again, while the passenger hung desp<« ately to the shoulder control. My brother struggll hard to bring her back, but he could not get ouul Spellman's grasp. The machine took a very st(4 or sharp turn and crashed to the ground. Gecjil stuck to his seat trying hard to straighten the plal while the passenger freed himself entirely from J I seat, still hanging on to the shoulder control. |I actual fall was about 200 feet. Spellman escaiJ with a few slight injuries."


The Long Island Model Aero Club members, owing to the increase in interest, have had a very busy summer, and new members are being added regularly. The club held a biplane contest lately, the results of_ which appeared in last month's issue, C. Freelan being the winner with a duration of 57 seconds. As far as can be ascertained at the present time this constitutes a world's record for biplanes. His biplane, a splendid piece of workmanship, flew very steadily and easily captured the prize, a handsomely engraved silver medal.

Biplanes have become very popular with the members of this club and many very fine specimens of workmanship are being brought out. Hartman's biplane has surpassed all others in spectacular and exhibition flights. The flying field of the club has been changed and all flying is now done at Liberty Heights, Woodhaven. L. I. The club has under consideration the construction of a man-carrying glider and a committee is investigating the cost, method of construction and design.

Among the many new and novel models developed is a steady Dunne type monoplane built by Freelan. A small heavy R. O. G. speed model has been constructed by Shotwell and has proven itself to be one of the speediest and finest spectacular flyers ever constructed and is constantly duplicating the stunts of Pegoud in model form. Dan Criscouli's four foot model proved to be a very steady stable distance and duration flier. Charles V. Obst, the president of the


At the reconciliation meeting of the Aeronaut League of Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia A Club on Sept. _26th, a firm foundation was laid the new organization. Every member seemed v active in the new project with the result of the 1 lowing nominations for officers:

President, Walter Bryan, Edwin J. Doyle; v president, Joseph J. Hickey, Kenneth Robertson j Reginald Woodcock; secretary, D. Earle Dunlap, "\\ lian Keck and Percy Pierce; treasurer, Hai| Woodcock, Alan McMurry, Donald Robertson, Earle Dunlap and Percy Pierce.

The election took place Oct. 3rd at 8 p. m. meetings for the time being will be held at 610 Sc 31st Street.

The Kemp Machine Works of Muncie, Ind., mil facturers of the well-known Kemp air-cooled aerou motors, announce that they have secured Mr. ' G. Hanna to take charge of the sales department. Hanna has been actively connected with the busil side of aviation since 1910 and is thoroughly fanji with all branches of the sport. Intending purchal may be assured that their wants will be well promptly attended to. This enterprising firm ports business excellent. They have booked six orL in the past three weeks which certainly is not L for this rather dull time of the year. While T American market has so far been monopolized the water-cooled motor, there are evidences c change of opinion. The Government's apparent 1 erance for Renaults is significant.


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There are reasons for the change. It is now gen-rally admitted that an engine can get the most ower out of the gasoline when it is operating at a jmperature around 350 degrees. If ample bearing nd wearing surfaces are provided, high-grade ma-:rials used, and an efficient lubricating system in-talled, a motor can function perfectly at this tem-erature for any desired time, and without undue epreciation. To thus get more power from a given ylinder size, or the same power from a smaller cyl-lder, of course, means less weight per horsepower, ind to eliminate the chance of radiator leakage or f the water boiling away is, of course, another step >ward reliability.

Mr. Kemp states that the factory is running full me and keeping well ahead of orders. The firm takes it a point to always have motors in stock ready Dr immediate delivery. It is expected that the new -cyl. 75 H. P. model will be ready for the market in le spring. Prospects for a big business next year re regarded as excellent.

YOUNG GERMAN AVIATOR—Engineer and onstructor of flying machines not infringing Wright stent, Licensed Pilot, late Constructor and Instructor ith German firm, Expert on Gnome, Mercedes and .rgus motors, Driver high power autos and Motor-yclist, is looking for position with firm or private wner of a Flying Boat, etc. Speaks English. Ad-ress, German Aviator, care of AERONAUTICS, 22 E. 25th St., New York.

AVIATOR WANTED who can fly a Curtiss type .achine. Apply to George E. Yager, 119 N. 15th itreet, Omaha, Neb.

FOR SALE—Tractor Biplane. Genuine Benoist PI3 model. Good as new. Will demonstrate. Ad-ess Tractor, care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th New York.

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For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces.

Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, etc.

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USED by Gilpatric and Wood in "Times" Aerial Derby USED by Wood in his flight to Washington Have proven their superiority


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Send sketch or model for FREE Search of Patent Office records. Write for our Guide Books ♦ and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our T special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes. X


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Address, Burgess, care Aeronautics


pedal grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, attan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan >r Skids 1^ diameter and under any length.


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American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bid.?. WASHINGTON. D. C.

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Antony Jannus with Two Passengers Flying the New Benoist Flying Boat, Equipped with Six Cylinder

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