Aeronautics, September 1913

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XIII. No. 3


25 Cents


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Aviation in France




N actual development of the aeroplane, France is undoubtedly considerably ahead of the United States, but this is due neither to great superiority on the part of the constructors and aviators, but chiefly to the fact that France is in a continual fever of militarism, a condition not altogether to be envied. Ever since 1871 public opinion in France has had its eyes fixed on Germany, either in fear of further invasion or in hope of revenge for the loss of Alsace-Lorrain, and the aeroplane has now suddenly appeared as a magic weapon by which the national honor and prestige is to be restored.

It is not the government alone that is buying aeroplanes for the army, but well-to-do individuals, clubs, newspapers, actors and actresses, and even schools present them to the national flying corps. Those who can not afford to present a machine themselves, contribute to the general subscription for "aerial defense."

Great interest is also taken in all things connected with military aviation; demountable hangars, aeroplane workshops mounted on auto trucks, rapid fire guns for use on aeroplanes and on automobiles for use against aircraft are of absorbing interest to the French nation and occupy a large part of the space in aero exhibitions. Wireless experiments, too, have been very successful, though only in sending messages. I do not know of any great success attained in receiving wireless messages on aeroplanes. The result is that with such a steady inflow of orders the manufacturers are enabled to keep fairly large plants going and run their business on a scale and with a degree of competition and progress quite impossible in this country.

But if military aviation were not existant in France the conditions there would be practically what they are here, for aviation has not yet developed to a state of commercial utility while as a form of sport the French are perhaps even less interested in it than we are ourselves.

Aeroplanes are not being bought by individuals. The majority of those flying are officers of the army and such civilians who fly are demonstrators in the employ of the manufacturers. Of the makers themselves, none are flying save the Farmans. Bleriot, even, has given up flying.

It seems quite possible, therefore, because the military development is denied us in this country, that we will be forced to develop along the commercial and sporting side; and this, after all, is the more permanent though

slower development. We have already developed the hydroaeroplane, the ideal machine for sport, into the "flying boat," a type not unknown in France, but far ahead of the great majority of French hydroaeroplanes which retain the old form of a land machine fitted with floats instead of wheels.

France has been known as the country of monoplanes while the biplane was called the American type. This distinction can no longer be applied as biplanes are coming more and more into general use for "all 'round" work. The biplane is generally considered safer and more stable and the monoplane's development is being confined to speed lines. The latter is not a weight carrier, it is not adaptable to the purposes for which a biplane may be used. In it every effort is being made to increase speed. "Monococque" construction is becoming more and more common, every bit of wood and metal is given stream line form to reduce head resistance, every ounce of weight is being eliminated, increased power is being used and the wing surfaces are being studied for speed effects.

It seems quite possible that the eventual type will be between the monoplane and biplane, the "sesquiplane" if one may so term it. For the biplanes are approaching the monoplanes in a way. Eiffel has shown in his laboratory that the lower plane carries, approximately, only a third the weight carried by the upper and advises reduction in size of the lower. This is being generally done. The lower plane gives increased stability over that of a single plane and has considerable use for structural reasons, while the efficiency of the machine is increased over that of the old biplane. Where warping systems are used, however, in the Breguet and Astra, the lower plane still remains the same size as the upper. A feature of the Breguet machine is that the entire wings are very flexible, even the control cables have springs introduced in their lengths and beyond a certain point the operation of rudder and elevator and warping is impossible. This produces a machine which while "smooth" and indifferent in light wind eddies, is rather difficult to manage under severe conditions. In general the manufacturers are building their wings less rigidly, almost all having flexible trailing edges and some being positively "S" shaped in order to allow gusts to slide more easily past.

Another interesting type that is being developed is the "canard" or tail-first machine; this may be either a monoplane or biplane. Of this genus the original Wright is considered the prototype though strictly speaking the Wright had no tail at all. The number of experimental machines of this kind has increased rapidly of late, the Voisin biplane being the best known. Bleriot built two, the

first a failure, the second is being tried out. Lieutenant Blard has been flying fairly successfully at the army station of Chalais-Meudon with a machine built along these lines, and another of all-welded metallic construction is being manufactured for general sale by Besson. The advantages claimed for this type are, greater longitudinal stability, greater field of vision, the pilot being in front of, rather than behind the main wings, and greater security in landing, the centre of gravity being over the rear rather than the front of the skids.

The tandem plane machine is coming for its share of experimentation. Drzewiecki has built a tandem monoplane with the front plane nearly as large as the rear one, with the centre of gravity approximately in the middle of the fuselage. The front and rear planes are of different sections, the front being normally at 8 degrees and the rear one at 5 degrees, or 3 degrees negative to the forward plane. On account of the difference in section and area of the front and rear surfaces, the total lift of the forward surface varies less rapidly than that of the rear surface when the angle of incidence changes. In case of a sudden dip, the difference in power of the two units is reversed. That under the forward plane becomes preponderant and rights the machine. Lateral stability is maintained by changing the angle of incidence of either half of the front plane. (See in AERONAUTICS for February, 1913, article by Captain W. Jrving Chambers.)

This assurance of longitudinal stability seems to be the most important step in the direction of security in aeroplanes, as the majority of accidents seem to be due to a loss of headway and consequent "slipping" of the machine, in mounting too suddenly or to

"engaging" the rudder in descending too rapidly. Farman has a system of control levers by which the control acts with less and less efficiency the further the rudders are turned toward one extreme or the other and the Doutre stablizer has proven very efficient and is being considerably used. This instrument consists briefly of a plate placed at right angle to the direction of flight. Any sudden increase of lelative speed through the air causes increased pressure on the plate which pushes back a piston in a cylinder which in turn operates a servo-motor and controls the elevator. A decrease in pressure allows the plate to be pushed forward by a spring when a similar operation takes place and the elevator automatically heads the machine down. Two small weights by their inertia actuate the piston in the same manner when there is any such things as "holes in the air" which would not effect the wind plates (fully described in AERONAUTICS.

The chief effort that is being made in development along lines not strictly military is due, more than to any other person, to the present president of the Aero Club de France, Deutsch de la Meurthe. He is an immensely wealthy man, has given large sums to aeronautics in prizes, for achievements in dirigibles as well as aeroplanes, and established the Aerodynamic Laboratory at St. Cyr. He has interested himself in encouraging development of weight carrying machines and it will be remembered that he had Bleriot build him an aeroplane taxi, with an inclosed cab body, with every convenience found in the automobile taxi, except the indicator of the fare. His latest machine is one he had built for him by Voisin. It is a huge hydro called the "Icaire" capable of carrying eight to twelve passengers.


I am not quite so keen for aeronautical literature as I was a year or more ago, because it seems to me that no adequate progress has been made since the Wrights pointed the way. The amount of flying is great enough, machines are better built, motors are more reliable and more powerful in proportion to weight, but after all, the Wright principle of construction has not been materially improved upon except in such manner as experience would naturally suggest and the essential features remain unaltered. This either speaks pretty well for the Wrights or not very well for those who have followed in their footsteps.

My own belief is that the aeroplane as at present constructed has not nearly reached its greatest stage of development either in theory or practice. I have not lost interest in the future of aviation, as I believe there is very much yet to be accomplished in the way of improvement. What is most needed now is a new race of aviators. At present those aviators who are most in the public eye, seem to care

nothing for their occupation except as a temporary stepping stone to enable them to reach as soon as possible a stage of existence where they wont need to risk their own necks in the air. It is the machine itself that is mostly to blame for this state of things. When the ideal flying machine makes its appearance, aviators wont be so anxious to retire from their aerial experiences, but will enjoy them so thoroughly that they will never want to quit. Neither will the enjoyment of these experiences be confined to the young and the strong. It will be common for old men and even invalids to get the benefit of the upper air without a suggestion of fear, and I expect to see this consummation, although I am in my sixty-seventh year. I can not myself claim to have contributed very much to the promotion of aviation except as a passenger on two occasions when I certainly did make some contributions, in a way. I covered about forty miles all told with a noted aviator who soon thereafter lost his life, doing stunts, I think, which his better judgment did not approve,


Technical Talks

by m. b. sellers


In view of the present public interest in the Dunne aeroplane, I shall give a brief explanation of its stabilizing qualities, based chiefly on material contained in Mr. Dunne's communication to the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain (Jan. 29, 1913).

As is generally known, the machine has retreating wings, forming a V in a horizontal plane. These wings are cambered as though they formed the roof of a cylindrical tunnel, running diagonally lengthwise of each wing, so that the crown is nearer the rear side of the wing at its outer end; the diameter of the tunnel preferably diminishing toward the wing tip.

Thus, the wing presents a quasi warp; the chord of the outer end being at a negative angle in normal flight as shown in Fig. 1, which shows a front and plane view.

Fig. 1

Now the relative wind, due to a side gust, "will come across the port or starboard bow, and will blow more across the tunnel in case of the windward wing and more down the tunnel on the leeward wing as shown in Fig. 2 (in which the wind is supposed to come from the observer's eye toward the picture). It is obvious that the windward wing wilt encounter greater resistance than the other, and the machine will at once swing around to Iface the wind. This device, therefore, possesses greater weathercock stability than would be conferred by a large vertical tail plane on a conventional machine, besides acting more quickly.

Considering, now, longitudinal balance: the forward and central part of the aeroplane constitutes, with the lateral parts, a "longitudinal V"; in fact, every portion of the wing bears this relation to the part adjacent. When the machine rears, the lift on the after positive portions of the wings increases more rapidly than that on the forward portions, because the angles of attack are nearer zero; this causes the centre of pressure to move backward along the wing; at the same time

the negative portions are being reduced in area; all of which promote longitudinal stability.

Finally, we have what Air. Dunne calls the reserve tangent device. If the vectors (representing the resultant pressures) are drawn at points along the wing, say at each rib, those in front will slope backward, and as we go toward the wing tip the vectors will become shorter and slope more and more forward; and in normal flight the resultant of them all will slope backward.

But if the machine loses headway, and therefore begins to sink, the angle of attack will increase, the rear pressures will increase more rapidly than those in front, and the centre of pressure will not only move backward but will incline forward, thus furnishing a propelling component. Instead, therefore, of diving like a conventional aeroplane, it will be able to accelerate with only a gradual descent. Air. Dunne states that the effect this has on the smoothness of path in high winds is simply amazing, and that the machine maintains itself under full control at apparently impossible angles. (I do not entirely agree with the above explanation.)

Air. Dunne shows mathematically what occurs after the machine has been forcibly tilted sideways, but I shall not give that here. The machine first commences to circle toward the low side, but at once the outer wing tends to lag and be depressed, due to the faster moving negative tip, and to the angle at which the different parts of the wings meet the air in describing the curve. The machine will, therefore, tend to level up. and straighten out the curve. In order, therefore, to maintain the bank and curve, ailerons must be used. If turned by an ordinary rudder the machine depresses the outer zving.

As to lateral stability, or steadiness, the coning of the wings at the front produces a slight positive dihedral, while the tips present a negative dihedral. These, under the action of a side gust, oppose each other, and tend to damp out incipient oscillations, and it is found that in ordinary side gusts, little rocking is produced.

The negative surface exposed decreases with increasing angle of attack. If a strong side gust initiates a windward roll, it will also increase the angle of attack and so decrease the negative surface, thus checking the roll; and vice versa.

Finally, an aerofoil presenting its long edge to the wind, receives at small angles, greater pressure than if exposed the other way; but at large angles, beyond 30 degrees, it receives less pressure. Now, a side gust encounters the windward wing more on its long edge, and the leeward wing more endwise, therefore, the pressures are greater on the windward wing. But if by an excess of overturning forces, the machine is being upset sideways, the preponderance of pressures on the windward wing will diminish as the inclination increases, and, beyond 30 degrees the pressures on the leeward wing will be the greater. It would seem, then, impossible to be blown over much beyond 30 degrees no matter how violent and unevenly applied the gust.

Though we may not concede all that Mr. Dunne claims for his machine, we must admit that it possesses remarkable stability.


Patrick Y. Alexander once said: "Dunne is one man you should watch carefully." J W. Dunne began active work on gliders in 190S in secrecy.

In 1909 Dunne started on his own account and built a heavy biplane, and, after many changes, in the fall of 1910 he flew before Orville Wright and Griffith Brewer, letting go the levers and writing notes. (See AERONAUTICS, March, 1911, pages 81-83 for description and text of patent.)

Then work on a monoplane was begun. The monoplane had its trials in the summer of 1911 and was along similar lines. Little was heard of this.

Dunne went back to his biplane, lightened it and began flying it with X. S. Persival as pilot, in the summer of 1912. Many passengers were carried, among them Commandant Felix, who was attracted by the monoplane and who induced the Nieuport firm to lend a Gnome motor. "I saw the apparatus fly once, then mounted it without hesitation.

made the first flight with levers in hand and manouvered to test the apparatus, then a second flight during which "I let go everything, and at the end of a moment stood up on my seat and had great trouble to avoid dancing a jig for joy. The next day I started for France."

Readers will remember the successful flight just recently made by Felix from London to Paris in the latest Dunne biplane. "The apparatus stood there every possible test: hail, wind, heat waves met with in the country at 1500 metres height and difficult landings both hard and brutal, the machine acted admirably everywhere. I flew in very doubtful weather at Villacoublay, and the next day in really rough weather before my superiors, who, according to their habit desired to form their own conclusions, says Julien Felix.

Ailerons are necessary for steering as there is no rudder or elevator. These ailerons are used for both purposes.

(References: Aeronautical Journal, January, 1911 ; Flight, June 24, 1911; Flight, June 18 and 25, 1910; British Aero, July, 1911; Flugsport. September 6, 1911; AERONAUTICS, March, 1911.)

Recent doings of the Dunne machine are of interest. After flying over Paris and giving demonstrations at Yillacoublay, during one of which Commandant Felix got out of the seat and walked along the lower wing (on the side with, not against, the torque couple), he flew the machine to Deauville, where he has been flying consistently. Once, while flying at Deauville, he gave an interesting demonstration of what could be done in emergencies. Hearing the engine missing, he locked the levers, walked back to the engine, a distance of over 12 feet, adjusted matters to his satisfaction and then returned and resumed control, the episode taking two or three minutes. It is not known what the trouble with tin-engine was, but it is believed that it was the ignition wire to the back-plate. The centre of gravity must have moved nearly a foot.

The present Dunne machine is operated by two levers which actuate the ailerons situated

at the extremities of the upper and lower planes. Moving the two levers forward or back makes the machine descend or ascend respectively. When steering to the right, the right hand lever is drawn backward and the left hand one pushed simultaneously forward. These actions result in the flap on the pilot's right having its trailing edge elevated while that on the left has its trailing edge depressed. Each of the wings spreads 7.9 metres, chord 1.65 in. spaced 2 metres apart. The ailerons in the upper plane measure 2.25 m. by 75 cm.; those in the lower plane, which are not out quite so far, measure in spread 1.45 m. The fuselage is 5.40 m. long, height at rear 1 m., at the seat 1.80 m.; greatest width 80 cm. The chassis is novel. There are skids under each wing tip, and at the fore and aft extremities of the fuselage. The running gear consists of two wheels. The motor is an 80 H. P. Gnome and the speed averages 80-90 K. P. II.

The new "type 14" Benoist air-boat differs in detail only from the old type 13 boat built by that company in the latter part of 1912 and flown the first time successfully on the last dav of the year. (Full drawings and details in January, 1913, AERONAUTICS.)

The new type is constructed as the old with the motor down in the boat, and, of course, is still chain drive. The original lines of the boat part are still preserved, only being built wider to make seating capacity for two side by side.

The boat proper is twenty-three feet long, the direction rudder extending two feet further back. The hull is twenty-two inches high at the step and carries practically the same height up to and including the passenger seat and control lever space. Step is five inches deep.

The air and water rudders are constructed integral, the lower part of the air rudder being made of wood and extending down into the water. To make the water rudder efficient when machine is moving slowly or the tail is high it is extended six inches below the stern of the boat and protected by a sprag which is simply an extension of the small centre board placed under that part of the boat.

A larger gap between the main planes is employed than in the regular Benoist tractor machine, it now being six feet..

The Benoist company was the first to build a successful flying boat with the motor down in the hull. This was adopted unanimously by the engineering board, consisting of Tony J annus, Hugh Robinson and Tom Benoist, after repeated tests for efficiency both in water and in air; great attention being given

to the factor of safety regardless of whetherl the machine was to be used as a boat or aero-| plane The findings in favor of the motor in the hull were as follows: "1st—The motor in the hull made the machine much more stable in the water, eliminating the trouble experienced by the other builders in keeping the machine from turning over when the water was a little rough or a light wind blowing, when the machine was anchored or not moving forward. 2nd—This also added greatly to the apparent safety of the machine. The same objections urged against the motor up high between the planes back and above the aviator and passengers holding good in the flying boat as well as in exhibition machines. The Benoist company developed the first successful tractor biplane in this country, and as this style of plane has become very popular the last two years among exhibition men because of its much greater factor of safety in comparison with the propeller-driven machines it was decided that the motor must not go up high under any condition."

The motor is placed on two strong beams running parallel with one another practically the full length of the boat. These beams are made strong and heavy and add materially in strengthening and stiffening the boat fore and aft. They are sixteen inches high in front of the step and, under the motor, seventeen feet long and two inches thick.

The motor drives a propeller 8J/2 feet diameter by 5.50 feet pitch. These propellers are constructed by the Benoist company, being brought up to the highest state of perfection after repeated tests and experiments. A

Benoist "Type XIV" Air-boat

x/2 inch by }i inch by i inch Diamond roller chain is used to transmit the power of the engine to the propellers, the chain running in tubular steel guards to eliminate any possibility of becoming entangled in wiring or propeller in case of high speed, breakage, or strain.

A honeycomb radiator of their own manufacture is used with 513 sq. in. of presented surface on the 75 H. P. Roberts motor and 480 sq. in. on the Sturtevant 70 H. P. motor.

The radiator is placed above and back of the motor just in front of the drive chain.

The shaft that carries the propeller is mounted between the main planes eighteen inches below the trailing edge of the upper plane. It took a great deal of experimenting coupled with some ingenuity to evolve a system of struts and wires to carry this shaft that would take up the strains, both thrust and tortional. However, this was overcome after many experiments, and a system both light and durable, substantially as indicated in the drawings is used. Both ends of this shaft are carried by combined thrust and radial ball bearings; the distance rod or chain tightener also using ball bearings at each end.

The regular Benoist tractor planes are used, differing only in gap and length of separate sections: Spread of main planes. 35 feet 4 inches; gap, 6 feet; length of sections outside of engine section, 8 feet; chord of wing 5 feet; camber 2^ inches; greatest depth of camber, 21 inches back of front edge: wing area, 337 sq. ft.; ailerons, four, each 8 feet long and 20 inches wide. Wings covered with No. 2B Naiad aero cloth. All guy and control wires Roebling special stranded cable.

This boat equipped with either a Roberts or Sturtevant motor will carry two passengers beside the aviator, and is capable of carrying seven hundred pounds of useful load consisting of passengers, gasoline or freight.

The motor is cranked by a lever and ratchet arrangement on the forward end of the propeller shaft.

Curtiss "English" Flying Boat

Certainly there is nothing slow about the development of the Curtiss flying boat. Last month, as in previous successive months, a new model was described in these columns, and here, almost before the varnish on its predecessor has had time to set, comes another new craft with still further modifications.

This time it is a really truly four-passenger craft along the same general lines as the now well-known Curtiss model. For lack of a more appropriate name we may refer to it as the "English" flying boat, because it is the machine shipped to Mr. Curtiss in England for the demonstrations already arranged for there. It also may be used for the proposed Anglo-American flying boat contest; the Sopwith air-boat being mentioned in the despatches as a probable competitor.

Instructor Francis Wildman of the Curtiss training camp tested the new machine September 15-16, and reports indicate that this boat marks some distinct advances over any of the previous models. On the first "jump," which Wildman made alone, the boat left the water within a hundred feet of the starting point. It proved a quick climber and a steady flier. About quarter of an hour was devoted to this preliminary test, during which Wild-man tried the machine at every angle. Returning to the landing stage Wildman, who weighs 158 pounds, took aboard Henry Kleck-ler, weight 168 pounds; Mortimer Bates, 155 pounds; Harvey R. Kidney, 138 lbs. His flight with these four aboard lasted nearly an hour, during which an altitude of approximately 2,000 feet was attained. Wildman was anxious to attempt the establishment of an official passenger-carrying duration and distance record, but like many other really competent flyers, he never has troubled to fly for a pilot license so that his record would not be "official." Photographs taken during

this four-passenger flight show the handi-ness of the new boat both on the water and in the air. The machine is shown steeply banked on a short turn near the water, as well as climbing on turns; good evidence that even when carrying 700 pounds the craft is not overloaded.

Repeated trials over the measured mile showed an average speed of exactly 60 M. P. H. The average mile with the wind was 55 seconds, against the wind, 1.05.

During the two days devoted to the tests Wildman flew several hundred miles with the new machine, trying it on different occasions with two, three and four passengers. Some of the old hands at aviation were inclined to be skeptical about the desirability of the after cockpit until they tried it out. Then all were unanimous in declaring it the most comfortable place on the "ship."

"1 never fully realized the luxury of aerial travel until I rode in the back of this flying landaulet," said one experienced airman after a long flight. "There one seems indeed 'monarch of all he surveys.' Wildman told me to make myself comfortable without giving a thought to the balance of the machine and I proceeded to do so. I lounged back in one corner, smoked a cigarette and enjoyed the scenery. Then it occurred to me that I had long been curious as to the effect of air pressure on different parts of the machines when in action, so I spent several minutes watching for vibration in the cables or surfaces. The yellow wings spread out on both sides of me, smooth and solid as a floor. There was no perceptible movement in them, the cables were motionless; none of that vibration which is said to make a 1/16 cable equal in head-resistance to a 1 inch upright was apparent. I changed at will from one side of the cockpit to the other, without any noticeable effect on the balance of the ma-

"Page 93

chine. Finally I stood up and leaned over the forward edge, then shifted to the after side. It was always the same,—nothing to disturb the feeling of absolute stability."

Improvements are shown from keel to upper surface. The hull, which is of solid mahogany, polished like a piano case, has six inches more beam than any previous model, a decided Vee-bottom, with a steel-shod keel extending beyond the step. Mahogany is used for planking the bottom, but is covered with sheet Duralumin, and mahogany lines the double cockpit. A new style of construction in the hull has resulted in greater strength, though the boat weighs considerably less than the canvas-covered models built for Jack Vilas, J. B. R. Ver-planck, and some others. Increased comfort' for the passengers is secured by the raised deck.

In the wings and ailerons further changes are noticeable. Considerable weight is saved by the new one-piece construction, and with no sacrifice of strength. The spread of the upper surface has been increased to 41 feet, while the lower one measures 30 feet. Instead of being secured by a diagonal brace as heretofore, the upper extension is trussed above and below, and the outer end of the aileron is supported by a post descending from a socket near the end of the upper plane. Surfaces are of unbleached linen, made semi-transparent by the new Curtiss waterproofing preparation. No changes of any moment have been made in the tail structure. Like those in the U. S. Navy's "C-2," described last month, the horizontal members are higher than in former Curtiss machines, but the area and general dimensions are the same.

The hull is 25 feet long, with a beam of So inches, and an extreme depth of 46 inches. Made entirely of dark Honduras mahogany, fastened throughout with copper rivets and outside with round-headed brass screws. Both forward and after cockpits arc ceiled and

panelled in mahogany. Seats are upholstered in dark brown corduroy, and after cockpit seat-back is upholstered. Metal fittings are finished in maroon enamel. Center panel of forward deck folds over to form rubber covered and cleated gangplank. Entrance to after cockpit is through the forward one, engine supports having been designed to allow room, and to decrease head resistance of machine. Hull is mono-hydroplane, with Vee-bottom, keel extending beyond the step, so as to form a substantial support when boat is run high and dry on runway or beach.

Design of the superstructure differs considerably from previous models. Wings are of one piece. Upper wings have a spread of 41 feet; lower wings measure 30 feet. Chord, 61 inches. Wing structure is lighter and stronger than formerly. Beams are laminated and tapered, fastened at joints with copper straps. No holes are bored in the main beams. Ailerons have been increased in size and now measure 12 feet long by 3 feet deep. These are hinged on the outside rear uprights, and steadied by struts depending from the outer extreme of each upper surface. Each aileron is wired independent of the other and in case of the disablement of one the machine can be handled by the other.

The power plant comprises one of the new Model O-X 00-100 H. P. Curtiss motors, with a new style of radiator which is of smaller area than the old ones but of greater capacity. An 8 feet 6 inches Curtiss propeller is attached direct. Main fuel supply is from two 20 gallon tanks fitted into the corners of the after cockpit. Air pressure forces the gasoline from these tanks to a 3-gallon tank located on the motor bed, whence the gasoline flows by gravity to the carburetor.

Weight of this boat is approximately 1.40Q pounds, speed to M. P. H, ,

An important use of the aeroplane would be picking out headquarters, the enemy's commanding general and important encampments like that, and by using shrapnel, a large shell weighing 500 pounds with high explosives, and being able to drop it within a square >f 120 feet, I think you could make it very uncomfortable for the commanding general. I think that would be an important use of the aeroplanes. Against fortifications—I firmly believe that 500 pounds of nitrogelatin placed near a barbette disappearing gun carriage would put that completely out of service. If dropped on a mortar battery, I think it would temporarily at least put that out of order, and especially the range-finding system. The accuracy of these guns depends entirely on the range-finding system. These systems are screened as much as possible from the sea in the scacoast fortifications, but they cannot be screened from the air, and I think it would be very readily put out of business, and when the range-finding system is put out of business the battery is put out of business, at least until it is repaired.

Lieut. R. E. Scott.

New Developments in Aeronautics


The newspapers widely heralded the reported feat of the French aviator Pegoud, with a Bleriot monoplane, in "looping the loop." As a matter of fact, he did nothing of the kind. Wonderful as his feat was, which he repeated for the benefit of the military, he merely headed downward in a vertical line, and with his elevator turned the machine on its back for an approximate distance of 400 yards for 15 seconds. Again with the eleva-

tor, the machine was brought to the vertical position again and leveled out. Of course, Pegoud was strapped in. It will be remembered by readers of AERONAUTICS that a similar performance was done involuntarily by Capt. Aubry in a Dep. It is reported that Bleriot hopes to see Pegoud turn his monoplane over sideways in the air and back again, instead of in the vertical direction.

In 1005 Maloney, who was employed by Prof. J. J. Montgomery to operate his gliders in free flight after being released high in the air. once pressed too hard on the ".stirrup" which warped the wings, and made a side somersault very much like one turn of a corkscrew. Wilkie, another operator, not to be outdone, said he would do the same, and actually made two side somersaults, one in one direction and one in an opposite, then made a deep dive and a long glide and when about 300 feet high brought the aeroplane to a sudden stop and settled to the earth.

After this, Montgomery changed the machine to allow but plain sailing. (See p. 49, January, 1909, AERONAUTICS.)

In 1911 Lieut H. R. P. Reynolds, _ R.E., was turned upside down in a Bristol biplane by a whirlwind at a height of some 2,000 feet, and alighted safely, but wrong side up.

In 1912 W. R. B. Moorhouse purposely forced the nose of a Bleriot up as far as it would go and then switched off, in an endeavor to force a tail-slide, by way of an experiment. The machine stood still on end, then rolled slightly over sideways and dived, descending without damage. A Maurice Farman, piloted by a pupil, performed a similar feat involuntarily at Eastchurch. Capt. Aubry, on a Deperdus-sin, also turned a somersault in the air, unintentionally, and survived.

On August 25th Pegoud left his aeroplane at an altitude of about 750 feet and descended in a parachute invented by a man named Bonnet. The aeroplane was left to shift for itself.

After attaining an altitude of about 600 feet, and. facing the direction of the wind, Pegoud was seen to release the lever for liberating the parachute, diving at a slight angle as he did so. Suddenly he was seen to be suspended in the air, while the machine continued on its course alone with its engine running. It rose till, at a height considerably above Pegoud and his parachute, it effected a tail-slide and turned completely over. Righting itself almost immediately it glided at a normal angle to the earth, very little damage being done. Pegoud, meanwhile, was gently lowered into the branches of a tree, entirely unharmed.

The device is constructed by Bonnet, and is kept flat against the rear of the fuselage by means of two spring arms. The pilot is attached to it by means of rubber cords, and can release the arms when necessary with a lever at his side. Oscillations of the parachute when in action are dampened by a hole 14 cms. in diameter, and through the fact that the air can percolate slightly through the silk immediately adjacent to it.


M. Henry Bonnet has offered a prize of $200 to the pilot of a machine which shall fly a distance of 20 kil. without there being any intervention on his part in order to maintain balance in either the lateral or longitudinal direction. The rudder may be used for steering, but no warping to nullify its effects on balance is permissible. The tests will take place in a wind having a minimum velocity of 10 M. P. H. A representative of the Commission Sportive Aeronautique will be seated beside the pilot, and will, in consequence, be able to assure himself that none of the controls are manipulated.


At the last meeting of the F. A. I. it was decided that the conditions under which pilots' certificates are obtained should he altered, though not to any serious extent. The aeroplane pupil must now ascend to an altitude of 100 metres instead of 50 in the height test, and glide with his engine completely stopped.

The dirigible pupil, also, must now make 20 ascents in order to obtain his brevet. This number holds good if he already has one for spherical balloons—if not, 25 ascents must be made.


European papers seem to have the idea that Pegoud, when he cut loose from his aeroplane n mid-air with a parachute and safely defended to earth, did a new and wonderful eat. And here, since Leo Stevens a year igo, introduced dropping from aeroplanes by )arachute, one can almost say this "stunt" s being done daily.

i Scarcely more than a line was given in newspapers to the drops made by Miss "Tiny" Broadwick from Glenn Martin's tractor during the Perry Centennial Celebration during August, and now being made as an exhibition feature in the Middle West. The illustration shows how the parachute was attached to the fuselage of the machine.


The latest invention of Louis Bleriot, already mentioned in AERONAUTICS, may be found of practical value for the launching and landing of aeroplanes on board war vessels .suitably equipped. Trials have already been successfully made in the presence of French marine officials. In the trials the apparatus fised was an 80 meter long cable suspended in the air by transverse cables at each end attached to posts in the ground 20 meters apart. On the Bleriot monoplane is a V-shaped frame which supports the actual device itself. The aviator, who was Pegoud again, approached the long cable in flight and maneuvered his aeroplane so that the two wooden forks attached to the framework mentioned before came on either side of the cable. Under pressure the catch at the junction of the forks allows the cable to pass by and closes again. The motor is stopped and the machine slows down on the upgrade of the cable. To start from the wire, speed is attained and the catch

released by the pilot's pulling the control, which can easily be seen in the illustration, and the monoplane is free. The left photo shows the catch closed over the wire. The one on the right shows Pegoud just before catching the cable.


Ordinarily the change is not so great that it will have any effect on the motor. The only time that I have ever noticed this to occur was at Texas City, while maneuvering there with the troops. It was late in the season, about May, I think, and the sun had begun to get pretty hot. I had climbed to 3,000 feet and noticed a bank of cloud coming up. There was a very perceptible change of temperature, beginning at 1,500 feet, being much cooler than on the ground. The carburetor had been adjusted to the temperature on the ground, this usually being sufficient for all ordinary heights. In coming back, after circling over the places that I had been sent to reconnoiter, the cloud bank had moved inland about 10 mi!es. The clouds were so thick that 1 could see nothing, so I glided down until I had passed through them.| All of this time the motor had been missing considerably but just as soon as 1 went through the cloud the motor immediately started firing properly. There must have been a difference of 10 degrees or 15 degrees in the temperature.

Lieut. Milling.

It is of interest to note that the motor on this flight was a Renault, air-cooled. We can recall a certain air-cooled car which demanded carburetor adjustment night and morning.

It does not take long to teach a man to fly, but it takes a long time to make a military aviator. It is easy to teach a man to fly. They are doing it now at the Wright school in 10 days, and any man can learn to fly in 10 days.

To make a man an expert military aviator cannot possiblv be done under one year.

Lieut. Arnold.


While the school work has been progressing steadily, one of the new model "E," exhibition machines has appeared at the field, and under the expert guidance of Mr. Orville Wright on September 3rd, a few hours after leaving the factory, was in the air on its initial flight, climbing with plenty of reserve power and showing up a good speed. This machine is of the single propeller type, the first one of the products of the Wright factory to be so equipped, and the comparison of its performances with that of the two propeller machine, is even more interesting and instructive than the technical staff of the Wright Company had anticipated. Many exceedingly important features have been brought out, and Mr. Wright is spending a good deal of time flying this machine in various kinds of weather.

Its chief features are the ease of knocking-down and packing in boxes for cheap shipment from place to place, and also that the size of the sections themselves are such that if complete knocking-down into boxes is not done, the sections of the machine can be placed in an express car. This so greatly facilitates the getting around from place to place in making exhibition dates, that those familiar with this field, who in recent visits to the factory have inspected type "E" are most enthusiastic, and foresee in it exactly the type of machine that they require in their work.

The tests that are being made now will continue for some time, so that this type will be standardized and ready for the road long before next spring.

Many exhibition flyers and managers are expected at Dayton to view the performances of this machine later in the fall, "when it has gone through the mill" of the thorough tests and experiments that it is being put to.

The work at the Wright School, at Simms Station, has been continued steadily and one of the recent graduates of the school, who demonstrated excellent ability in his lessons was Mr. A. B. Gaines, of New York City. Although Mr. Gaines got to the stage where he was flying alone in fine form, it was necessary for him to return to the city before taking his pilot's license. However, Gaines is to continue work on the aeroboat next spring.

At present there are training at the school under Oscar Brindley's expert guidance, Mr. Lindop E. Brown of Glasgow, Montana, and Mr. H. M. Rinehart of Davton, Ohio.


An English dealer in a special variety of granulated cork (Leoline Edwards, 81 St. Margaret's Road, Twickenham) claims that this is twice as buoyant as ordinary cork, the air cells being considerably larger. It is suggested that floats be filled with this, with the handicap of slight extra weight, but with the assurance that danger from punctures would be greatly diminished. This cork is resilient and could as well be used for jackets, padding for seats, and so forth.


Sixteen aeroplanes are in the Army aviation service at the present time and seven more are on order and ought to be delivered early in October.

In the Philippines are: 1 Wright B, 30 H. P., training machine; 1 Burgess hydroaeroplane with 60 H. P. Sturtevant; 2 Wright C, 50 H. P.; all of which can be turned into hydros with equipment at hand. There are 5 pilots.

In Hawaii: 1 Curtiss E, 75 H. P.; 1 Curtiss tractor, 80 H. P.; 1 pilot.

San Diego: 1 Wright B, 30 H. P.; 1 Wright C, 30 H. P.; 1 Burgess-Wright F, 40 Sturtevant ; 2 Wright C, so H. P.; 1 Curtiss D-E, 60 H. P.; 1 Curtiss D, 75 H. P. There are 7 pilots and 8 under instruction.

San Antonio: 1 Wright D, 50 H. P. No pilot.

Texas City : 1 Wright C, 50 H. P.; 1 Burgess tractor, 70 Renault. Two pilots.

In all, there are but 19 officers on aviation duty, of which number all can fly.

The machines on order are: 1 Curtiss standard, 70 H. P. Curtiss motor; 3 Burgess tractors, 70 H. P. Renaults; 1 Wright with 00 H. P. Daimler; 1 Curtiss tractor with 160 H. P. Gnome; 1 Burgess tractor with a 100 H. P. Renault. The State Department has purchased 8 Renault 70's and the new machines added to the one on hand will make 4 of these most successful tractors with 4 engines in reserve; these are considered an intermediate type between the standard Wright and Curtiss machines and the new high-powered machines coming through.

At Fort Omaha there are 5 fill balloons and 1 captive and a complete hydrogen outfit using the electrolytic process.

The old original Wright is now in Smithsonian Institute. Two Wrights, a Curtiss, a Curtiss flying boat and a Burgess (Wright type) have been destroyed in accidents.


Very few details are available of the experiments that have been made by the Ordnance Department on high-angle guns, but it can at least be said that improvements have been made to existing types in the U. S. Army sufficient to make them adaptable.

Technical details: Weight of projectile, 6 pounds; muzzle velocity, 2400 feet per second; maximum limit of elevation 70 degrees; semiautomatic breech mechanism. Most promising projectile, high explosive shrapnel, the head of which detonates after a travel of about 75 yards beyond point of burst of the shrapnel The two puffs of smoke thereby secured serve to outline the trajectory near the point of burst and facilitate adjustment of range.

In the flight around Berlin on August 30th and 31st, 22 machines started and 16 finished. Of the successful aeroplanes, Bosch magnetos were used on 11 of them, which number also used Rosch plugs.

I think the Panama Canal would be put out of business, probably in one hour or two hours, by an enemy with aeroplanes. That is, of course, my own personal opinion. We do not know the effect of an explosive dropped from an aeroplane, because it has never been done except in a small way. I firmly believe when the experiments are carried on in that direction that it will be found to be very destructive.

Xo matter how strongly the canal is fortified a (enemy's) fleet does not come within range of the guns; they cruise out 20 or 30 miles. The distance to Gatun Dam or to the

locks would be probably half an hour's fly. They send out their aeroplanes loaded with high explosives, say 20 or 30 of them, as many as they can send, hoping that some of them will get back; but in warfare we take chances, and if they destroyed the canal no doubt they would be willing to lose them all. They send them up and they are flying one after another, placing 500 pounds of nitrogelatin first on the spillway and later up the Culebra Cut, causing slides. I think some of you gentlemen know the effect of an explosive, on the earth, causing it to slide.

Lieut. R. E. Scott.


The biplane built by the Royal Aircraft Factory, England, the BE 2, early this year was the third of a series constructed and was designed after a series of experiments on full-sized machines to improve their efficiency and stability and the results obtained were in almost perfect accord with the computations of laboratory data. During these tests, improvements in speed, in range, in amount of load carried, in climbing ability, stability, ease of control and total efficiency, were obtained as the net results of applying laboratory data. The BE 2 was expressly calculated to exceed the requirements of the 1912 British aeroplane competition, from data furnished by the British National Aerodynamical Laboratory. The improvements were almost wonderful. The BE 2 has a range of from 42 M. P. H. to 72 M. P. H., can alight at speeds below 40 miles, climb at 480 feet a minute for first thousand feet, and go 6,000 feet at an average climbing speed of 380 feet a minute without passenger and has a gliding angle of 1 in 8 under best conditions.

The wings are set at a dihedral angle, each wing rising 1% degrees. Ends of the planes may be warped 7 degrees in either direction. As the usual flying angle is 2 degrees to 3 degrees, the down side of the plane has a maximum angle of 9 or 10 degrees, while the up side has a negative angle of 4 to 5 degrees. Though the efficiency is superior at 4 or 5 degrees angle, the large surface is used to get range of speed and rapid climbing. The tail plane has an area of 52 sq. ft. and carries flying about 35 pounds. The machine can be turned in a radius of 120 feet if properly banked. The area of the rudder is 12 sq. ft., and exercises a force of 115 pounds at 16 feet radius from c. of g. at 68 M. P. H. and at an angle of 20 degrees.

The elevators are hinged to the rear of the stabilizing plane and have a total surface of 25 sq. ft.

The landing gear consists of ash skids with a reinforced tubular axle with rubber shock absorbers. A rear skid is attached to the fuselage by a swivel joint and is turned with the rudder making steering on the ground possible at low speeds.

The 70 H. P. Renault engine can be throttled down so that the machine will stand still and the pilot can start without assistance. In actual flight the engine revolutions can be run from 1,350 to 1,950 and propeller revolutions from 675 to 975, still maintaining horizontal flight. The muffler which has been tried, seems to reduce the horsepower under load by 2%. The aeroplane has been inverted and laid on its back and the wings have been loaded to three times the loaded weight of the machine-weight of wings. This resulted in the strengthening of the rear lateral spar to give it the same proportional strength as the front one; however, the lighter spar did not take a permanent set.

The area of the upper wings totals 202 sq. ft., the lower, 172 sq. ft.


While the hydroaeroplane meeting this spring, at Monaco, proved a succession of disasters, one unqualified success alone stood out. Moineau's magnificent flight in a gale will not readily be forgotten, and more than deserved the gold medal awarded it by the Ministry of Marine; and when Bregi carried off a non-stop flight of 160 miles, Louis Breguet fully established his reputation as the foremost French hydroaeroplane constructor of the day.

The two machines in question were of slightly different type, that of Moineau driven by a 200 H. P. 18-cyl. Canton-Unne being provided with one main central float furnished with oleo-pneumatic shock absorbers and one small auxiliary swivelling float midway along each wing, while Bregi's 130 H. P. machine had twin floats working on rubber shock absorbers. For the present we will confine ourselves to a description of this latter seaplane. To British Aeronautics we are indebted for a description of this machine. Its main dimensions are: Span. 5o.8 feet; chord, 5.7 feet; length over all, 32 feet; plane area, 484 sq. ft.; length of floats, 13 feet; displacement of floats, 560 gallons; weight (empty). L9S0 lbs.;

useful load, 750 lbs.; loading, 5.6 lbs. per sq. ft.; tankage, 4 hours.

The fuselage is not unlike that of the land machine, but with one important difference from the constructional point of view. It consists of four steel tubes converging towards the tail, and braced at intervals by steel struts and cross-pieces, by means of clips, none of the members being pierced. The lower surface of the fuselage is horizontal, the upper side curving downward towards the rear. The forward portion, of heavier gauge tubing, contains the seats and forms the motor bed. The seats are exceptionally roomy and give ample accommodation for two passengers, with a certain amount of space for luggage or spare parts. On the whole, this four-steel-tube fuselage is preferable to the old central-tube one, since it eliminates the danger from torsional stresses to which the other type was always exposed.

The wings are of the usual type, save that, in addition to the wires which prevent the incidence from falling below a certain angle and so obviate the danger of the wings flattening out in their rotary movement about the main steel spar, additional stops are provided, as a farther safeguard, which limit the movement of the steel spring connecting each rib to the spar. The upper plane has no dihedral, but

)30rf» BREGUET

the lower plane has a distinct dihedral angle, which has the further advantage of giving greater clearance to the wing tips.

The control is of the now usual Breguet type, and is universal : fore-and-aft movement of the lever operates the elevator, sideways motion actuates the warp, while steering is effected by twisting the wheel, motor car fashion. A foot warp control is added for the purpose of relieving the arms during long flights—a hydro by reason of its greater weight and the resistance of the floats requires more power to work the controls than a land machine—and of giving greater power of control in gusty weather. Incidentally, of course, it acts as a safeguard against the rupture of one control cable. The foot control is generally only employed to restore lateral balance in gusts and eddies, the hand warp being used for the more delicate maneuver of bankings All the control wires, with the exception of those of the warp, are carried within the fuselage—a most important point in a hydro.

The tail is of the ordinary Breguet type, save that the upper surface of the elevator is cambered so as to lift the weight of the tail float. The rear of the fuselage is equipped with a long triangular fin, to give weathercock stability and to balance the lateral float resistance, fixed to the fuselage by four steel arms.

The engine is a Q-cyl. 130 H. P. Canton Une, fitted with two carburetors and running at i,35o R. P. M. in the air. It is further provided with an excellent self-starter. An auxiliary magneto, giving an exceptionally long spark is fitted and operated from the pilot's seat by twirling a small switch-lever. When this is in operation a single swing of the starting lever starts the engine without effort. The propeller is a Chauviere tipped with copper. The pressure in the main tank is maintained by the familiar little air propeller working in the slip stream.

But the chief feature of the Breguet hydro, all said and done, is the marine portion—the floats and their attachment to the fuselage. The twin floats are of the Fabre type, with a perfectly flat under surface, and are constituted by two skins, the outer one being slightly flexible so as to yield slightly to the uneven surface of the water. Each float is 13 feet long, and divided into six water-tight compartments. The bow is fair-shaped and the upper surface slightly domed, so that, on the whole, the air resistance is not unduly high. The small tail-float rigidly attached to the rear of the fuselage is chiefly designed to protect the rudder since, normally, the machine rides the water on its two main floats. A small streamline float is attached to the extremity of each wing tip.

We now come to the suspension which, more than any other single feature, renders the Breguet hydro so distinctive and has undoubtedly played an important part in its success. Louis Breguet was the first to recognize the great importance of shock absorbers for marine work, in which they play an even more important part than on land machines. {Continued on page ioj)


Half biplane, half monoplane is the structure built by two young French designers, after a study of two machines, a monoplane and a biplane, built by the same firm and with the same system of equilibrium. They found between these two types absolute dissimilarity instead of the similarity expected, considering they are two solutions of the same problem. In other industries similarity is the rule.

However, in the Ponnier-Pagny one finds this similarity, whether a question of monoplane or biplane, one or two passengers.

Excepting hydroaeroplanes, all the apparati of this firm belong to the category of machines whose centres of gravity, pressure, resistance and thrust about coincide. The c. of g. is, however, located slightly below the centre of pressure. The incidence of the horizontal tail, naturally non-supporting, is negative, and its value varies from minus j4 degree for single man machines to minus I degree for two man machines. This disposition gives to the longitudinal dihedral the greatest value and assures excellent longitudinal stability. Moreover, a ''forward preponderance,"* and thus assures automatic gliding descent in the event of a sudden stoppage of the motor.

The screw is always a propeller and mounted direct connected to the motor, except for the. special armored war machine. Its axis passes through the centre of pressure of the supporting surfaces (which are "sloped as desired"). If the machine is a single seater, the pilot, whose weight is an essential factor for proper balance, is placed forward of the entering edge; in the passenger machine, either the passenger sits over the c. of g. and the pilot in front, or else a passenger (observer or marksman) is placed in the extreme front before the pilot; or finally, the pilot and passenger sit side by side in line with the entering edge of the wings. In every case the field of vision is the greatest possible. Furthermore, the masses are near the c. of g. Therefore, the "nacelle," or car, is short and can be enclosed with sheet steel in streamline form.

The first machine of this series has commenced trials and the results were conclusive as to the principles involved, only a few slight details of construction had to be altered and the new machines confirmed expectations.

The "fuselage," or, more exactly, the car, is not in the first machine of steel. It is composed of a framework of steel tubing, covered with a fabric. The disposition of the organs is identical with that of the final apparatus. Special fittings, strong and light, are employed to connect them to the tubes of the fundamental prism.

The wings, designed with great care, comprise three parts: (i) An entering edge, very short, of angular shape acting as a wind deflector. (Modifications are under test for the

* By "forward preponderance" is meant that the <c. of g. is forward of the c. of p. on wings.

application of the Constantine system and actual tests are being made in flight by Ponnier himself. Note, in passing, recent article by J Mr. Sellers in AERONAUTICS on the ex- I periments of M. Constantin.) (2) A thick I sustaining surface, comprised between the two I spars, acting by depression on the back, and \ compression on the face. The profile of the back is parabolic and tangent to the leading and trailing edges; that of the face is parallel to it and joins with the leading and trailing edges. (3) The trailing edge is in the form of a blade, with parabolic profiles, and which operates by "recuperation." The centre of pressure is equidistant between the two spars which are jointed and not "journalled." Acting chiefly by depression, the wings have a very small incidence, variable according to the | type of machine. Their profiles are similar. All the factors of their outline are in a mathe- 1 matical relation advanced by Pagny, after numerous experiments made on wings of very different dimensions, of which the incidence varies from 4 degrees to o degree, and the 1

Page 101

cambre from 150 millimetres to o millimetre, passing through intermediate values. At the limit, for o degree and o millimetre, the face would be flat and the back parabolic.

The transverse dihedral is positive and is 25 millimetres per metre.

The warp is effected by pivoting the spars about their axes, and journalling the ribs on the spars; there is, therefore, no tension. The warp is progressive and powerful, and its extreme flexibility renders it quasi-automatic.

(Bielovucic affirms he did not operate the warp during his flight over the Alps).

Lateral stability is by warping, as above stated. Soon comparative trials will be made with ailerons and flaps. Longitudinal stability is assured by a foldable tail at the rear of the fuselage, same being at a negative angle of incidence, and an elevator in two parts, to permit the swinging of the rudder.

A vertical rudder is hinged to the rearmost strut of the fuselage. The tail truss is composed of beams of steel tubing and struts of the same material, braced with music wire.

The landing gear is composed of two lateral "V's," the branches of which are tied to the car, the tops of which are fastened by two pins rigidly to the prism. The axle is jointed, its displacement being limited by rubber bands.

A special device is used for the attachment of the motor, which can be varied, making it quickly demountable. Controls by a lever with double movement and by foot pedals. The folding of the machine is well worked out. The wings are demountable; also the tail—and their disarrangement is almost impossible.


Abroad they point to American flying boats as inland water craft unsuited for sea flying and supporting this contention they consistently stick to catamaran floats. The Caudron people, of whose machines we have seen a sample in this country use wheels as permanent fixtures, located in slots built in the pontoons, the wheels just projecting below the high step. ()ther foreign makers frequently use wheels which can be drawn up or let down. As will be seen from the drawings herewith, the "tread" is wide and the wheel axles are attached rigidly to the floats. Spring suspension is provided by rubber shock absorbers. The six chassis struts to each float are connected to two bars which are parallel to the sides of the float and far enough apart for the float to swing freely between them. This framing pivots about a cross-tube attached by clips to the float, which clips act as bearings for the transverse tube. At the rear, between the rearmost struts, there is another transverse tube also secured to the float. The ends of this tube extend far enough on either side to rest upon the parallel side spars mentioned first and the rubber bands bind the two flexibly together at their junction. It will be seen that the float pivots about the forward cross-member with a certain amount of vertical movement as admitted by the rubber bands.

The surfaces are the same as on the land machines. The' rear portion of the main planes are flexible and the front and rear struts are quite close together. Lateral stability is secured by warping and the elevator is one single plane, which is also warped. The rudders are twin and are above the elevator. Control is by a universally mounted post for elevator and warp, with foot-yoke for the rudders.

The 80 H. P. Gnome is carried by overhung bearings and drives an 8 foot propeller. Two unique floats support the tail when the machine is at rest on the water and under the main planes are wing tip cylindrical floats. Some of these machines have been sold to the French Government and are now being introduced into England.

The area of the main planes is 3"o sq ft.; span of upper plane, 42 feet; lower 28 feet: tail plane (elevator). 50 sq. ft.; rudders, 16 sq. ft.; total length, 26 feet 8 inches; chord, 5 feet 1 inch; gap, 5 feet 1 inch. Full details, with scale drawing, of the Caudron monoplane were published in the October, 1912, issue.


The machine which Harry Hawker used in his great flight for the "Round Britain" Daily Mail prize was built by T. O. iM. Sopwith, whose land machines were described in a previous issue.

This new water 'plane resembles the land machine generally but is fitted with a 100 H. P. 6-cylinder Green engine. It will be remembered by readers that a Green engine won the 24-hour test for the Alexander prize, of which test a full report was printed in AERONAUTICS.

The fuselage of this machine is of conventional construction, the longitudinals being of of ash and the struts and cross members in the head section of ash and in the rear of spruce. The main spars of the staggered planes are of spruce, I-section, the planes being set at a small dihedral angle. The engine section is covered in with aluminum.

Lateral stability is secured by ailerons of large size in both upper and lower surfaces, interconnected. These are operated by the rotation of the hand wheel which is mounted on a vertical column; a forward-and-back movement actuates the elevator and the rudder is turned by a foot lever. The control

cables are inclosed in the body for the greater part of their lengths. The upper plane is open over the engine section. As shown in the drawings, "baffle plates" of streamline form partially make up for the lack of upper surface in this centre section.

With pilot and passenger up, fuel and oil, the weight is about 2,400 pounds and the flying speed around Co M. P. H.

The single-step floats are framed in ash and spruce and covered with cedar. (A note on cedar lumber was published on page 136 of the April, 1913, issue). There are three com-

partments, two of which in each boat will keep the machine afloat. In addition to struts to the lower plane there are struts running up to the bow end of the fuselage to take the weight of the engine. The struts between the planes are hollowed out and all are of spruce.

Pressure is used on the gasoline tank and maintained by a small pump attached to a strut and driven by a small air propeller.

Total area main planes, 500 sq ft.; elevator area, 26 sq. ft.; tail plane area, 120 sq. ft.; rudder, 12 sq. ft.

The Daily Mail offered a prize of $25,000 to the first English aviator who, on a British-built machine, accomplished a circuit of the British Isles in 72 hours. Harry Hawker, after one previous trial in which he was obliged to give up, started with a passenger, on Aug. 25 from Southampton, followed the eastern coast up beyond Aberdeen, most to the north of Scotland, turned across Scotland at Cromarty diagonally southwest over the Caledonian Canal to Oban, on the western coast of the island. They left Oban the morning of the third day and crossed the Irish Sea and down the eastern coast of Ireland to a landing at Portrain, just a few miles north of Dublin. While making a spiral to land here, Hawker's

foot slipped from the rudder bar and lost control of the machine so that it dropped to the water. The mileage covered was 1,043 out of the total of 1,540. This incident was sufficient to preclude the possibility of repairing and finishing within the time limit. The first day 495 miles were covered in five stages, the longest single flight being one of 150 miles in 178 minutes.

Sopwith machines have made the following British records: Duration, 8 hours, 23 minutes; height, 11.450 feet; two-man height. 12,900 feet; three-man height, io.Coo feet, and world's four-man height record of 8,400 feet.


James Radley, another English aviator whose flights have been numerous in America, and one of the members of the English team in the 1910 international race, with Gordon England, has produced a "waterplane" with features a bit out of the ordinary.

This machine is a modification of a machine built earlier this year with similar twin floats in which the pilot and passengers sit but which was powered with three Gnome engines, each driving by chain a propeller shaft,

and each of the three being capable of being eliminated as a driving element. These floats were more or less of the conventional, simple type.

In this latest machine the floats are real boats, constructed by a boat-builder and are "clinker" built, known to all users of row boats, in which the planks overlap instead of butt together. Cedar is used and there are three watertight compartments; water is possible of entrance only in the central section of each boat. Two people may sit in each, tandem. The controls are of the type made famous by Farman.

A single engine is used this time, an 8-cyl-inder Sunbeam of 150 H. P., which drives through a two-to-one gear, a 4-bladed propeller, 9.5 ft. diameter and 4 ft. 7 ins. pitch. The engine runs normally at 2.200 and is a development of the automobile engine of the same name which has recently attracted great attention in track racing through its many wins at high speeds.

The location of the tank will be seen from the drawing, and this holds upwards of 80 gallons of gasoline and 8 gallons of oil.

Hickory spars are used for the main planes, of I-section, with poplar and spruce ribs. Struts are spruce, with exception of those in the engine section which are of Honduras mahogany. It may be interesting to note that the struts are hollowed out.

Lateral stability is maintained by ailerons in the top surface only, positive acting; one goes up as the other goes down and vice versa.

The elevator is of conventional type hinged to a non-lifting tail. The rudders are twin. The fabric is linen, coated with British Email-lite, which can now be purchased in the States.

The weight of the entire machine, with four up and fuel for ten hours, is 2,500 lbs., and the speed is 60 miles an hour.

Total area main planes 560 sq. ft.; tail plane, 24 sq ft.; elevator, 35 sq. ft.; top plane, 290 sq. ft.; rudder, 18 sq. ft.

In criticizing the British Government for lack of support of the aeronautical industry and for lack of available aeroplanes in case of sudden necessity, the number being set at 38. Howard Flanders, a constructor, remarks quite as a matter of course: "Moreover, there are not more than about 48 British machines on order." Why, if we could count offhand 48 aeroplanes flying daily in America we would think we were flourishing.

Xinety-nine miles an hour for a Wright— This is reported in England when a Wright biplane is said to have exceeded, even, this speed fitted with an 80 H. P. water-cooled motor.

Page 104


Everything for rapid take-down ! We have now arrived at the quick detachable wire strainer, or turnbuckle; and it is patented in France and other countries. One wire fas-

tens at A and another at B. To close, the lever C is folded up in its slot, the while the loop A slips into place, the lock D slips over the hook of C and there you are. Tightening would be accomplished in the usual way.


The strength of the air battalions of the various countries, tables of expenditures and appropriations have been compiled by the aeronautical section of the Signal Corps for use in the recent hearing before the Committee on Military Affairs. Doubtless this information is as near accurate as can be obtained, as it is useless to expect that foreign government are willing to furnish any data whatever. This compilation follows:

France : 14 dirigibles, 8 under construction ; 611 aeroplanes, 23S officers permanently detailed, 620 military pilots, 1,174 officers and enlisted men on aviation duty.

Germany: 15 dirigibles, 5 dirigibles under construction, 420 aeroplanes, 300 military pilots.

Russia: 12 dirigibles, 10 dirigibles under construction, 200 aeroplanes, 80 military pilots.

England: 6 dirigibles, 2 dirigibles under construction, 168 aeroplanes, 135 military pilots, 74 officers and 682 men on permanent air duty.

Japan: 2 dirigibles, 1 dirigible under construction, 23 aeroplanes, 20 military aviators.

United States: no dirigibles, 17 aeroplanes, 19 military pilots, 19 officers detailed for aviation duty.

Italy: 8 dirigibles, 2 dirigibles under construction, 153 aeroplanes, 175 military pilots.

Mexico : 7 aeroplanes, 5 military pilots.

Austria: 7 dirigibles in use, 3 under construction, 136 aeroplanes, 91 pilots.

Brazil: 3 dirigibles, 18 aeroplanes, 12 pilots.

Belgium: 1 dirigible, 1 building, 40 aeroplanes, 68 pilots.

Spain : 1 dirigible, 48 aeroplanes, 20 pilots.

Bulgaria: 1 dirigible, 28 aeroplanes, 10 pilots.

Roumania: 24 aeroplanes, 15 pilots. Chile: 1 dirigible, 6 aeroplanes, 3 pilots. China: 25 aeroplanes, 12 pilots. Greece: 52 aeroplanes, 10 pilots. Switzerland : 4 aeroplanes, 27 pilots.

Turkey: 2 dirigibles, 15 aeroplanes.

Servia: 8 aeroplanes.

Argentine: 5 aeroplanes, 15 pilots.

Australia: 4 aeroplanes.

Norway: 3 aeroplanes, 5 pilots.

Montenegro: 3 aeroplanes, 5 pilots.

Denmark: 6 aeroplanes, 8 pilots.

Holland and Sweden : 3 aeroplanes, 10 pilots.


France* ......................... $7,400,000

Germanyf....................... 5,000,000

Russia ........................... 5,000,000

England ......................... 3,000,000

Japan ............................ fi,000,000

Italy ............................. 2,100,000

Mexico .......................... 400,000

United States .................... 125,000

* $2,400,000 in for the Navy.

f Approximate.

t $12,500,000 and $25,000,000 will be expended in the Navy and Army respectively covering a period of 5 years.

By the end of 1916 the Chinese army expects to have 1000 aeroplanes, this year's budget calling for the purchase of 250.

The Chairman. And how long do officers generally stay in the (aviation) service?

Lieut. * * * That depends upon the temperament of the officer. Lieut. * * * has been in the service for some time; he started at the same time I did, and it has not affected him as far as I can see, but his length of service has made him more cautious; that is all. Some other officers find that it gets on their nerves, and they become practically worthless as aviators.

The Chairman. I suppose that after an officer loses his nerve he is worthless as an aviator ?

jjeut * * * Yes, sir; and he must quit, or he will kill himself; he will probably kill himself and somebody else with him.—Hearing before Committee on Military Affairs.

The model shown in the photograph is that of the Curtiss Hying boat. It is ^th full size, is complete in every detail and is one of the finest examples of the model maker's art in America.

Published Monthly by Aeronautics "Press 122 E. 25t- ST., NEW YORK

Cable: aeronautic, new York 'Phone, 9122 Madison Sq. ERNEST L. JONES. Pres't — - THOMAS C. WATKINS, Treas'r-Sec'y ERNEST L.JONES, Editor - M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor subscription rates Umted States, $3 00 Foreign, $3.50


Vol. XIII, No. 3

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice, New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879.

<J AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each Month. All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th.

<J Make all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted.

cAero cTWart


{Continued from page qq.)

In the case of a central float airboat the matter is relatively simple, but with two floats the designer is immediately confronted by the difficulty of one float being constantly in danger of being struck by a wave, while the other descends into a trough, so that equilibrium may be easily upset; hence the necessity not only for enormous strength in the first place (and each of the Breguet floats weighs 180 lbs.), but for enormous shock absorbing capacity. Moreover, each float must be sprung so as to work wholly independently of the other.

This problem Breguet has solved in quite an original manner. To the front of each float, well in advance of the c. g\, are attached two steel struts tied together by cross-struts, and mounted on ordinary universal joints. To the center of the after part of each float is attached a single steel strut by means of a ball-and-socket joint, whence it passes upwards through a hole in the lower plane, giving sufficient room for play, and joins the three front struts on a collar sliding vertically against heavy rubber shock absorbers of the type formerly used on the REP. Moreover a diagonal strut runs from the front and rear of each float to a central longitudinal steel tube connected to the fuselage by an inverted pyramid of steel struts. Every single joint constitutes a hinge, with the result that there is perfect flexibility and play in each direction. The system is ingenious to a degree; more, it is highly effective and once again reveals the originality of mind and the thorough going but unbiased manner in which this constructor approaches each new problem, a quality in which so many other designers, adaptors, and manufacturers are deficient.

This fine machine is not a land aeroplane to which floats have been attached; it is a seaplane in the true meaning of the word.

The amount of accessories to keep aeroplanes in the field is astonishing. During some British manoeuvers with two airships and fourteen aeroplanes, it took 8 motor cars, 12 light tenders, 10 heavy tenders, and 8 steam trucks to keep them going.

RATES: 15 cents a line, 7 words to the line. Payment in advance.

FOR SALE—50 II. P. Gnome motor, practically new. Address letters Gnome, care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

FOR SALE—Tractor Biplane. Genuine Benoist 1913 model. Good as new. Will demonstrate. Address Tractor, care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

FOR SALE—Returning to Europe, will sell Tractor Biplane 42 feet spread, extra parts, large tent, crates, etc.. Al exhibition machine, $300.00. 8-cyl. V motor, Paragon & Normale propellers, radiators, gas tank, $700.00. Fully guaranteed. Will accept best offer for complete outfit. Must be sold. Robinson Bros., 59 Glasgow St., Rochester, N. Y.

ENGINE FOR SALE—S-cyl. "V," list price, $1,500; new, never used. The one who buys this motor gets one of those few real bargains that isn't picked up every day. Thoroughly tested by maker who desires to sell the last one in his shop. Complete with propeller, $800. Address, "Eight Cylinder," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

SACRIFICE—A Curtiss type biplane, flown by one of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Hall-Scott 60 H. P. motor, all in Al condition, for $1,800 cash, subject to demonstration to bonafide purchaser. Shipping boxes, propeller, crates, completely equipped for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchaser at well-known flying field. The best bargain of the season. Opportunitv knocks but once at every man's door. Address "Sacrifice," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

Now Ready

The Airman's Vade=Mecuni


By Colonel H. E. Rawson, C. B.

(Vice-President Royal Meteorological Society; Council Aeronautical Society)

CONTENTS : lntroduclion and 5 Chapters on Temperature, Pressure, Wind, and Precipitation. Weather Forecasting. Index. {Illustrated) Price 40 Cents Net Post Free

"AERONAUTICS," 3, London Wall Buildings, London Wall, London, E. C.


i. Pontoon type of machine with inclosed body in which aviators are seated and instruments specified installed.

2. In case of single pontoon it shall have at least one longitudinal center line water-tight bulkhead and at least two transverse watertight bulkheads giving not less than six watertight compartments. In case two pontoons are used, each pontoon shall have at least two transverse water-tight bulkheads or not less than three water-tight compartments. Pontoons shall have at least three inches freeboard when machine is fully loaded, this test made after machine has been floating on water 24 hours.

3. In flying boat type of machine aviators to be seated in boat and instruments specified installed. One longitudinal center line water-tight bulkhead and at least two transverse water-tight bulkheads; that is, not less than six watertight compartments. Sufficient freeboard not to ship water going 30 miles an hour in the open sea in a 25 mile wind.

4. Plane of either type capable of easy handling on water, to have a tactical diameter of not more than 100 yards.

5. Protective armor for pilot, observer, and engine, subject to Ordnance Department penetration tests for a small-arm fire. Armor shall be made of chrome steel and be about 0.075 inch thick.

6. The following instruments and radio equipment shall be placed on each machine and shall be considered a part thereof: Tachometer, compass, aneroid barometer, barograph, map holder, stretching board, combined, clock, angle or incidence indicator.

7. All above instruments of make and type approved and furnished by Signal Corps, United States Army.

8. A radio telegraphic apparatus on each machine. Equipment furnished by the Signal Corps.

9. Power plant may be designated by Chief Signal Officer. Six hours' test on the block-to determine its horsepower, speed, gasoline and engine consumption.

10. Upon delivery for tests the manufacturer will furnish the following data concerning the aeroplane: (a) weight, (b) normal angle of incidence in horizontal flight, (c) gliding angle, (d) gasoline and oil consumption of engine, (e) Safe increase angle of incidence, (f) two blueprints of engine and aeroplane, (g) list furnished with data.


1. Carry two people with seats to permit largest field of observation for both.

2. Control capable of use by either.

3. Floats strong enough to allow beaching and rough water.

4. Pack for assembling by 6 men in iV2 hours.

5. Ascend at least 1,500 feet in 10 minutes, with live load of 400 pounds, and fuel and oil for 4 hours. This load to be carried in all prescribed flying tests.

6. Starting device.

7. Non-stop 4-hour flight.

8. Minimum speed 38 M. P. H., and maximum not less than 55 M. P. H.

9. Machine capable of safe gliding.

10. Manufacturers shall furnish demonstrators for all tests.

11. Manufacturers must provide name plate, giving necessary data, such as maker's type and serial number.

12. System of control of pattern approved by Board of Officers conducting tests.

13. Desirable features: silencer, flight in 20 mile wind, efficient stabilizing device, starting machine from within exposed body or boat. -


Probably the biggest aeroplane yet built is the new machine just now attracting attention, built by one Igor Sikorsky, a student with the Technical Institute at Kieff, Russia. It has flown a number of times and now holds the world's record for duration with seven on board, 1 hour 4 minutes. The passengers can walk around during flight and make sudden movements without affecting the stability of the aeroplane.

The aeroplane is generally of standard type, but heavy and with a cabin added. Four Argus motors of 100 H. P. each, driving 4 propellers, are placed in pairs, two in front, two at the rear, a pair on either side of the cabin, mounted on the lower plane. In later trials

the rear motors were moved to the front alongside of the other two, and the speed increased to 66 miles an hour. The supporting surface is 120 sq. m., spread 28 metres, total length 20 metres. There are eight wheels to the chassis, with elastic suspension. Ailerons for lateral equilibrium. The weight of the machine is 2700 kilos. (5940 lbs.). The machine gets off in about 6co feet and lands as easily as any other. The speed is over 45 miles an hour. It can carry 1600 lbs. load. The fuselage, of wood, terminates in a balcony for an observer. Back of this is a cabin 10 feet long, with two pilot wheels. Still to the rear is another cabin for passengers, provisions, bombs, etc. Even a couch is provided.

One motor may be out of service or under repairs during flight. The whole machine can be quickly taken down for transport.



OUR aeioplanes for land and water purposes remain today as in the very-beginning- of flying, the most efficient machines in use.


engineer, Mr. G. C. Loening, have spent over two years in careful experiment on the air-worthiness and sea-worthiness of aeroboats, in order todetermine thoroughly thecon-ditions that these craft would have to meet. Naturally, therefore,


combines efficiency, safety, sea-worthiness, stability and contiol on the water in a degree that surpasses anything yet produced.

Further Information Upon Request


Model "C", two passenger, military scout, extensively used by United States War Department.

Model "D", one passenger, speed, scout —in its official military tests, this machine has consistently demonstrated a climbing of 1640 feet in 3 minutes.

— I he American Record.

Model "E", single propeller, exhibition machine, designed particularly for ease in assembling and taking down.

Model "C-H", hydro-aeroplane, designed particularly for use over small inland streams. This machine shows higher efficiency than has ever been attained in marine flying.


Complete tuition, §250. No charge for breakage. Pilot may use school machine for his license tests free of charge. Dual control used. Average length of course, two weeks. Our terms are the best, and our equipment also, as we wish to encourage flying in this way.


An indispensable instrument for the amateur aviator. Price $50.00.



McCormick's Flying Boat Exceeding 60 Miles Per Hour

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Here are some of the famous makers who believe in and use this quality fabric : The Curtiss Aeroplane Company, Burgess Company & Curtis ; The Wright Company; Glenn L. Martin Co.; Benoist Aircraft Company; Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Co.

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By Harry schultz, model Editor

The model biplane shown in the accompanying drawing was constructed by Clifford Freelan, of Cypress Hills, L. I., and was the winner of a contest recently held by the Long Island Model Aero Club, the results of which appear below :

The fuselage consists of a single stick of balsa l/i inch square, tapering to l/> inch by x/x inch at the front. The rear brace of bamboo is 9 inches long, Y% inch at the center, tapering to Y\ inch at the ends.

The propellers are carved out of spruce, arc 9 inches in diameter and have a pitch angle of 45 degrees. The propellers are fitted with the usual bearings of -in inch tubing.

The planes are constructed entirely of bamboo. The upper main plane has a spread of 28 inches, with a chord of 5 inches at the center, tapering to 4 inches at the tips. The lower main plane has a spread of 19 inches with a chord of 5 inches tapering to 4 inches at the tips. The struts or stanchions between the planes are eight in number and measure 5 inches in length. As shown in the drawing the main stick or fuselage passes between the main planes. As shown, the planes are slightly

staggered. The elevating plane is constructed the same as the main plane, and measures 13 inches in spread with a chord of 3^ inches at the center. It is placed on an elevation block 34 inch high about 3 inches from the front of the main stick. The planes are covered on the under side with silk paper and coated with ambroid varnish.

The chassis is constructed of bamboo, the rear skid being bent from a single strip of bamboo Y inch square and 7 inches in length. The front skids are 8 inches in length and are braced as shown. The spread between the wheels is 10 inches. The wheels are }£ inch in diameter and are constructed of two layers of 5a2 inch spruce laminated together. They are fitted with small pieces of tubing for hubs.

The model is driven by two motors of 14 strands, each of % inch flat rubber.

The accompanying photograph shows an exhibition model built by W. L. Butler, of Daly City, Cal. Air. Butler is one of the foremost model flyers of the Pacific Coast, and as stated in last month's issue, is at present the holder of the world's record for models flying from the hand with a duration of 170 seconds.

to wfje.cZ, DETAIL of WHEEL.




Send sketch or model for FREE, Search of Patent Office records. Write for our Guide Books + and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our J special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes. +


We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of T patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay + as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed. +


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Ex-member Examining Corps, U. S. Patent Olfioe Attorney-at-L«w and Solicitor of Patents American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bid*. WASHINGTON. D. C.

curtiss s-foot Model FLYING BOAT

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The last stage of the suit against the Herring-Curtiss Co. and Glenn II. Curtiss, brought by The Wright Company for alleged infringement of U. S. Patent Number 821,393, will be fought out by the attorneys for both sides in the United States Circuit Court of Appeals, Post Office Building, New York, some time in November, it is expected, the case having been appealed by Curtiss to this, the last court.

In the event of a decision in favor of the plaintiff, the amount of damages to be awarded will have to be figured out by a Master, who will be appointed by the Court._ Arguments may be made before him by representatives of either side tending to arrive at a proper amount. Having made up his mind as to the damages accruing, the Master would take steps to collect, by attachment if necessary. The Court may award no damages, on the other hand. If the decision is that there has been no infringement, the suit will be dismissed and the use of ailerons for maintaining balance will be free.

There is no case in the courts against the present Curtiss Aeroplane Co. or the Curtiss Exhibition Co. The Herring-Curtiss Co. was formed in 1908, but a disagreement between the principals led to internal legal dissensions and the company went through bankruptcy. Mr. Curtiss bought the plant at the receiver's sale and sold it to the newly formed Curtiss Aeroplane Co.

The ailerons in the earliest Curtiss machines had a slight curve and these are the ones on which the present suit is brought. Later Curtiss adopted perfectly flat ailerons and introduced a device intended to equalize the aileron resistance, if any should occur, irrespective of whether they present equal, positive and negative, angles to the line of flight. Neither the flat ailerons, or any using the equalizing device, seem to come within the machine proved in the present case. It would appear that in case the plaintiff wins in this last court, the defendant company is bankrupt, and the suit is for infringement by the company and Curtiss jointly. And, also, the status of the ailerons as used at present on Curtiss machines with the operation of the special equalizing device appears to be still unsettled.


In January, 1910, an order for preliminary injunction was granted, restraining Curtiss. etc., from manufacturing, selling and exhibiting, allowing, however, the concern to proceed under a $10,000 bond. An appeal of the injunction proceedings was taken to the same court as will hear the present appeal, which court reversed the decree. The injunction was dismissed, costs imposed on the plaintiff and the bond cancelled. In November, 1912, after many months of taking testimony, the case was argued, briefs were submitted, and in February, 1913, Judge Hazel handed down the first opinion on the merits of the patent in favor of the Wrights. Appeal was at once taken. Since this decision, the Curtiss interests have operated under a $10,000 bond again.

The above statement of the status of the suit is the view of the attorneys for the defendant. On the other hand, the plaintiff considers that the suit was not based on curved ailerons. The proving of their use was simply for the purpose of demonstrating that it really was not intended to carry pressure on the top as well as the bottom sides. Of course, it will depend entirely on the decision of the Court as to what will be covered.


Engineer N. Kouznetzoff, Aeronautical Department, Ingeniernaya 13, St. Petersburg, Russia, wants to hear from American motor manufacturers with catalogues.


Incredible as it may seem, patent examiners, magazine editors, constructors and patent attorneys have never till now discovered the patent issued to Leicester B. Holland for a device which seems identical with that used in the Boland aeroplane, which is alleged not to infringe the Wright patent and on which application for patent was made on March 18, 1910, just a few days prior to the application, on March 21, 1910, for the Holland patent, which actually issued on Sept. 19, 1911, No. 1,003,459.

The patent examiner in each case has apparently not been cognizant of the work of his colleague until very lately, when interference proceedings have_ been instituted. The Holland patent has long been issued and the inventor naturally supposed himself safe as to priority. Boland has priority of application and Holland has the issued patent. Boland has gone along building machines and prosecuting the claims on his unissued patent^ under the same belief, totally unaware of the existence of a patent already issued covering the identical feature—at least it seems so, for did they not conflict there would be no interference action.

There are eight claims to the Holland patent which cover, in short, a rigid vertical surface at each lateral extremity of an aeroplane means for swinging eachof these vertical surfaces about a diagonal axis extending from one edge of one main plane to a point in vertical alinement with the opposite edge of the other main plane.


Colonel Samuel Reber has begun an exhaustive investigation concerning accidents in the military aviation service.


R. S. Moore is making his aviator-demonstrator "hump himself" over there at the Hendon weekly meetings. The Gyro-motored Wright is made to carry four full grown people and race fast Deps in speed contests. The speed contests are handicap affairs and the figures imposed upon the various machines are intended to equalize them and make the results depend principally on the skill of the pilots and the ability of the mechanics to get the engines in best trim. Moore's aviator was able on one occasion to beat our American friend. Brock, who was mounted on a 75 H. P. Dep., a 70 Far man and even a 100 Dep., which started scratch.


GRUNDLAGEN DER PHYSIK DES FLUGES, von Dr. Raimund Nimfuhr, 8vo., paper, 106 pp., with 10 figures. Published by Druckerei und Verlags-Aktiengesellschaft vorm. R. v. Waldheim, Jos. Eberle &- Co., Vienna VII/1, Austria, at M. 4. Chapters: Einleitung; Die Luftverdrangungs- (Luftstoss-) Theorie, Senkrechter Luftstoss, Der schiefe Luftstoss, Mangel der Luftverdrangungstheorie; Die Theorie der statodynamischen Auftriebserzeugung mit Beriicksichtigung der Atmosphare als Ganzes und der Kompressibilitat der Luft, etc.; Zur Theorie der Drachenfliegcr.

REVIEW OF APPLIED MECHANICS, by L. Le Cornu, _8vo., paper, 15 pp. Published by Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C, free upon request. Contains note on aerodynamical laboratories.

HOLES IN THE AIR, by W. J. Humphreys, Ph.D., 8vo., paper, 13 pp., plates. Published by Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C, free upon request.


"Page I 1 1

September, 1913





For all photos, descriptions, data,news, drawings, etc., regarding FRENCH AVIATION, address below:

Etudes Aeronautiques ALEX. DUMAS, Engineer, E.C.P. 20 Rue Ste. Marie, Neufchateau (.Vosges\ France







^Thomas School



Address, Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. BATH, N. Y.



Printers, Stationers Lithographers

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Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs


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Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing the canvas covering of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat.

For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces.

Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, etc.

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street Boston, Mass., U.S.A.


We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.


John A. Roebling's Sons Co.


V-Ray Spark-Plugs Never Lay Down


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Have you seen our new price list? Write for it. A price for everybody.


Agents: Eames Tricyle Co., San Francisco; National Aeroplane Co., Chicago.


A Board of Officers at the Signal Corps Aviation School, San Diego, Cal., have investigated the aeroplane accident which resulted in the death of 1st Lieut. Moss L. Love, 11th Cavalry, on Sept. 4, 1913.

This Board, of whom two were eye witnesses of the accident, reported as follows:

Lieut. Love left the field at 7.23 a. m„ Sept. 4, in Wright machine No. 18. He climbed to approximately 2,000 feet and flew at that altitude until 8.01 a. m., when he started to volplane. After completing a right turn at an altitude of approximately 1,000 feet, he continued on a straight-away glide very little, if any steeper than the normal gliding angle of this machine. At an altitude of about 300 feet he was observed to put on power. He continued gliding at approximately the same angle as before for quite a perceptible interval of time. Then the angle of glide gradually became steeper and steeper, the machine becoming vertical. There is a difference of opinion as to whether the machine went beyond the vertical or not, but the majority of witnesses are of the opinion that it did, striking the ground on the top plane first. The position of the machine seemed to bear this out. Witnesses are uncertain as to whether power was kept on until he struck the ground. The machine was a total wreck, but an examination showed all wires intact. Up to the time of the final dive, Lieut. Love seemed to be flying well, with the machine under thorough control, and as far as anyone could tell there was no collapse of any part of the machine in the air. The machine was thoroughly examined before Lieut. Love went up and had already been flown several times that morning.

The Board is therefore of the opinion that the accident was due in no way to any defect in the aeroplane itself. The air at the time was slightly puffy, but not dangerously so. The machine at all times up to the final dive seemed to be under thorough control, therefore, the only reasons that can be given for the the accident are either that Lieut. Love became unconscious in the air or that the dive was caused by bad air.


At the flying field of the Long Island Model Aero Club in Brooklyn, N. V., on Labor Day, September 1, 1913, a contest was held for biplanes rising from the ground for duration.

The contest was won by Clifford Freelan of the Long Island Cluh, whose model is described herein. The total of his three best flights was 155 seconds; the average, therefore, being 51 2/3 seconds.

W. F. Bamberger of the Bay Ridge Model Aero Club was second with a total of 130 seconds and an average of 43 1/3 seconds. His machine was fitted with Dunne type planes and showed remarkable stability in spite of the strong wind prevailing.

Excellent flights were also made by Frank Braun and Chas. V. Obst of the Long Island Club. Obst's machine was an excellently constructed biplane of the headless type with a built-up fuselage. lie, however, was handicapped on account of the weight of his model and the low pitch propellers with which it was provided.

The contest was attended by an enormous amount of spectators and was a great "success.

A contest for tractor models was held by the Bay Ridge Model Aero Club at the flying grounds at Rugby, Brooklyn, N. V. The contest was a very exciting one, the models showing remarkable stability.

W. F. Bamberger, president of the Bay Ridge Club, was the winner of the single propeller tractor contest with a flight of 782 feet. This constitutes a new world's record as it surpasses the former record of 519 feet held by F. G. Hindsley of England. F. Hodgeman, flying a double propellered tractor made excellent flights; his best being 633 feet.

The world's record has been broken for rising off ground models, for duration, by Mr. L. H. Slatter, of England, with a duration of 131 seconds. His model weighs ounces.

"Last year we had a few visitors to the field; this year a dozen people at the field on a Sunday we consider quite a crowd; still we keep right on flying and working.

"Why don't you try and get the Aero Cluh to run a meet, spend a few dollars, and give us a chance to make some money; we won't hold on to it but will put it in circulation as fast as we get it."—A Hempstead Aviator.


On September 21, cables report that Pegoud, after a dive turned his aeroplane so that the wings formed a right angle with the earth, righted, turned the machine over again on the other wing, righting each time. Then he looped the loop, diving vertically, heading the nose up, gliding upside down with the wheels above around the loop and then diving again to normal position. While the machine makes complete somersault about its transverse axis, it seems clear to aviators here that Pegoud must have been falling all the time, which would make the altitude at the "top" of the loop actually less than at the beginning; in other words, that Pegoud did not actually make a circle in a vertical plane with the top John Iseman, Joy At water, E. C. Flick and C. E. O. Sim.

Pegoud is quoted as follows:

"If some fearful gust of wind should turn an aeroplane over, the pilot could regain a normal position by pivoting on one wing. I proved this three times by flying downwards with a machine on its side and righted each time, both on the right and left wing. The downward falls with the wings perpendicular to the earth, whether the engine is running or not, are no longer dangerous.

"I tried in the whole series of these falls by warping a wing to its fullest extent, without using the rudder. The way in which the machine righted itself, merely by a movement of the rudder in the reverse direction, was simply amazing.

"For my falls of 500 feet, tail downward, 1 pointed the nose of the aeroplane upward by pulling the steering pillar right back, and i let her rip. The way I tried to capsize the machine sidewise was by warping a wing to the fullest extent in the very act of banking steeply.

"If I want to capsize an air machine in the ordinary way I simply start coming down, stop the engine and push the steering pillar right forward until the machine has turned over on its back. I have always wanted to loop the loop, though I had not announced my intention of doing so until recently. When I was 2,500 feet up I began a precipitate descent by pushing forward the steering pillar, then I pulled it backward, the engine running freely un'il the machine was round the loop and ready for the vertical dive."

A Russian armv aviator who duplicated Pegoud's first upside-down flights was court martialed and given 30 days in jail to reflect.


Celina, O., Aug. 19—Milton Korn died as the result of injuries received in a fall during a flight as passenger with his brother in a biplane, on Aug. 13. The brother did not sustain fatal injuries. No details of the accident are available.


Galesburg, 111., Sept. 16—Maximilian Theodore Lil-jestrand, known as Max Lillie, for several years a most successful flyer of his Wright biplane, owner of a school of flight at Chicago, was killed in giving an exhibition. An examination by G. C. Loening, of the Wright Company, states that the machine used was constructed of spare parts of old machines and parts made by Lillie; that vital steel parts were rusted, the cloth was rotten, that joints were stiff, that inferior metal parts were occasionally used, though control wires were in good condition; that any number of joints and wires might have given way due to increased strains; wires and pins showed wear; the direct cause of Lillie's death is ascribed to the folding up of a right wing straightening out from a turn to the left and about to land.


Indianapolis (Ind.) Aerial Navigation Company of America, $100,000 capital stock. Capt. G. L. Bum-baugh is president and general manager. Associated with him are Harry B. Wilson, assistant cashier of the City National Bank as vice-president and treasurer, and Herbert A. Luckey, attorney, as secretary. The purpose of the company is to deal in dirigible halloons. About $25,000 of the capital stock has been subscribed.

Russell Aeroplane Co., of Cleveland, Tex., capital $12,000; incorporators: James M. Murray, E. T. Murray, J. D. McDowell, A. S. Deuel, Cleveland.

The Atwater Safety Flying Machine Company, Akron; flying machines; $25,000; M. L. Atwater, of the circle higher above the ground than the bottom.


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Paul Studensky, of Brooklyn, N. V., a Russian, who has lived in the United States two years, has brought suit against the Silver Lake Aviation Company of New Berlin, O., for $10,000 damages. The aviation company is supposed to conduct a school of flying. Studensky says he signed a contract June 7, by which he was to be employed one year at $50 a week and 20 per cent, of gross exhibition receipts, are covered by a guarantee of $100 weekly. He says that after two weeks he was notified his salary had been stopped.


Sept. 23—Roland Garros flew from St. Raphael, France, across the Mediterranean to Bizerta, Tunis, non-stop, in 7 hours 53 minutes, a distance over water of about 560 miles. No floats on his land machine were used, nor were any boats stationed along the route.

Sept. 7—Alfred Friedrich and passenger flew from Berlin to Paris. He started on Sept. 3.

Sept. 13—A. L. Sequin flew non-stop from Paris to Berlin, about 590 miles.

Sept. 17—The Michelin cup for distance flying was awarded today to Aviator Fourny, who covered 9,993 miles between August 25 and September 16. Fourny flew daily and never once suffered serious mishap.


Mr. ChristofTerson is now flying a small racing biplane of his own make; equipped with a Hall-Scott 60 H. P. motor. This is an ideal equipment for filling exhibition dates, and so far he has filled five or six within the last two weeks. The most noteworthy of these was his date at Salt Lake City, altitude 5,200 feet, where he flew without extensions for two days without any trouble whatsoever. The next date was at Provo, 75 miles distance, and he flew this one afternoon at hetter than 72 miles an hour. He states that the equipment was perfect in every way, and that it gave as much or more power than his 80 H. P. motor. Blakely writes from Canada that he has flown 500 miles, cross country, without a stop between flights, within the past 10 days. A 60 H. P. power plant has been sold to the Salvadorean Government.


There are 10 contestants entered in the international race at Rheims, France, on September 29.

Chas. T. Weymann, the Europeanized American, is to be the representative of the States, and will probably use a Dep.

There will be a three days' meeting at Rheims, on September 27th, 28th and 29th. The first day will be given up to the French eliminating trials for the Gordon-Bennett race; the programme for the second day will be made up of various competitions, while the Gordon-Bennett race will take up the last day. For the race six countries have entered: France, Great Britain, United States, Belgium, Germany and Italy.

The race is over a 10 kil. course for 200 kilometres. Landings are permitted. The winner of the race will be that competitor who has completed the whole distance in the shortest time. The machines must be capable of flying as slow as 42 miles an hour, demonstrated beforehand.


Holmesburg, Pa., Sept. 18—A. T. Atherholt, Dr. Terome Kingsbury and P. H. Bridgman in the "Penna." landed at Flagtown, N. J., after a night trip, encountering a heavy rain storm.


An aviation school has recently been founded in Lima under the auspices of the National Aero League (Liga Nacional Pro-Aviacion) under $27,000 subsidy by the Peruvian Government for acquiring aeroplanes and other equipment necessary for such a school. The instruction will probably be in charge of J. Ramon Montero, instructor in the Bleriot school, near Paris, who participated at the Chicago aviation week of 1912, and has since given exhibition flights in Lima. Inquiries regarding possible acquisitions of needed supplies can be addressed in English to Senor Montero.

U. S. Patents Gone to Issue

Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

Even in these enlightened days, the crop of patents on absolutely worthless, or even questionable, devices increases rather than decreases.

It would take an entire issue of the magazine to abstract in a full and clear manner the claims of the majority of the patents issued. In a great many cases it is even impossible to give in a few lines what sort of an apparatus the patent relates to. In most instances we have used merely the word "aeroplane" or "helicopter" if such it is. Where it is impossible to indicate the class, tven, in which the patent belongs, without printing the whole patent, we have used the word "flying machine."

The patents starred (*) are those which may be found of particular interest; but it must be understood we do not pretend to pass judgment upon merits or demerits.

Where patent seems to have particular interest, the date of filing will be given.—Editor.

Do not attempt to invent in a field the science and prior art of which are unknown to you—William Macomber.

ISSUED AUGUST 26, 1913 1,071,180—Alfred Arnold Remington, Birmingham, England, AIRSHIP. Apparatus for condensing the water vapor in exhaust gases in order to keep total weight of an airship intact.

1,071,425—Rudolph, Jary, Chicago, 111., AEROPLANE, with two upper supporting planes tandem and removable additional planes between the former, and means of attachment.

1,071,505—Alexander Bryant, Chicago, 111., AIRSHIP, with supporting planes and beating wings.

ISSUED SEPT. 2, 1913.

1,072,078—Joseph H. Beckwith, St. Louis, Mo., HELICOPTER with parachute above each lifting propeller.


* 1,072,514—Tohann Schutte, Danzig, Germany, DIRIGIBLE BALLOON detail. Attachment of cars to rigid airships so as to avoid injury to the car and connections with the frame as frequently happens with this class.

1,072,663—Anthony R. Silverston, Milwaukee, Wis., FLYING MACHINE, comprising tubular body with means for driving air through it; aeroplanes, etc.

1,072,664—Anthony R. Silverston, Milwaukee, Wis., FLYING MACHINE more or less similar.

1,072,710—Henry C. Fisk, Stafford, Conn., STABILIZER for aeroplanes consisting of a "dished" plane above the supporting planes, and means for attachment.

1,072,764—William A. Nagel, Harrison, Ohio, PARACHUTE ATTACHMENT with tube fitting around the 'chute, means to open parachute container for tube and 'chute, means for ejecting.


1,073,277—Henry G. Morris, Philadelphia, Pa., HELICOPTER.

1,073,334—George E. Dickson, New Lenox, 111.. FLYING MACHINE. Rigid reciprocating parachutes, with valves therein.




Retires from Aviation. Will Dispose of his GENUINE


Biplane with all equipment, including "Safety Pack" and all extras, in first-class condition, at



Box 181, Madison Square - New York


September, 1913

Subscriber's Forum


An article in the June number of AERONAUTICS, which also refers to other articles elsewhere, speaks of the proposed use of negative wing-tips or a reversed dihedral angle of the wings as a means of automatic stability. This should never be attempted.

In the first place, we may draw an inference from the fact that no birds fly in this way, except in hovering, an evidently difficult accomplishment, even for them.


In the second place, T demonstrated by theory and experiment, as far back as 1897, that a curved body suspended in an air current follows the line of least resistance. The concave aeroplane "a" (Fig. 4) in still air or drifting with the air, and with sufficient steadying weight at "b" will make an excellent parachute; but if driven forcibly in the direction of the arrow "c," it will tend to buckle around, in the direction of the arrow "d," moving as though on the surface of a sphere of identical curvature. If this plane be slightly elevated at the front, and held rigidly with framework and a tail, it will, of course, be perfectly safe; but, when a question of lateral stability is concerned, and instability is the defect to be overcome, such lateral forms as shown at "f," "g" or "h" are very liable to sudden disaster and should never be employed. Any one of them is liable to "catch a crab" and "turn turtle" (or do any other unde-sired marine zoological stunts) at any instant.

The greatest source of lateral stability, in an aeroplane as in a bicycle, is headway; the greater the speed, the less apparent veering of the head-wind will there be, due to the lateral gusts. And this apparent veering can easily be annulled—as in bicycle riding—by heading up into the gust. This can be almost entirely accomplished by having a larger rudder, or a keel. A large, vertical vane or partition, or several of them a little back of the centers of gravity and support, and centered at about the height of the center of gravity, would be quickly affected by a gust; and the further back it was placed, the more tardy the action, but the smaller the necessary area.

Where the wings are set at a positive dihedral angle, as at "i," any sudden side-gust will bring the apparent headwind more or less under the windward wing. Here, again, the broken curved surface tends to slide as on the surface of a sphere; but it is a lower surface, the center being overhead. This will produce a lateral rocking or careening, but of a much safer kind, because the motion of translation is against gravitation, upward, instead of downward and with the gravitational acceleration, as in the former case. By the time that the gust gets to the rudder, and turns the head into the wind, the aeroplane will be ready to slide back again to safety, from its own weight. Of course, the rocking motion will be less in proportion as the dihedral angle is small and the center of gravity high. It will also be less in proportion as the lateral lever-arm is short. I would, therefore, also suggest shorter span for the wings with three planes, as tending to better lateral stability.

Ruter W. Springer.


An article in this issue by Mr. Springer condemns the transverse inverted V disposition of aeroplane wings. His arguments are answered in the articles to which I referred in my June "Talk."

The statements made there concerning this disposition are justified both by theory and experiment.

As before stated, a lateral gust is equivalent to a veering head wind or to the momentary turning ofl the aeroplane's longitudinal axis at an angle to it J course.

In Fig. 2 the inverted dihedral wing is shownl turned in this way, the course being toward the obi server; and it is evident_that the_ angle of attack] of the windward wing A will be diminished while thai

of B will be increased; in fact, A may receive the] air pressure on its upper side. The windward wingl A is, therefore, depressed while the wing B is raised! This is confirmed by experiment, and experiment furl ther shows that a machine of this kind having a lowl c. g., and coming into this position, turns toward the low side. M. B. Sellers.

The contention that a lateral gust is equivalent to a veering head wind, and that the windward wing will be depressed while the leeward wing will be] raised, if an inverted dihedral angle is employed,—1 is perfectly correct, so far as it goes. In fact, as the wings cant, under the influences stated, these] influences will continue to act with more and moreJ power, and the canting will become more and mora pronounced, until the aeroplane upsets. The effecl would be exactly analogous to that of feathering arl oar the wrong way in rowing; the near wing wouloj teceive the air pressure upon its upper side,—whicrl would be far worse than any "hole in the air," ancl there would be an instantaneous and fatal exemplil fication of the law that the V-shaped dihedral is thJ form of stability, by the aeroplane assuming that posil tion. However, "crabs" are not aerial animals; ancl I hope no one will experiment in "catching crabs'l in this manner. Of course, a low center of gravitjl would do much to impart steadiness; but a higli c. g. has many points of superior excellence; and w« are talking of aerial stability, not possibilities of inl stability. Ruter W. Springer. I

To the Editor:

What is the simplest way to calculate a power plan! for an aeroplane for given loan of 2000 lbs., planea placed 1.6, diameter and pitch of propeller at motoJ speed of 1200 R. P. M., speed 60 miles an hour.

J. H. B., Tex.

Answer.—For 60 miles an hour you can count 20 lbs. per II. P. for an average machine (amount carl ried ranges from 16 to 25 lbs.); diam. of propelled depends on make—for 100 H. P. about 9 ft. by 5.5 ft. pitch.

To the Editor:

Please tell me how to balance a Dumont 'plane which, is too heavy in front and not heavy enough behind. The tail will tip up at half speed rudder level.

C. R., 111.

Answer.—Move weights back a little or give tail more negative angle; or both.

HARPER'S AIRCRAFT BOOK, by A. Hyatt Ver-rill. 8vo., cloth, 242 pp., profusely illustrated. Published by Harper & Brothers, New York, at $1.00 net. Written particularly for boys and young men at school, Mr. Hyatt, through his intimate knowledge has made the book an intimate introduction to the men and boys who have done things in the big as well as little planes. Members of the model aero clubs will find the book invaluable. Mr. Verrill is an authority on motors and is known personally to many of his fellow members of The Aeronautical Society, before which organization he has frequently lectured.

To the Readers of this Magazine, GREETING:

I beg to steal a page from the many of "good stuff" to air my troubles.

This is no Swan Song. That's settled right now. Periodicals are generally published for two reasons: usually to make money, sometimes as a philanthropy.

This magazine falls in neither class. It is published for the benefit of those who find profit in it. The editor is not a philanthropist (though he would be were it possible). The editor is not a business man, or he would not be publishing an aeronautical journal.

That some profit by its publication I know, for they pay their subscriptions. That others profit by its publication I know, for they say so. Now there are still some who speak not; neither do they pay.

These do I address. There are but three propositions. Pay, promise to pay, or say frankly you don't want the magazine.

I am doing my best to furnish the best there is. If you find a better magazine, subscribe to it; and then tell me you've found it. That will help me, perhaps. If you object to certain features, tell me.

I can't speak to you all with sounding words. I must ask you to read what I write. If you don't want the magazine, say so. If you have found a better, tell me! If you do want it, may I have your renewal order or your check?

Thank you in advance.


100 H-P delivers 120 H-P at 1500 r.p.m. BRAKE TEST.

It is the only motor in the world designed especially for the Flying Boat. 60 H-P has proven itself a guarantee to success, especially over land flying. 40 H-P is the lightest motor for its power upon the market especially adapted to geared down planes.

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EARL V. FRITTS who gained his pilot license with a Thomas Biplane, equipped with a 60-70 h. p. MAX1M0T0R

Maximotor Makers, Detroit, Mich. Bath, N. Y., Feb. 5, 1913.

Dear Sirs:—Wish to inform you that I have today successfully filled the requirements in a number of flights to qualify for my pilot license. The M AXIMOTOR stood with me right through to the end and no other motor on the field has anything on your new product. 1 wish you the most of success during this coming season.

Sincerely, EARL V. FRITTS.

Maximotor Makers


No. 1528 East Jefferson

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Each number has forty pages of interesting photographic text, printed on fine paper from good type, and illustrated with many attractive half-tones.

The cover for each month is printed in varying colors, and is ornamented with a different and pleasing photograph.

The valuable and authoritative formulae furnished throughout the year are alone worth the price asked for subscription.


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Foreign Digest.

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Reviews of the new photographic books.

Description of the latest novelties and specialties brought out by dealers and manufacturers.

Antony Jannus with Two Passengers Flying the New Benoist Flying Boat, Equipped with Six Cylinder

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We have been using one of your new 1913 6-Cylindet 75-H. P. motors in one of our new flying boats, and would say that we have found this motor to be exactly what we want for our flying boats without a single qualification.

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