Aeronautics, July 1913

Auf dieser Internetseite finden Sie ein Digitalisat der Zeitschrift „American Magazine of Aeronautics“. Die Zeitschrift „Aeronautics“ war in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (USA) das erste kommerzielle Luftfahrt- und Luftsport-Magazin. Die Zeitschrift wurde in englischer Sprache herausgegeben. Die Digitalisierung und Konvertierung mit Hilfe der automatischen Text- und Bilderkennungssoftware hat teilweise zu Format- und Rechtschreibfehlern geführt. Diese Fehler sollten jedoch im Hinblick auf den Gesamtumfang von weit mehr als 20.000 Einzelseiten als vernachlässigbar angesehen werden.

PDF Dokument

Für das wissenschaftliche Arbeiten und für das korrekte Zitieren können Sie auch das originale Digitalisat im PDF Format in hoher Druckqualität gegen Zahlung einer Lizenzgebühr in Sekundenschnelle herunterladen. Sie können das PDF Dokument ausdrucken bzw. in Ihre Publikationen übernehmen oder auf einem eBook-Reader lesen.

 » PDF Download


July, 191

Do You Trust Your Motor?


"Moreno's Camp, Sonora, Mexico.

"Dear Mr. Curtiss :

"I am very glad to congratulate you in the present letter of the wonderful work I am getting out of one of your motors

"I have already been flying about twenty-four hours and I have never been disappointed through lack of power. I have not a single spare part for the motor, and absolutely no trouble.

"Many of the flights I have to do daily are of about 60 to SO miles, of which half is entirely within the lines occupied by the federal army. A forced landing would certainly mean a disagreeable ending for me, so you can imagine how greatly I appreciate its efficiency and reliability.

"Respectfully yours,


AUG (JSTIN PARLA Flew From Key West to Cuba Without Any Naval Escort! He Wired:

"Gi.enn H. Curtiss:

"She flew like a bird. Motor never missed a shot.

_ "PARLA."


"JACK VILAS" Made the First Flight Across One of America's Inland Seas. Wires:


"Made flight across Lake Michigan today in one hour ten minutes. Reached height of over three thousand feet with passenger. Motor never made a miss in the whole trip,

_ "L. A. VILAS."

CURTISS MOTORS Are Used by Government Fliers of The United States, Russia, Japan, Italy, Austria, Germany, et al.

«I If you think you can't afford a CURTISS MOTOR, give us a chance to prove you can't afford to fly without one.

Cfl If you do not realize the advantages of using CURTISS MOTORS, let us describe to you in detail why they lead the world.





PAR AC ONS ^ave the distinction of being the only propellers ever officially * ^tJ indorsed by any government. Let us send you a copy of the Re-

port on Paragon Propellers from the Senior Aviation Officer to the Secretary of the Navy.

Sfanrlarrl Twr»-Rlar1** Tvnp* This is the standard propeller, par ex-Standard IWO-Diaae lype. ce,ience> unapproached for strength, safety, service and durability. Let us send you Report of Curtiss Aeroplane Co., showing four per cent, gain in speed and twelve per cent, in climbing—in comparative tests.

TVi*v»<» Rlarln TvnA ՠThese Sive greater flying thrust and more speed with 1 HI CC UWUC 1 ,y|JC iess diameter. Lieut. J. H. Towers, Senior Aviation Officer, IT. S. N., reports, "The three-bladed Paragon gives more thrust and more speed than any other propeller we have had." This type of propeller has come into very great demand among our customers.

Twi^Tf*fl Tvnf* ՠ^or macQines with chain or gear-driven propellers. These 1 W1MCU 1 y pc . are not caryed into shape but twisted and pressed under great pressure, heat and moisture. No cross grain. Higher pitch, less slip, faster flying. Used and fully endorsed by U. S. Government Aviators.

Special Flexing Type for Flying Boats: ment. The blades

<*re curved and designed in a manner that causes the pitch to change in proportion to varying loads on the propeller and to conform to irregularities in the air. With these propellers the engine is kept at its best running speed, very nearly constant, both on the ground and under all conditions in the air. They take the machine off quicker and climb better than any type of propeller we have ever produced. They run with practically no vibration and are almost silent on a muffled engine.

For Hydro Machines get the new STEEL EDGE


Paragons are not only best but also cheapest. Consult with us freely and get full information. We solicit correspondence, but do not urge anyone to purchase.


Burgess Flying Boat Built for U. S. Navy


is another record breaker. Built to comply with the strenuous requirements of the U. S. Navy, it fulfilled its test nights and was immediately accepted. Already a number of orders have been placed by sportsmen for similar machines.

Burgess Aeroplanes and Hydro-aeroplanes are still unexcelled. Motor equipment depends entirely upon the purchaser. We recommend the Sturtevant motor as the most reliable American type.

We have a number of used motors and hydro-planes which we are offering at greatly reduced prices.

Training school patronized by both the Army and Navy, under the direction of Frank Coffyn, is located at Marblehead adjoining the works. Early application is necessary to secure enrollment.



You Can Have Perfect Ignition

vou can insure your* self satisfaction and obtain the utmost efficiency from your motor by refusing "some magneto and plugs" and insisting upon the standard, Bosch Magneto and Bosch Plugs. ::

Literature sent on request

Bosch Magneto Company

201 W. 46th STREET



Page 5 Jul\f, 1913

Technical Talks

By the Technical Editor

The Fluid Deflector of M. Constantin and its Application to the


I have before me American patent No. 1,065,506 to Louis Constantin, on means for reducing the resistance to the passage of ehicles in fluids. This invention is based on the fact that the streams of fluid deflected laterally by a body in motion preserve their new direction for a certain distance after they are out of contact with the body, and also cause the streams of fluid which they encounter to participate in the deflection.

If a blunt-ended vehicle be provided with a screen of appropriate dimensions (but smaller than the major section of the vehicle), supported at an appropriate distance in front of it, then, the streams of air will be deflected outward so that they will not encounter the vehicle, and the resistance will be that of the screen.

This screen may be a disc, a cone, or two plates, preferably curved, and forming a dihedral angle. Best results are, however, obtained by employing a number of curved

plates, arranged as shown in figure 1 deflecting the fluid to both sides, or above and below; or, concentric truncated conical surfaces, as shown in figure 2, deflecting the fluid all

around the vehicle. In these figures a is the vehicle, b the plates, and c the support. Where it is desired to deflect the fluid to one side only, a single set of parallel plates can be used.

It is reported that the use of this device on an automobile effected a saving in power of 20% at a speed of 42 kilometres per hour.

Of course we are reminded that a large part of the resistance of a body is stern resistance, which this device probably does not diminish. It is possible that by initiating an inward deflection at the stern, the resistance of that porton could be diminished.

A single curved plate, or several parallel plates, can be employed to shield an observer from the wind. Thus, a deflector placed in front of an aeroplane pilot, will shield his head from the wind, while permitting him to see over the deflection.

M. Constantin has applied the principle of the wind deflector to the aeroplane wing, the object being to increase the rarifaction above the wing by a more energetic upward deviation of the air streams, thus increasing the lift. An account of the results obtained is given in "Aerophile" of June 1st, by M. Henri Mirguet, of which I shall give a short abstract.

Figure 3 shows a section of the "Ponnicr" wing which was modified by having its entering edge made concave as shown in figure 4. To show the character of the rarifaction above the wing, streamers were fastened a foot apart along the rib (this was a full sized wing) ; in figure 3 these streamers show that the air follows the contour of the wing, while in figure 4 they show a rarifaction over the portion a, the first two standing erect with their ends turned toward each other.

It is inferred that the intensity (and area) of the rarifaction can he increased by employing a series or set of deflecting plates (similar to those referred to above) and the lift still more increased. This, no doubt, can he done, but what effect it will have on the lift-ratio remains to be seen.

As before stated, the wind pressure on this deflecting portion is detrimental, and one (Continued on flags 7)


Page 6

The Championship Race


Gradually the storm drew away from us, and it was not long before it was light enough to see the ground pretty clearly. We had crossed the Mississippi during the storm, but where we do not know. Just after the storm an upward air current carried us up into low lying clouds, and for a few minutes we were completely surrounded by the wet mist. As soon as we could we descended to an altitude of five or six hundred feet. As it was nearly dawn, we decided to drag rope, that is,—let the balloon go along at low altitude with the drag-rope trailing along the ground until the sun should expand the gas and carry us up.

We drag-roped for about an hour over the sharply rolling country. The wind would carry us up the slopes without throwing any ballast,

R. A. D. Preston of The Goodyear Tire Rubber Company, Akron, O., aide in the 1iig\ of the balloon "Goodyear," which won th National Championship Race at Kansas CitU July 4th, tells the following fascinating stoim of his experience on the memorable flight: I

HE start: We struck a fair equilibrium at about 1,500 feet above ground, and saileB rapidly away to the northeast. A few mill utes later we saw the "Kansas City Postl Honeywell's balloon, and the "Kansas CitB II," John Watts, coming after us. Tn "Goodyear" continued at approximately oril inal height until after midnight, the othl two balloons appearing to be working weJ of us.

Almost as soon as we were well in the air. over in the north appeared what seemed to be the inevitable thunder shower for this racl and as the night grew on another came up in the east, and .we could see more lightninl flashes away to the south. At 2:10 A. M. til sharp patter of rain above told us that \fl were in the storm. In a minute or two the rain was pouring down on the balloon, and in a few seconds more we started downward. I

Upson watched the instruments, while til aide hustled inboard the sand bags and othl accoutrements we had hung outside the baskl This was to prevent them being torn off if we should drag along the ground. About 2 while I was making things fast inside til basket, Upson called to me that our drl rope had touched ground, and to watch oil It poured rain for half an hour or so, and we raced along with the storm, the drag rol hitting the tops of the hills, and once or twil the basket struck the ground, but quickl bounced up again. The lightning helpl rather than worried us, as it assisted us ir making out the country ahead. We flashl by a windmill and several trees at close rangl but were not in much danger of striking thel as we could see them some distance ahead. J

sometimes driving us along only a few feel from the ground. In passing over some tela graph wires, the drag-rope tied itself neatlj around one of them, and the "Goodyear! hung for a moment securely moored in thl air. A strong gust of wind, however, was tol much for the wire, and off we started again the knot on the end of the drag-rope cuttinl quite a swath through the brush and wiJ fences, till we finally cut off the offendiri knot. The sun was just breaking through til clouds to the far east, and we knew that \\| would shortly be well up in the air. We la the balloon come down a little as we well along in a northeasterly course, and after I repeated hallooing to the farmers below, \m finally found at 6 125 A. M. that we were fi-T miles north of Mineral Point, Wis.

There were clouds all about us, but the sky. just above was clear. The balloon ascended as the gas heated up—to take readings of speed kept me busy for the next hour, when Upson called my attention to a large city below us, which we knew from the capitol to be Madison Wis. We were then at 7:40 going due east in fine shape at 42 miles an hour, fast approaching the upper cloud layer, and at 8:20 passed over its edge. The cloud sea was so dazzling white that we were glad to put on the heavily smoked glasses we had obtained for this condition. This cloud sea was wonderfully beautiful, extending almost level for miles around with good sized cloud peaks to the north and south. In a few minutes we could hear the steamer whistles at Milwaukee, and a little later, down through rifts in the clouds were the waters of Lake Michigan. At 10 o'clock we could see the land again, though we did not see either shore of the lake we had crossed. Just before noon we reached our highest elevation of nearly 13,000 feet. Here the balloon shaded us from the sun, and we quickly realized that it was "winter"' at this altitude. Before this, while above the clouds, I had been watching the instruments from an improvised paper tent in one end of the basket, as I had lost my sun hat during the storm and the heat while the sun was shining on us, was intense.

Mountainous clouds were piling up above the lever cloud layer to the south, and as this probably meant a thunder shower Upson let the balloon come down slowly to take advantage of the more northerly currents at lower altitudes. At 600 feet, we stopped a little while just above the lower cloud layer which was beginning to break up. The upper cloud layer bad disappeared just before we came down. We did not stay long above the lower layer as we could see behind us a big funnel shaped cloud, and the air at this elevation seemed very unstable. Once we ran into a little whirlwind which turned the balloon around rapidly three or four times. It was interesting at this height to look down and


(continuedfrom page j) would suppose that the loss entailed in deflecting the air upward, would equal the gain due to increased rarifaction. However, an ounce of experiment (properly conducted and rightly interpreted) is worth a pound of argument, and I shall give a brief account of the results obtained, taken from the article above mentioned.

The first test was made in the Eiffel Laboratory by M. Drzewiecki on a wing section which he had previously studied and which was primarily designed to be used as a propeller blade section. "By making the upper entering edge concave the characteristics of the profile were changed as if by magic." The lift was augmented, the drift diminished; and the efficiency (lift ratio) was increased nearly 60% for large angles of attack and 40% for 30; so that this section most inappropriate for an aeroplane wing,

see the shadow of the balloon on the clouds below, surrounded by a bright rainbow-like ring.

Descending through the lower cloud layer was very interesting. We did not go into the cloud at all, but seemed to slide down the side of this huge ball of mist with the ground in plain sight just over its edge. We were uncertain as to our whereabouts before descending through this cloud layer, but figured that we were somewhere in the vicinity of Saginaw Bay. Once below the cloud, however, land was visible to the horizon.

The unstable atmospheric conditions were fast using up the gas and ballast, and we realized then that it was only a question of pushing the "Goodyear" as far as we could toward the lake.

The country below was not particularly inviting as with few exceptions it was covered with tall stumps and strewn with dead, broken trees, the cut timber district of Northern Michigan.

By three o'clock our ballast was all gone, and soon our empty sand bags, camp stools, water, milk cans, and most of our provisions were also gone. Reserving a little for landing, we looked ahead for a smooth spot and finally discerned a little spot of fairly smooth ground which we endeavored to reach. We hit a little short of it, narrowly missing a tall dead tree, but bounced up again and succeeded in dropping the balloon directly on a little plot which proved to be a buckwheat patch. Considering the strong wind blowing, Upson made an exceptionally fine landing.

We soon realized now that we had had no sleep and hardly a bite to eat during the race. After a vigorous attack on the remaining provisions, we left the balloon practically as it was and tumbled into bed at the nearest farm house for a good fifteen hours sleep.

After packing up the next day, it developed there was not train south till 2 A. M. Not until we boarded this train, and I picked up a paper in the smoking compartment did we learn that we had won the Balloon Championship of America.

was thereby rendered better than the majority in present use.

A similar test was made by Commandant Dorand on a very thin and good wing section and an improvement (in efficiency?) obtained of 15% for 3°, 26% for 0°, and 55% for 15°, angles of attack. A second test was made by him on a propeller, which showed a marked improvement, though the propeller was already very good, and therefore hard to ameliorate.

Dr. Amans tested wing models of small span and reported an improvement of 95%.

Finally M. Constantin. in collaboration with Commandant Dorand, had ten models tested at the Eiffel Laboratory. One of these was especially good, giving greater lift than the Blcriot NI bis. wing viz. 140% at o°, 54% at 3°, and 40% at 6°.

A full sized Ponnier aeroplane was tested at Mourmelon. The modification of the wing (Continued on page j6)

The Savary Tractor Biplane


NE of the most interesting of the French aeroplanes at the present day is the Savary biplane. Practically unknown in this country; and. until recently, little heard of even in France, it is at present coming into considerable prominence as a weight carrier. Robert Savary, the builder, became enthused by the first flights of Wilbur Wright at Le Mans and immediately set to work to build for himself. First at Le Mans and then at Chartres he worked steadily away, wasting little energy on advertising or sensational flights, but devoting all his attention to building a machine in which the qualities of efficiency and safety should be pre-eminent. When in 1911, at the military competition at Rheims the Savary biplane swept everything before it, not only carrying by far the greatest useful weight per horsepower, though by its sturdiness of construction the heaviest machine entered, but also showing the best speed of the biplanes, 100 kiloms. an hour on a closed circuit of 5 kilometers, the aviation world began to take notice, and the recent considerable orders for Savary biplanes by the French and Italian governments together with the decoration of M. Savary with the Legion of Honor are evidence that his machines are living up to the promise they then gave.

The latest achievement of note of the Savary machine is the carrying of six passengers by the pilot Frangeois, for an hour and a quarter. The passengers represent a weight of 472 kilos and the useful load carried, including oil and gasolene, totalled 580 kilos. The pilot carried his passengers to a height of 85O' metres, thus easily breaking the records for height and duration with such a load.

The main factor sought in the design of the Savary machine is safety. To this end all parts have been made unusually strong; the horizontal members of the tail and the whole framework of the wheels and skid (the skid itself being a heavy T bar of ash) being of steel tubing, while the longitudinal members of the planes and the struts between planes are of ash.

The engine, radiator and tanks are placed in front of the pilot so as to avoid the danger of his being crushed by the motor in a bad landing. This has necessitated putting the propellers in front of the main planes to avoid complications of transmission. Two propellers of 2.5 m. diameter by 1.75 m. pitch, turning in opposite directions at 900 R. P. M. are used. M. Savary is altogether convinced of the superior efficiency of the two chain-driven propellers of large diameter at slow speed over the single propeller connected directly to the motor. To test the matter he built a machine exactly like his regular machines except that it was driven by a single

propeller coupled direct to a Gnome enginel He found that the twin screw machine, weigh-1 ing with its power transmission and passengeil 125 kilos more than the single screw machine,! flew, nevertheless, at a speed of 26 kilometersi an hour greater than the other. Moreover! it is claimed that a twin-screw machine is easier to manipulate than the one single screw! type, there being no gyroscopic action; and! certainly even the beginners find that it is as easy to turn the Savary to the right as to! the left. A third claim for the twin screw is! that it provides greater lateral stability which! would seem to be true for the Savary, asl while responding readily to the action of ita ailerons it is very little affected by "choppyj air. Incidentally, the arrangement is a very! comfortable one for the pilot, for the two! propellers form a pocket of still air just at] the "nacelle" so that there is no greater rush of air than that caused by the speed of the machine, and even this is somewhat broken and very pleasantly warmed by passing through! the radiator and across the exhausts of the! motor before reaching the pilot.

The chief danger connected with the use! of two chain-driven propellers, that of the! possible rupture of one chain while the other! continues to hold, has been cleverly overcome! by the use of a single long chain passing over

Arrangement of transmission. A, motor sprocket; B and B1, propeller sprocket; C and C, idle sprockets.

both the propeller sprockets and the two sprockets on the shaft of the motor and kept in position by two small idler sprockets (see diagram). In this way the crossing of the chain, which is necessary to cause the propellers to turn in opposite directions is made very much more gradual, taking place in the whole length of the chain, instead of in half that distance as in the Wright transmission.

The motor chiefly used is a four cylinder Labor-Aviation, water cooled, developing 70 II. P. at 1300 R. P. M., though in many of the machines a 75 H. P. air cooled Renault motor, turning at 1700 R. P. M. is used instead.

The running gear is also unusual and is perhaps the strongest and most effective in use on any aeroplane to-day. It consists of a single long and very heavy ash skid centrally placed and reaching far in advance of the centre of gravity to prevent "somer-


saulting" in bad landings. This skid is braced by a triangular system of steel tubing forming a truss capable of withstanding the most violent shocks.

The two wheels are suspended by a sort of universal joint from the front longitudinal member of the lower plane. While strongly braced by steel tubing to prevent their tipping sideways, they are free to swing forward and back and also to turn like castors about a vertical axis. Wire guys connect each wheel with the front end of the skid by means of rubber tension springs. These springs hold the wheels normally in a position below the skid but allow them under pressure to swing back and up until the skid rests upon the

ground. Another similar rubber spring limits the castor action of the wheels causing them to stand normally straight fore and aft. The wheels are mounted unusually far apart (4 meters), and. being quite independent of each other in their action, make operations on the roughest ground and landing in an inclined position comparatively simple matters.

When stationary the machine rests on the two wheels and the rear end of the skid with the front pointed slightly up, but as soon as it begins to roll on the ground, it assumes a horizontal position being balanced entirely on the wheels with the skid lifted clear. In landing the wheels swing up and the skid,




sliding along almost its full length, brings the machine rapidly to a stop.

Longitudinal stability is assured by a biplane tail joined to the main cell by a quadrangular frame of steel and ash, trussed lengthwise and also crosswise. Each tail plane, of about 4 sq. m., has a fixed non-carrying triangular part in front to insure stability and behind these are hinged the flat, square elevator planes with about 8 sq. m. surface. These planes work both up and down; their large area and their position far in the rear of the main cell make it impossible to "engage" the machine in a rapid descent.

There is no rudder in the tail, M. Savary, thinking that any vertical surface far to the rear of the centre of gravity would give the machine a constant tendency to head up into the wind. Steering is done by four vertical planes or shutters mounted in pairs on the outside rear struts of the cell. To turn to the left, the two left shutters are closed, thus presenting an enormous resistance at this point and causing the right end, where the shutters are left in the stream line, to swing around. The tail being without a rudder swings easily and very short turns can be made at a moderate inclination, while in straight flight the shutters being close to the centre of gravity do not cause the machine to veer from its course.

The upper and lower main planes are built of longitudinal members of ash channelled to shape, and connected at the intersection with the struts by solid ribs of ash of I-beam section. Between these are solid ribs of poplar. The frame work is covered with a heavy linen and varnished with "Novavia." The two planes are 1 m. 80 apart. The upper one has a spread of 14 m. 40 and the lower one of 10 m. 80; both are 2 m. 20 deep. The total carrying surface is 52 square meters. The overhanging portions at the ends of the upper planes are hinged to fold down so that the spread can easily be reduced to 10 m. 80 for storage in the hangars.

Lateral stability is obtained by ailerons hinged to the rear of the upper plane only. These are arranged to work positively both up and down.

The "nacelle" is built of wood covered with varnished linen. The pilot sits in the rear

where he can see behind the lower plane. In front of him is the seat for the passenger and in front of this again, the motor and the] radiator. The lower wing is cut away froml front to rear for a space of about a foot onl either side of the "nacelle" to allow a freel view of the ground while the motor groupl being no wider than the "nacelle" and notl descending below the bottom of it cuts off I no view at all except when the machine is on] the ground.

All three controls are united in a singlel wheel on a steering post mounted on a| universal joint. Steering to right and leftl is done by turning the wheel as in an auto-l mobile. Tipping the post right or left controls the balance, and forward and back, the descent and ascent. All these movements] are quite instinctive, and the machine can bel easily controlled by either hand alone. The throttle is placed on the wheel and the lever for advancing the spark and the sight feed for the oil on the edge of the "nacelle." The main gasoline tank is situated between the pilot and passenger forming a back for I the latter. A glass gauge indicates at a glance the amount of gasoline in the tank.

The average speed with two on board is 100 km. an hour, the net weight is 625 kilos, and the carrying capacity is 300 kilos.

The machine with which Frangeois flew on May 8 with six passengers is a specially large one built for weight carrying. In this type, the upper plane has a spread of 19 m. 50; the lower one 14 m. 50. The motor is a no H. P. water-cooled Salmson (Canton-Unne) and the nacelle is arranged with two little benches facing each other in front of the pilots seat. The weight unloaded is 700 kilos. Two pairs of twin wheels instead of the ordinary single wheels are used; the two tires of each pair being bound to each other with tape, thus forming a tread about eight inches wide and enabling the machine to land and fly from the heaviest sort of ground.

So easy is it to handle the Savary machine and so efficiently does the landing gear work that two-thirds of the pupils at the school at Chartres obtain their license without having had a single item of breakage.

4 eron a utics




New Model "CH" Wright

The planes, rudder, motor and drive follow he standard model "C" lines. The span is ';8 feet, chord 6 feet and the surface area is pout 440 square feet. The weight empty is |»2o pounds, exclusive of the weight of the Centre hydroplane float, which is 240 pounds. 3ne of the new Wright six cylinder, 60 H. P. 'notors is installed, driving two propellers. 8 eet 6 inches diameter. The machine is fitted vith special instruments recording the angle )f incidence with regard to the air currents, etc.

The hydroplane unit consists of a single bontoon, 10 feet long, 6 feet wide and 10 nchcs deep, and a small pontoon supporting :he tail. The form of the pontoon and its position has been determined with great care md a type arrived at that makes the water planing features of this machine unusually efficient.

Mr. Wright has carried passengers on numerous occasions and the best weight lifting performance was when he flew with two bf his assistants, Jacobs and Taylor, and [Taylor's boy, in addition to considerable amount of fuel, which made a total load on the machine of almost 800 pounds.

The model "CII" rises almost instantly to the top of the water, since it starts and leaves the surface under the expert handling of Mr. Wright, in less than 10 seconds, which is by far the best performance to date in hydro-aeroplaning. Mr. Wright has made over one

hundred flights with this machine, and on one occasion flew over Dayton, landing on the Miami River at a point between two bridges not over one thousand feet apart, and rose again from this place and flew off over the town to the starting point with perfect ease. During June and the early part of July at his station on the Miami River, Mr. Wright frequently did a large business in carrying passengers, taking up one after another, often despite winds of as high as 10 to 15 miles an hour.

The locality on the Miami River where the tests were held would generally have been considered an almost impossible place for hydro-aeroplaning. The river is very narrow and on both sides are steep banks covered with trees, making flying in any kind of wind an extremely difficult -matter. Mr. Wright, however, considers this to represent the average conditions that would have to be met by a machine of this type if it is to have any extended use at all as a means of travel between inland towns, or in opening up inaccessible country over shallow streams. It is particularly for these purposes as distinct from the rough water work that would be met with in larger bodies of water, that Mr. Wright worked out this machine. Its flying qualities have been studied carefully to render it every bit as good as the best land machines, which is distinctly not the case with most other hydroaeroplanes to-day.

I think AERONAUTICS is the best magazine published on the subject of flying and I wish it came ever}' week. I especially like the drawings and descriptions of foreign machines.—C L. M., Tenn.

I notice, by the way, that men of discrimination and education read AERONAUTICS in preference to the other journals in this field.—C YV. S., Cab


Erie, Pa., June 21.—Earl Sandt, aviator, died here from poisoning after the amputation of his leg, necessitated by a fall in his aeroplane at Grove City, Pa., on June 12.

Yes, I still read AERONAUTICS regularly but A.......... and F.......... I find

I rarely need to get.—Subscriber.


All aeroplanes of the U. S. Navy will be fitted with a "universal control" so that any aviator may operate any type or make of machine without learning new controls or endangering life by flying without proper training. It bas been found impossible to get any body of men to agree on the merits or demerits of any one of the present systems so Captain YV. Irving Chambers is going to arrive at the point by scientific analysis and experiment.

The Martin "Aeroyacht"

Unique among the new types of aircraft which have been perfected during the last year is the "aeroyacht," designed and built by Glenn L. Martin, the noted California manufacturer of aeroplanes and hydroaeroplanes. The new machine is a four passenger convertible tractor, which combines a maximum of power and efficiency with comfort and safety. The body of the aero yacht is twenty-five feet in length, and being oval in shape, presents a minimum of head resistance while it is in flight. The machine is fitted with two seats of the "surrey" type, each being forty-eight inches wide. Tbe pilot occupies the rear seat with one passenger, the other two passengers occupying the front seat.

The body is mounted on a pontoon seventeen feet in length, which is built up of Spanish cedar planking eight inches wide. Forty sets of rib bracing form the carcass of the pontoon, which is divided into eight watertight compartments. This method of construction insures the safety of the machine.

should the pontoon be damaged while in the water. The outer surface of the pontoon is covered with cloth and glue, and is finished with three coats of varnish. It has a displacement of three thousand pounds.

The main pontoon may be detached from the body of tbe machine, and replaced with a landing gear in thirty minutes. The landing gear adopted by Mr. Martin is of the two wheel, rubber spring type, and is equipped with a central skid. It is similar in design to the landing gear of the Day tractor, which has proven remarkably strong and efficient during the last year.

The supporting planes of the aero yacht have a spread of thirty-five feet, with a span of seven feet between the struts. The planes are set five and one-half feet apart, and the wings have a camber of three and one-half inches, with a chord of five feet two inches. The wing section is built up, with solid ribs nine inches apart, and short ribs, three inches apart, over the nose. By this construction the

Page 14

July, 1911

Glenn Martin Hydro

Page 15

Conover-varnished cloth is held firmly to the designed curve of the plane, and forms a very efficient wing. The front beam is an "I" section two and one-quarter by one and one-half inches, the rear beam being two by one and three-eighth inches.

The wing tip pontoons, which are of a unique design original with Mr. Martin, are of the same mechanical construction as the main pontoon. They are so shaped that at a speed of sixty miles an hour they support their own weight in the air, at the same time presenting practically no head resistance. They engage the water at a planing angle, rendering it impossible to bury a wing under any condition. The smaller pontoons have a displacement of two hundred and twenty-five pounds each.

An 8-cylinder So H. P. Curtiss motor furnishes the power, mounted in the forward

part of the body, ahead of the pilot and passengers. The motor is enclosed under a detachable aluminum hood, making it easily accessible for adjustment, and is cooled by two specially designed Hall-Scott radiators which have proven extremely efficient. The motor is also equipped with a muffler designed by Mr. Martin, which effectively silences the exhaust but creates no back pressure in the motor.

The fuselage is put together in a simple and efficient manner which makes it unnecessary to drill any holes through the longitudinal members of the body. This is made possible by the metal fittings, which were designed by Charles H. Day, superintendent of the Los Angeles factory of the Glenn L. Martin Co., and fittings of the same type are used connecting the struts and wire to the wing sections. Patents have been applied for on this feature of the machine.

Christofferson Flying Boat


Silas Christofferson, the man who flew from the roof of a hotel in Portland, Ore., is now operating a flying boat, equipped with the first of the new Hall-Scott hundreds. The machine carries three passengers at sixty miles an hour and four could be put in without any trouble. It will be interesting to note the flights that are to be made at Lake Tahoe, which is six thousand feet above sea level. Two of these flying boats, with similar motors, are to be supplied to explorer Amundsen.

The upper plane spreads 49 feet; the lower 33 feet 6 inches. Chord 5 feet 6 inches, camber 3.5 inches at 26 inches back, separation 5 feet 5 inches and the total area is 432 square feet. The trailing edge of the upper plane is cut away for propeller clearance but at a point near the ailerons it curves out to 6 feet 5 inches. The main planes have an angle of incidence of 6 degrees. In their construction spruce has been used throughout. The upper is in 3 sections and the lower in two. In the entering edge two strips have been used, the outer being sharply pointed. For the trailing edge a strip of spruce is used with an oval leaving edge. Ribs, of I section, built up are used in main planes, ailerons and elevators. Battens of .25 inches by .5 inches have been used and to give lightness the .25 inch web has been bored out. The web is mortised into the batten, glued and nailed. Oval strips .875 inches by .375 inches run diagonally through the inside of each plane and a number of small tapered strips between the end ribs act as a reinforcement. The main beams are of I section, formed by a web having 3 laminations .75 inch thick mortised into strips 1.375 inches by .375 inches. At the hull the main spars have their greatest thickness, 1.625 inches, tapering down to about 1 inch about half the length of the wing.

Lateral stability is maintained by two ailerons in the top plane. 2.5 feet wide by 6.5 feet., with a reverse camber of .375 inch.

The fixed part of the tail has an area of

24 square feet., maximum spread 9 feet and maximum length fore and aft of 4.75 inches and is set at a negative angle. Spruce I ribs are used as in main planes.

The twin elevators are splayed out to afford room for the rudder. The two elevators' spread total 12.5 feet and the total area is 34-33 square feet. In the stabilizer and elevators the forward edges are hollowed out and the ribs set in.

The balanced rudder is 4.25 feet by 3 feet high and has an area of 9.75 square feet. Goodyear fabric is used throughout, and three sizes of Roebling cable. In the turnbuckles chrome nickel steel is used for the ends and Tobin bronze in the centers. The wire ends are all made fast by double ferrules. Cold rolled steel is used for strut sockets and bed rail clamps. All the metal parts are nickel plated. The total weight is 1,200 lbs.

Length of hull from stem to stern is 24.5 feet, the maximum beam is 34 inches and the greatest depth 32 inches; draft is approximately 4 inches. The greatest width and depth are found at a point even with the deepest camber. The maximum beam runs back to a point 12 inches forward of the trailing edge of the lower plane and then rounding off gently flattens out to a wedge at the stern. The hull rounds up 12 inches at the bow and has approximately 9 feet of flat bottom measuring from a line taken at the rear of the hood. The bottom is protected by 2 runners of spruce, having a base of 2 inches and a running surface of 1.5 inches, and 2.5 inches in depth. The runners taper off both fore and aft and are hollowed out in sections. In order to prevent water leaking into the hollow chambers the entire base of the runner is covered with canvas and waterproofed. Hull sheathing is .25 inch cedar on the bottom, .1875 inch to a point 14 inches up the sides, and from here to the gunwale .125 inch cedar has been put on over .2; inch by .5 inch spruce ribs that are reinforced by .5 inch longitudinal spruce

strips. The hood is covered with .125 inch mahogany and runs back to a _ cockpit that has an opening of 9 feet which furnishes ample room for pilot, passengers, motor and propeller clearance. The balance back of the hull is sheathed with .125 inch cedar.

The ico H. P. Hall-Scott motor is placed in the rear of the cockpit and is braced by 16 ga. by .25 inch tubing. The motor is geared 18-24 and drives by Diamond chain a Christoffer-son propeller of 9 feet pitch by 8 feet 5 (Continued on page J7)

Christofferson Flying Boat

The Cooke Tractor Airboat

The Weldon B. Cooke Aeroplane Company, of Sandusky, Ohio, has just completed a flying boat of novel design, which, it is claimed, embodies the good features of all its contemporaries. It is a seaworthy-looking design and the motor is in an accessible position. Tbe motor is mounted in the hull just forward of the aviator's seat, and can be very easily reached. A hot bearing, a disconnected wire, a loose nut, can all be discovered and quickly remedied "even while in flight." It is not necessary to climb over the seat or onto the planes to change a spark plug or do any of the hundred and one things an aeroplane motor needs.

The most notable feature of the Cooke air-boat is the hull, built by tbe Davis Boat Works Co. of Sandusky. It is a fine example of the boat builder's art, light, substantial, and graceful. There is not an abrupt line in the hull, with the exception of the step. It is finished in natural wood throughout and a most attractive boat. The materials employed are oak, mahogany, and cedar, all very carefully selected from well-seasoned stock, and thoroughly varnished inside and out. with Valspar. The planking is double, with the inner layer laid diagonally, and oiled gingham between the layers. The sides are two layers of V% inch, the deck one thickness of inch.

and the bottom forward where the blows strike in hydroplaning, are two layers of -fa inch. The planking is riveted every two inches with copper nails, making a hull that will withstand enormous shocks without splitting or springing a leak. The beam is very broad and the freeboard very high, making an excellent boat for rough water. A dive into a wave, except from a height is almost impossible. The Cooke company is the only firm of its kind located on the Great Lakes, and the head of tbe firm has done a great deal of flying over Lake Erie. The firm is, therefore, well qualified to know what is most important in tbe design of an airboat for severe conditions. The hull has four watertight compartments, any one of them large enough to keep the boat afloat in the event of a collision damaging the bottom. The planes are entirely independent of any other part of the boat, and could be cast adrift in a storm without crippling the boat or power plant, and, it would even be possible to drive borne under power without the planes.

The boat has a comfortable seating capacity for five persons besides the pilot, in two seats arranged in tandem. The total weight of the machine in flying order is 1.500 pounds, leaving a margin of about 700 pounds for live load.

Dimensions of the hull are as follows: Length, 28 feet; beam, 5 feet; beam (at step), 4 feet; height of step, 8 inches; draught at step, 16 inches; position of step, 11 feet aft; position of C. G., 10 feet aft; freeboard at bow, 3 feet; freeboard at stern, 1 foot; seats, two, in tandem; width of seats, 4 feet. The motor is a Roberts Six, 75 H. P., located in hull, forward, double chain drive to paragon propeller, 10 feet diameter, 10 feet pitch. Motor speed, 1,200 R. P. M. Propeller speed, 600 R. P. M. Gasoline and oil capacity, three hours.

The propeller is mounted in front, on a framework of steel tubing built up from the deck, and is driven at half motor speed by two roller chains running in guides. The propeller shaft is in a direct line with the center of head resistance in the air. 1 he blade is a Paragon, left-hand, 10 feet diameter by 10 feet 2 inches pitch. The propeller shaft is mounted on radial and thrust ball bearings.

The planes are substantial, made up in 7^2 foot sections, center sections all double wired, chord 7 feet, gap 7 feet. There are six sections in the top plane and four in the bottom. The top plane spreads 45 feet and the lower 30 feet., the total area being 500 square feet. The wing tip pontoons are flat on the bottom side and have a displacement of 200 pounds each. The two ailerons, of 19 square feet each, are hinged to the rear beam of the top outside section, are interconnected and work both ways. The tail is the conventional fixed stabilizer of 40 square feet surface. There are two elevators of 25 square feet each and a rudder of 19 square feet. There is no vertical fin.

The operation of the control is similar to the Benoist, right-hand lever for lateral and longitudinal control, and left-hand lever for rudder. The trials of the boat have not yet taken place, but the builders expect to put it through its paces in the near future.


The British War Office will hold a naval and military aeroplane engine competition to begin on February 1, 1914, at the Royal Aircraft Factory, Farnborough, Hampshire, 33 miles from London. A prize of £5,000 ($24,332) will be awarded to the maker of the engine which, in the opinion of the judges, best fulfills the requirements of the competition and which is entirely suited for the aeroplane service. Although only engines of British manufacture will be allowed in the competition, a statement of what will be required to permit of an entry and also of the attributes which are considered desirable in an aeroplane engine may be of interest to American manufacturers.

specified requirements.

Horsepower: Ninety to two hundred.

Number of cylinders: More than four.

Gross weight per horsepower: Calculated for six hours' run, not to exceed 11 pounds.

Shape of engine: Suitable for fitting in an aeroplane.

Origin of engine: British manufacture throughout.

desirable attributes.

Light total weight; economy of consumption ; absence of vibration; smooth running, whether in normal or inclined position and whether at full power or throttled down; slow running under light loads; workmanship; silence; absence of deterioration after tests; simplicity of construction; suitable shape to minimize head resistance; precautions against accidental stoppage, e. g., dual ignition; adaptable for starting otherwise than by propeller swinging; accessibility of parts; freedom from risk of fire; absence of smoke or of ejections of oil or petrol (gasoline) ; convenience of fitting in aeroplane; relative invulnerability to small-arm projectiles; economy


(in bulk, weight, and number) of minimum spare-part equipment; excellence of material; reasonable price; satisfactory running under climatic variations of temperature.

The engines will be submitted to the following tests:

Two runs of six hours each, at full power or throttled down, as desired by the judges. Engines to be placed in inclined positions not exceeding 15 degrees for short special runs. The consumption of fuel and lubricant will be measured. Engines to be dismantled by the competitors' mechanics between the runs if desired by the competitors or the judges, but no work of any kind to be done on an engine except under observation.

At any period during the competition the judges may impose such other tests as they desire, including runs of longer duration, in order to bring out the relative merits of competing engines.


The most satisfactory way to secure a market for American aero engines in the United Kingdom would be by direct representation in this country and by using every opportunity for making demonstrations. An excellent opportunity exists at present for the establishment of an English market for American aero engines provided their efficiency can be absolutely demonstrated. Nothing should be left undone to interest the British Admiralty and War Office, and manufacturers of aerial craft of every description, as well as professional aviators. Moreover, a definite and persistent course of advertising would produce satisfactory results to the manufacturer. —From the U. S. Consular Report. The Gyro motor has already gone to England and is demonstrating the Gyro in flight.

New Developments in Aeronautics


The illustration shows the new Benoist flying boat, "Lakes Cruise'' model. This machine will carry two passengers besides the aviator with ease and makes about 70 miles an hour. Its dimensions are as follows:

Spread 35 feet; fore and aft, over all, 23 feet: chord 5 feet; gap 6 feet; width 36 inches ; depth of boat at the step 30 inches. The propeller is driven by sprocket and chain with "engine installed in the boat as is common with tbe Benoist machines.


In one airboat of recent date the exhaust from the motor comes out immediately behind the step in the main float, with the object of producing a layer of gas abaft tbe step in order that the get off from the water may be speedy. Again, in an airboat exhibited at the last Olympia show a pair of quadri-spherical cowls, fitted on top of the float, lead air down sloping-aft tubes to just behind the step, with the same end in view. Even though the introduced exhaust in the one case and air in the other achieve their object when the airboat is rising, it might be asked whether they are worth while when their detrimental effect on the streamlines when in the air is considered, says James E. Steele, Associate Member Institute of Naval Architects, in British Aeronautics.

When flying, the lift, which would otherwise be exerted by the sweet-flowing streamlines beneath the float, is in part destroyed Indie disturbing influence of the introduced air

or exhaust; this results in a lift-reduction due to the loss in air reaction.

The air issuing from the bottom of the float at an angle of about 45 degrees to the stream lines will disturb their natural flow, resulting in tbe lift-reduction mentioned above. It might be thought that the admission of air behind the step would get rid of the negative pressure or suction at that part, but air admitted for that purpose would only increase the body of dead air which must be dragged along with the float.

To retain what good there may be when rising, and yet to get rid of the adverse effect when flying, means should be provided for cutting out in both the cases mentioned, when the machine is in the air. Cowls capable of being housed when flying would achieve that object in tbe one case, besides doing away with the drag which they exert.


While to require flying boats or hydroaeroplanes when operating in the water as motor boats to be equipped in accordance with the Act of June 9, 1910, will impose conditions which might interfere, at least to some extent, to their use out of water; at the same time, it is the opinion of E. E. Chamberlain, Commissioner of the Department of Commerce, in a letter to AERONAUTICS, that these vessels which go at a high rate of speed should, for the protection of other vessels, be equipped with lights if navigated after sunset, and for the protection of those on board should have life saving, devices. The course which they propose to take should be indicated by signals as in the case of other vessels and if they are in a fog their position should be indicated. "I am inclined to think, therefore." says Mr. Williams, "'that while navigated as motor boats they are required to have equipment on such vessels and comply with the Rules of the Road," as contained in Department Circular 236.

The rules of the department provide that these craft, motorboats, must he inspected by the local inspectors; they are divided into classes—less than 26 feet. 26 feet to 39 feet inclusive, and 40 feet to 64 feet. Certain lights must be carried after sunset, and these of a certain size and properly positioned. Whistle, fog horn, bell are other fittings. If carrying passengers for hire, certain life preservers must be carried and the pilot must be licensed. A fine of $100 is provided. The act is enforced by collectors of customs and other officers.

Airships are not made of air, neither are they exactly shipshape. But let not these inconsistencies discourage you, for if an airship is not what you think, it is at least as dangerous as it looks. But why speak of danger—look at the people who marry!

—"Doctor" S and "Doctor"' W.


The new ioo H. P. motor of the Hall-Scott Motor Car Co. has been built especially for the flying boat, although it can be used directly connected in any standard machine. Enough power is provided to lift a standard flying boat into the air under any weather conditions, or get off the water with more passengers. The bore and stroke is 5 inches respectively.

Their system of cylinder construction is much similar to the previous models. Cylinder walls, heads, and pistons are cast from a special grade of close grained grey iron. Main cylinder walls are machined upon both sides. Steel water jackets are autogenously welded to the cylinder walls, forming non-leakable joints; the steel of such thickness that it is not readily dented. The assembly is then baked, enameled black on the outside, and ground to size.

Comparison of the 8o H. P. and ioo H.P. Cylinders

Cylinder heads are cast with water jackets completely encircling the valves, so that there is no danger of the valves sticking or breaking from overheating. The inside of the head is carefully machined to insure equal compression. Two plugs are carried in the head, a Bosch magneto firing both at the same time, insuring increased power over the single system.

Particular attention is called to the strength and rigidity of the cylinder and head assembly mounting on the crank case, the five steel rods brought from inside the crank case and passing through the heads, to which they are securely bolted. Copper asbestos gaskets

placed between head and cylinder provide arl easy means of assembling and an absolutely] tight joint.

Crank cases are of the best aluminum alloy, hand scraped both inside and out, and hancl polished on the outside. The bottom oil casl is removable, so that main bearings, etc., may be easily inspected. A large capacity oil pumJ is cast integral with lower case, providing enough oil for a run of seven hours.

The crank shaft is hand forged from onl piece of special heat treated steel, machine٠and ground to size, and accurately balanced! It is supported on five bearings of unusually large diameter. The cam shaft gear is drive٠by a gear, formed integral with crank shafli All main bearings of Win. Cramp's whitfl metal. Main bearing caps are of aluminunl alloy with heavy steel strap supporting samel

Cam shaft is of heavy, seamless steel tub! ing, supported on five bearings. Cams of mal chine steel, hardened and accurately grounJ to size and doubly pinned on cam shaft. I

Large 2l/2 inch nickel-steel valves are placeJ directly in cylinder heads, no valve cages used! which allows of simplicity in design, the heaJ being easily removed, and equal compression in all cylinders.

All connecting rods are of I beam construe! tion, made of special carbon steel, drop forgeJ and heat treated, which develops great stiff! ness, and prevents crystallization. * They arJ bored and reamed on special machine tool! made for this one purpose, which absolutely insures correct centers and alignment. ThJ connecting rod caps are held in place by speJ cial nickel-steel bolts, properly secured by locking device.

The oiling system is a combination forcJ feed and splash, with constant level. ThJ oil is circulated by means of a gear pump! which forces the oil in equal amounts to thJ different individual compartments in whicrl the connecting rods dip, and an absolutely constant level is maintained at any motor speedl

Liberal allowance is made in cylinder jackei space, in the size of water pipes and all con-l nections, to allow of perfect cooling of the' motor under most severe conditions. A large capacity centrifugal pump is used in connection. Connection between the cylinder and' head is made with pipe by-pass, preventing any danger of water leak into cylinder.

The 8o and ioo Crank Cases

Tublijhed Monthly by Aeronautics Trejj

122 E. 25th ST., NEW YORK Cable: Aeronautic. New York 'Phone, 9122 Madison So. ERNEST L. JONES. Pres't — - THOMAS C. WATKINS, Treas'r-Sec'y ERNEST L. JONES, Edilor — M. B, SELLERS, Technical Editor HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Edilor SUBSCRIPTION RATES UMTED STATES, S3.00 FOREIGN, $3 50

No. 71___JULY, 1913_Vol. XIII, No. 1

Entered as second-class mailer September 22, 1908, al ihe Posloffice, New York, under the Acl of March 3, 1879.

<J AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each Month. All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th.

«J Make all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted.

cylero cJTWart

RATES: 15 cents a line, 7 words to the line. Payment in advance.

80 II. P. motor. Full equipment of exhibition extras. Everything in good mechanical condition; $3,200 cash will buy it. Act quick. K. care of AERONAUTICS.


ENGINE FOR SALE—S-cyl. "V," list price, $1,500; new, never used. The one who buys this motor gets one of those few real bargains that isn't picked up every day. Thoroughly tested by maker who desires to sell the last one in his shop. Complete with propeller, $800. Address, "Eight Cylinder," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

BARGAIN—50 H. F. Gnome; also 50 H. P. An-zani. Both guaranteed in excellent condition. Will sell cheap owing to death of aviator. Address, Rose, AERONAUTICS.


WISE—One copy of the rare book by John Wise, A System of Aeronautics, for sale to first coiner at $10. First-class condition. This book is getting more rare every day. Address Sheahan, care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

BACK NUMBERS OF AERONAUTICS WANTED —Volume one, number five; volume two, number two; volume three, numbers two and four; volume four, numbers four, five and six; volume six, number one. Address Arvis Roach. 401 Cedar St., San Antonio, Tex.


SACRIFICE—A Curtiss type biplane, flown by one of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Hall-Scott 60 H. P. motor, all in Al condition, for $1,800 cash, subject to demonstration to bonafide purchaser. Shipping boxes, propeller, crates, completely equipped for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchaser at well-known flying field. The best bargain of the season. Opportunity knocks but once at every man's door. Address "Sacrifice," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

HYDROAEROPLANES, AEROPLANES, MOTORS—30, 50, 75 H. P. Great Bargains. Demonstrations. Fatterson, A986 Trumbull, Detroit,—July.

WANTED ENPLOYMENT—Young man, 25 years old. no bad habits, engine expert, designed and built machine for past 5 years, also considerable work in gas engine designing, wants position with firm or individual in aeronautical work. Herbert Kellogg, Kewanee, 111.


FOR SALE—Tractor biplane. Good exhibition machine. Tent, extra parts, crates, $400. Eight cylinder 60 H. P. motor, Bosch magneto, Schebler carburetor, radiators, gas tank, two propellers, fully guaranteed, $800. F. Robinson, 59 Glasgow St., Rochester, N. Y.

BARGAIN—30 foot Curtiss type biplane, with 5 foot extensions, chord 5ft., single surfaced, laminated ribs, dble. surf, elevator, 4-cyl. 50-60 H. P., new. Engine turns 6 by 5 propeller at 1,500. Also extra 7 ft. propeller. Engine alone cost $1,600. Can be seen any time. Must be seen to be appreciated. $850 whole outfit. Address W. B. R., care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

FOR SALE—My 38 ft. double surfaced mono., weight 750 lbs. Exceptionally well built of best materials, 8 foot 2 inch propeller. Simple control (see November, 1912, AERONAUTICS). Machine now powered by 4-cyl. 30 H. P. Boulevard engine, which is light. Am unable to finance further. Complete machine, tools, etc., for first $1,000. Will sell power plant separate including engine, complete ignition system, special designed 18 lb. radiator for $150. Herbert Kellogg, Kewanee, 111.

IMMEDIATE SALE NECESSARY! One Model "D" genuine Curtiss aeroplane with hydro attachment, equipped with brand new Model "O" Curtiss

WANTED—A 60 or 70 H. P. aero motor. Must be water cooled, with radiator, magneto, propeller, all complete. Price not over $500. Hall-Scott preferred. Address Motor, care of AERONAUTICS, 122 East 25th St., New York.



S cyl. " V " type 60 HP. 240 pounds.




equipped with the Roland Control (two movements) and BOLAND MOTOR.

THE BOLAND CONTROL is the embodiment of utmost safety and simplicity in a new system of control which is basic in principle. Write for particulars.

Factory : Ft. Center St., Newark, N. J.

Office: 1821 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

A special designed 2 inch carburetor is furnished which is adjustable from the aviator's seat.

With the exception of crank cases, cylinder heads, water and oil pumps, etc., all parts are fully nickel plated.

This motor is claimed to actually develop 120 brake test at 1,500 R. P. M. "Rating its propeller thrust test, as most aviation engines are rated, it actually delivers 175 H. P. at 1,500 revolutions," the manufacturer states.

The Hall-Scott Motor Car Company rate this motor by brake test at 1,500 R. P. M. "During a recent four-day test, this new type motor never failed to register under 120 brake test horsepower at 1,500 R. P. M. Taking the horsepower by propeller thrust, or wind horsepower, it actually registered 170 H. P. at the same speed."

In placing such a motor before the public, this company believe they have come as near as possible to perfecting a motor that will run as long and constantly as a slow speed stationary engine. This is due to the fact that special care has been taken in the cooling system as well as the large bearing surface to the crank shaft, connecting rod, and cam shaft bearings.--THE Bl LLINGSLEY ACCIDENT

Some conclusions have been arrived at by Captain W. Irving Chambers from the fatal accident to Ensign Billingsley, all the details of which were fully known. It shows: (1) the advantages of sticking to the machine, especially in flights over water; (2) that safety straps should be used invariably; (3) the necessity for wearing a life saving coat or equally effective device in flights over water; (4) the desirability of a standard control—this has now been systematically decided for the navy.

No fault has been attached to the machine which had been fully examined and parts thereof tested. It was a Wright with Curtiss 8-cyl. engine and Curtiss pontoon with wing tip balancing floats. The machine was extra strengthened, which, no doubt, prevented its collapse during the fall.

The illustration shows this machine the navy's B2. Note flotation and freeboard. Lieut Ensign Herbster was particularly pleased with the pontoon and engine, and used it in his altitude flight.


We have been advised that the new Icy-Hot Bottle for keeping things hot or cold has been so improved that it will withstand the ordinary jars and jolts of setting down too hard or even dropping. This great stride in the manufacture of these bottles means a great deal to sportsmen as they are unable at all times to give things their proper care. They

are absolutely guaranteed to keep hot liquids hot 24 hours or cold liquids cold 3 days. The Icy-Hot is the same double glass bottle vacuum principle, discovered by James Dewar in 1892, but through ingeniously inserted shock absorbers it has been commercialized to the extent that it is now considered a necessity, and is as simple as a child's toy. The Icy-Hot Bottle Company is located in Cincinnati, Ohio.

The Navy's B-2

^Leading Makers

of Supplies for Aeroplanes

Goodyear Experts give aviators and aeroplane manufacturers benefit of highest grade products at home. Best American and European ideas combined in Goodyear Aeroplane Fabric, Tires, Springs and other Accessories. Made by Pioneers. Used by those who KNOW.

Used by Leading Manufacturers


Aeroplane Fabric and Accessories

Used by Prominent Aviators

After 14 years devoted exclusively to the making of rubber goods, we have perfected the ideal fabric for Aeroplanes. This fabric is the utmost in durability— it is reliable—the fabric that both veteran aviators and manufacturers have generally adopted, because of its reliability.


Goodyear Aeroplane Fabric is impervious to atmospheric conditions. This is one of its big advantages. Heat and cold will not affect it; neither will water. Hence ideal for hydroaeroplanes.

Owes superiority to the method of treating the cloth. It is impregnated with the Goodyear Compound. Thus moisture can't get to the fibre. The result is a fabric that won't stretch, won't shrink, won't mildew, won't rot.

All fabric furnished with or without metallic finish, as desired.

Used by The Curtiss Aeroplane Co., The Wright Co., Burgess Company & Curtis, Glenn L. Martin Co., Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co., Benoist Aircraft Co., and by Lincoln Beachey, Walter Johnson, and other prominent manufacturers and aviators.


The bigger the tires the better the service. Large tires means greater cushioning effect and greater strength to sustain the strain of landing. So we recommend and build large tires. Let us tell you more about Goodyear Aeroplane tires and the famous aviators who use them.

Besides Aeroplane fabric and tires we also make Aeroplane Springs, Shock Absorbers, and other accessories.


We are the American headquarters for Balloons. We build balloons complete, guaranteeing them fully in every respect. The best principles of Foreign and Domestic Balloon building combined in Goodyear.

Write us for full particulars.

Consult With Us Iti

we can effect a SAVING.

into your confidence. Tell us your particular em. Perhaps we can help you solve it. We know Let us send descriptive booklet. Write TONIGHT.

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio

Branches and Agencies in 103 Principal Cities

We Make All Kinds of Rubber Tires, Tire Accessories and Repair Outfits MAIN CANADIAN OFFICE, Toronto, Ont. CANADIAN FACTORY, Bowmanville, Ont.


The strut socket used by the Thomas Brothers is very simple, makes possible the removal of struts without loosening or detaching any wires or cables, nuts or bolts, or else.

A heavy cotter pin keeps the strut in its place in the socket. The angle of the casting is figured out so that these sockets may be used for either front or rear struts by simply turning them end for end. The casting is of aluminum.


The illustration shows the chain drive of the Benoist flying boat. Since the photo was taken, Shelby tubing chain guards are used. The engine is cranked by inserting a lever in a ratchet at the forward end of the propeller shaft, the operator standing up in the front by the seat. The chain is standard Diamond i% inch roller, i inch pitch. Both engine and propeller sprockets have 18 teeth. The propeller shaft is wired in with Roebling cable with spoke nipple turnbuckles.

The engine shaft and propeller shaft is separated by a distance rod which is adjustable, this distance rod, of course, carrying one-half inch "two in one" New Departure ball bearings at each end.

The forward end of the propeller shaft is also carried in a ball bearing, and the four thrust wires originally used to take up the thrust of the propeller, have since been changed to two upper thrust wires, but the two lower ones have been replaced by two spruce thrust members extending from the bearing housing at the rear end of the propeller shaft anchored down at the lower end of the front engine struts.

Newspapermen usually re-write their stolen dope but an aeronautical weekly in this country takes the whole thing bodily from advance sheets of AERONAUTICS and prints it as an important piece of A. W.'s own news.


According to cabled reports, Louis Bleriot has devised a scheme by which aeroplanes majj take flight from steel ropes stretched over the deck of a vessel, and land upon the same. It is said that successful trials have been made of the device.

Leo Stevens may be very careful in counting out the aviator's share of the money; indeed, he is over careful. Sometimes he figures out there's nothing coming to Stevens at all when the aviator gets his.


Factory: CENTER STREET, NEWARK, N. J. Office: 1821 Broadway, New York City

VLT A KTTCn at once AVIATOR who will YY All 1 LaU FLY at Exhibitions ::

One-half Interest in this Company is offered for sale by the administrator of the Frank E. Boland Estate.


7 White Terrace, Newark, N. J.

Only the best methods and the best equipment will insure you satisfaction


Sloane School

provides these ASK OUR PUPILS


Manufactured and Sold

Agents for

Deperdussin Caudron Anzani Gnome Renault Clerget Le Rhone




main office, 1733 broadway, new york

'Phone Columbus 5421

* C. & A. Wittemann


Manufacturers of



Hydro-Aeroplanes J

Gliders Propellers Parts |


J Special Machines and Parts Built J

+ to Specifications A

f +

+ +

֦i Laree stock of Steel Fittings, Laminated Riba, .{.

<f and Struts of all sizes carried in stock. 4>

+ Hall-Scott Motors, 40-60-80 II. P. +



t —-_--,--- +

+ - +

t works: ocean terrace and little clove road


t +

+ Established 1906 Tel. 717 Tornpkinsville +


(reg. u. s. pat. off.)


The motor mentioned in the following clipping from a Washington paper is one of the several muffled STURTEVANT motors in daily operation at the Army and Navy Aviation camps.

Army Officers in Southern Camps Making Rec#ls. Four Mew Det

Notice has been recehjjfa- at the War Department of several .important flights made by the army avlajprs at their southern winter camps. Lffeut. Thomas Milling-, in what Is knojRn as the Burgess tractor, with Lieut.isSherman as passenger, flew from Gaiylston to Houston and returned, a total distance of ninety miles, in about an hour^and a half. He circjed the city of Houafon in the course of the flight and rte*sed_ through two rain storms. %

Lieut. "HaTTy Graham, with Lieut. Call as passenger, flew over approximately the same course in the Burgess machine equipped with a Sturtevant motor. They covered a distance ol about eljTTTy miles and passed through one "rainstorm in the course of the flight.

Lieut. Klrtland, with Sergf. Idzarik passenger, started over the same course but after covering about forty-five miles was compelled to stop on account of the rain.



Hyde Park,

Boston, Mass.

And all principal cities of the world


Obst Hydro


The hydroaeroplane model herein shown and described was constructed by Mr. Charles V. Obst, of Cypress Hills, Long Island. Mr. Obst was lately elected president of the Long Island Model Aero Club and it may be well stated that he is very capable of filling that office. Air. Obst is one of the neatest constructors of model aeroplanes in America today, and all his models are original with him, and are worked out on a scientific basis.

The model shown in the accompanying drawing holds the world's record for single propeller hydros, having made a duration of 30 seconds; and, in fact, is the first successful single propeller hydro model in the world, with the possible exception of the Bragg Smith model of England.

The fuselage consists of a single stick of balsa wood, one-half inch square at the middle, tapering to one-half by one-quarter of an inch at the ends. The stick is 40 inches long and is made of two pieces of wood y2 inch by l/\ inch laminated together for strength. A small pine plug is fitted to the front of the stick as shown at "A" to protect the same, as balsa

wood is very soft. The bearing for the proJ peller is placed on the rear end of the sticW as shown, and the stick is given a coat of shellac.

The planes are constructed of bamboo, th« main plane having a span of 23^ inches, thM chord at the center being 4 inches and at th« tips 2 inches; area 69 square inches. ThM elevator has a span of 12 inches and a chonl of 3 inches at the center. The main plandl has a dihedral angle of 150 degrees, and irl the center of the same a slot is left for thM center stick to fit in. Both planes are covm ered on the under side with silk fibre papeii treated with Ambroid.

The propeller is nine inches in diameteB and has a pitch of 11^2 inches. The width of the blade is i-fV inches. The propeller rem volves at 1,160 R. P. M., gives a thrust of 3% ounces and is driven by 18 strands of Y% inch flat rubber, the rubber being carrietB above the single stick.

The pontoons are constructed of 32 inch! spruce and are covered with double thickB ness of silk fibre paper coated with Ambroidl


III Iff'SS /?



TJUT^JIOX~ ^ 0 See's*.



PLANES hold the followiug records:

world's lon$ distance hydro record with one passenger. world's lon$ distance hydro record with two passengers. ameiican endurance record, aviator and three passengers. have more world's records than all other m'f'rs combined. the first successful tractor biplane built in america.

Records indicate superior efficiency. Why not get an efficient machine ַhile vou are about it?



50 H.P.



80 H.P.


Endurance Record to Date 4 hrs., 23 min.

Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout

From the


of Nov. 20, 1912

In the testing establishment of Dr. Bendemannat Adleishof (neai Berlin), a 7-cylinder Gvro Motor was recently tested. In a 5-hour endurance run and at 1,000 R. P.M., an average of 45.7 H. P. was obtained. The fuel consumed was 14.7 kg. gasoline per hour and 3.06 kg. lubricating oil, which is more favorable than the Gnome motor of the same horse-power. The weight o'" the motor was 73 kg.

Send for Catalog

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.


12 ughtkr, 1w stllongek

and over ten tim ics as tofgh as tiik bust aluminum castings. weighs o.nk-thihd as much as ikon. : : : : 1

for cylindkrs, piston's, craxk casks, sockets and other akkoplaxk fittings


si mow stiteirr, x.v. c.

mktai. 1)1 "i»t.

morris r. mac1iol


Over 100 complete drawings. Scale 1" to foot: some full size

Prints 28"x36" only complete prints ever sold

aeronautics. 122 east 25lh st.. new york


nflN'T vv"le us un'ess

uvvll 1 j.ou are interested in a reliable, efficient jnd econcrrical power plant. 1 hat is ihe only kind we build. four sizes. Reasonable Prices

kemp machine works

Muncie, Ind.



The main or front pontoons each measure 7^4 inches in length, 1J/2 inches in width and y2 inch in depth, and are divided up in five airtight compartments, these compartments being constructed or formed by double thicknesses of silk fibre fastened across from upper to lower braces. The rear pontoon measures 3^4 inches in length, 1^2 inches in width and y2 inch in depth, and is divided into two airtight compartments in the same manner as the main pontoons.

The main pontoons are fastened to the frame by rubber bands, are held 6^2 inches below the main stick by diagonal bamboo braces as shown at an angle of 10 degrees to the water level. The rear pontoon is placed at the extreme rear, extending under the propeller and is fastened to the main stick by two upright bamboo sticks as shown.

The model rises in 4 or 5 feet, flies at an altitude of 30 or 40 feet and is a fast, steady flyer. Complete and ready for flight, it weighs 4^2 ounces.


In the first interclub contest in America which was held a few weeks ago at Ralph and Church Avenues, Brooklyn, N. Y., the following clubs entered: N. Y. Model Aero Club, Long Island Model Aero Club, Bay Ridge Model Aero Club and Summit Model Aero Club. Owing to the inclement weather and many other obstacles the Summit and New York clubs became discouraged and fell out of the race, leaving the contest to be bitterly fought out between the Long Island and Bay Ridge clubs.

The following are the results of the contests, it being seen that the Bay Ridge club

is the winner, it having 94.41 points to 93.02 points of the Long Island Model Aero Club.


L. I.

Bay Ric





from hand

, , . ,20



hand ......

... 20



ground , ,

.... 19.38




. . . .14.89



water .....

.... 18.75


The cup for which the above contests were held, was kindly offered by Mr. Francis A. Collins of New Yrork.

In order that all records for model flying may be held by America it has been decided to hold an interclub tractor contest, the record for tractors now being held by England. All persons interested kindly communicate with Mr. Edward Durant, Aeronautical Bureau, World Bldg., New York City.

Great interest has been aroused among the model enthusiasts by a contest to be held shortly, known as the Scientific Contest. The models must weigh 8 ounces without the rubber, and must be a scale model or a prototype of a full size machine. In order that models mav be studied from a more scientific point of view and that the so-called "flying stick" may be done away with, a club to be known as the Scientific Model Aero Club is now in the process of formation. The meeting will be held in the board room of the World Building. All persons interested in this branch of model aeronautics should communicate with Mr. Edward A. Durant for particulars regarding the club.

Model flying contests are held every Sunday afternoon at the field of the Long Island Model Aero Club, Old Mill Park, Crescent Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.


The world's model distance was broken June 14, 1913, at the Cicero Aerodome, by Arthur Nealy, former President of the Illinois Model Aero Club, according to the Aero Club of Illinois of the Windy City. "The distance made was 2,740 feet and duration was 72 seconds. The model was a very fast one and a very good climber as the average altitude was 400 feet. The distance was taken by the officials of the Illinois Model Aero Club. This was the final meet for distance machines and the club is now devoting its time to hydros.


Model flyers will be interested in the device of Montague Palmer, of New York, for winding up rubber power plants. In the device shown in the illustration there are two friction wheels each of which carries an eye consisting of a U-shaped piece of wire secured at its ends in the wheel, thus the wheels with these eyes form twisting heads to which the elastic strands of twin propeller machines are attached. These small wheels are driven in opposite directions by friction from a driving wheel 23, which wheel is retained in engagement with a spring as shown. Proper bearings are provided for these wheels and the shafts. In winding, the two strands of rubber

are secured by their hooks in the eyes 21 and 22 and turning the crank operates the small wheels in opposite directions. When wound the strands are disengaged by removing their hooks one at a time from the eyes. In this

way both strands are wound up the same number of revolutions simultaneously. The patent has been assigned to M. Rosenstein of the Ideal model concern.


Page 29


A New Wright Flyer

We will present this season a new model, known as Model ''E", designed especially for


This model will be equipped with either four or six cylinder motor, turning a single propeller. It is so designed that it can be taken down for express shipment and reassembled within a few hours.

The old models, refined in details, will be continued for use of those who wish to fly for pleasure and sport.

All models mav be equipped with HYDROPLANES.

The Wright School of Aviation

Our School of Aviation will open at Simms Station (Dayton) about April ist with a corps of competent instructors. The school will be under the personal supervision of Mr. OrvPle Wright. Tuition for a complete course will be $250.00. Enroll now.


Dept. "A", Dayton, Ohio

New York Office, - - 11 Pine Street

Hotel Cumberland

NEW YORK Broadway at 54th Street

"Broadway" cars from Grand Central Depot in 10 minutes, also 7th Avenue cars from Pennsylvania Station

Headquarters for Avi 1 tors and Auto-mobilists.

New and Fireproof

Strictly first class. Rates reasonable.


With Bath

and up

Send for booklet

Ten Minutes' Walk to Thirty Theatres


Formerly with Hotel Imperial

*$* *£

t t ati f\ +

Aeronautical Cloth



Aero Varnish

+ +


+ +

We were the first in the field, + and the test of time is proving + that our product is the best. *

+ sample book a-6, data and prices on request J

* 4*

+ nr«i r« r* r* 4.


101 Franklin Street, New York *

C. E. Conover Co.

Page 30

M. 1913

News in General


Shaw Aeroplane Co.. Indianapolis, Ind.. $10,000. The directors of the new company are P>. Russell Shaw, a local aviator; F. Russell Horn, L. L. Boyer, N. V. Boyer and N. E. Carter.

The Thomas Flying Boat in the Lakes Cruise


International Aerial Company, Boston, $50,000; Guiseppe Colucci. Carlo F. Arzillo, Sophia J. Lager.


Papers have been served in a suit by the City of New York against the defunct Walden-Dyott Co. for the collection of taxes.


Thaddeus Kerns, an aviator, 20 years old, was killed at Chico, Cal., July 15. When the wreckage hit the ground the radiator crushed the aviator's head, while other parts of the biplane pierced his body.

At the end of May, for which report is just issued, there remained in warehouse 10 foreign built aeroplanes and parts, valued at $10,084. Perhaps aviators lack the funds to take them out or send them back. Exports for May totaled but 1, at $2,752. No imports and exports of foreign machines.


On July 1st, Logan A. Villas, in his new Curtiss flying boat, flew across Lake Michigan, from St. Joseph, Mich., to Chicago, 111., a distance of 64 miles in one hour and ten minutes. The start was made from St. Joseph at 4.15 P. M.. with William Bastar of Benton Harbor, as passenger. The flight was made at an average height of 3.000 feet. _ This was the first aeroplane flight across Lake Michigan. Details of the Vilas boat appeared in the last issue.

"Page 3 1






EARL V. FRITTS who gained his pilot license with a Thomas Biplane, equipped with a 60-70 h.p. MAXIMOTOR

Vlaximotor Makers, Detroit, Mich. Bath, N. Y., Feb. 5, 1913.

Dear Sirs:—Wish to inform you that I have today successfully filled the requirements in a number of flights to qualify for my pilot license. The MAXIMOTOR itood with me right through to the end and no other motor on the field has anything )n your new product. I wish you the most of success duiing this coming season.

Sincerely, EARL V. FRITTS.

Maximotor Makers


No. 1528 East Jefferson

Airmen Should Be Interested In Photography


Has long been regaided as the standard American Authority on photographic matters.

Each number has forfy pages of interesting photographic text, printed on fine paper from good tvpe, and illustrated with many attractive half tones.

The cover for each month is printed in varying colors, and is ornamented with a different and pleasing photograph.

The valuable and authoritative formulae furnished throughout the year are alone worth the priee asked for subscription.


Foreign Subscription, Two Dollars A Sample Copy Free


135 West 14th Street, : : : New York

Some of the other regular features are

Articles on practical and timely photographic topics.

Illustrations showing examples of the work of the best American and foreign pictorialists.

Foreign Digest.

Camera club happenings, exhibitions, and photographers' association notes. Items of Interest.

A department devoted to "Discoveries."

Reviews of the new photographic books.

Desciiption of the latest novelties and specialties brought out by dealers and manufacturers.


The national championship balloon race from Kansas City, July 4, to decide this year's championship and to select the team of three to represent America in the international race from Paris this Fall, was won by the balloon "Goodyear," R. H. Upson, pilot, and R. A. U. Preston, aide. The balloon was built by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., and both the aeronauts are good fellows connected with that company. This balloon made the longest duration in the race, 19 hours 52 minutes.

There were seven entries but only five balloons actually got away from the grounds. Following is a table of the contestants, the first three being now eligible for the .American team:

"Goodyear," R. H. Upson and R. A. D. Preston, to West Branch, Mich., 685 miles.

"Kansas City II," John Watts and Geo. J. Quisen-berg, to Goodrich, Mich., 673 mill -.

"Kansas City Post," Capt. H. E. Honevwell and \Y. C. Gifford, to Rockwood, Mich.. 658 miles. '

"Mill. Population Club," John Perry, Albert Von Hoffman and A. Yon Hoffman, Jr., to Manchester, Mich., 616 miles.

"Overland," Roy F. Donaldson; unplaced, as no reports sent in of landing. If he is going yet there ought to he a new record.


Phila., July 1.—Dr. T. E. Eldridge, Dr. Geo. H. Simmerman, Helen Simmerman and Mrs. Chas. Pooley in the "Phila. II" to North Penn.

Phila., July 8.—Rob't. E. Glendenning and A. M. Biddle, Jr., to Ilammonton, N. J.

Kansas City, July 4.—E. S. Cole piloted three young women in the Kansas City III in a 21 mile trip.

Akron, O.. June 22.— R. H. L7pson. pilot, and R. A. D. Preston, both of the Goodvear Tire & Rubber Co., in the "Goodvear" at 10:05 P. M.


Following are the new pilots certificated, with date and place of trials:

239. Henry K. Crowell (Wright copy with Gyro motor). College Park, June 6.

240. E. Win, Steele (Curtiss), Los Angeles, Tune 15.

241. Lt. C. G. Chapman (Wright). Manila, Mav 13.

242. Lt. Herbert Dargue (Wright), Manila, May 2.

243. Lt. Clyde P. Rich (Wright), Manila, May 5.

244. Tomoshigc Ikuhara (Curtiss) San Diego, June 28.

245. Alfred F. Lym (Curtiss), San Diego, Tune 30.

246. Tohn A. P.ixler (Wright), Davton, Tu'ly 2.

247. Bernard L. Whelan (Wright), Dayton, July 10.

248. A. A. Pressman (Wright), Davton, Tuly 14. 249 Tos. A. Ritchie (Curtiss), San Diego, June 28.


Petaluma, Cal., July 6—In trying to avert a collision with a frightened horse which dashed across the field as Grover Bell was finishing a glide resulted in his death. Bell threw his machine over too far and came down head foremost. He died next day from a fractured skull.


Houston, Tex., July 8—Lieut. Loren H. Call. U. si Signal Corps, was killed on this day in an army aero-l plane near the aviation camp at Texas City.

The Board of Officers appointed by Gen. Carter to] investigate and report on the circumstances connected] with the death of Lieut. Loren H. Call, C. A. C.J reported the accident to have' occurred as follows!

Lieut. Call left the aviation field in a type C Wright aeroplane at 6.21 a. m., July 8, 1913. He! climbed till he attained an altitude of about 80(1 or 1,000 feet. He was flying towards some smooth! ground at a different part of the camp in order to take some tests to qualify as "Military AviatorH While flying at this altitude it appears that one winB dropped but the machine was brought to the level immediately. A very short time afterward the lefl wing dropped very much so that the machine madl an angle of about 45 degrees in the air. Lieut. Call evidently attempted to straighten out the machinl by making a turn to the left and pointing the nose ol the machine down, for at this time the machine tooll a very steep angle downward. From that time on thil angle gradually increased until the aeroplane camel down towards the earth perpendicularly. At about! 200 or 300 feet from the ground the plane began tol turn upside down and during that turn the winga collapsed and the machine dropped to the ground. i

It appears that the machine hesitated a moment! as it began to turn upside down at the end of tha drop during which time Lieut. Call climbed out onl one wing, evidently with the intention of straight-! ening out the machine as that wing was a trifle! higher than the other one. However, when the ma-l chine hit the ground the wing to which Lieut. Call] was hanging struck the ground first.

There is no evidence to show that the machine waa broken in any parts until it began to turn upside down! at the end of the drop. However, at the time the machine made this turn it apparently collapsed.

The board further called attention to the fact that the testimony of the eye witnesses of the accident! shows that Lieut. Call preserved his possession to thel last moment and did all in his power to right hisl plane.


Hugh Robinson, of the Benoist Aircraft Co., writes the C. E. Conover Co.: "After using your Naiad aeronautical cloth for several years I wish to say that 11 find it entirely satisfactory in every particular. I find it particularly well adapted to hydroaeroplanes as it is not affected by the action of either salt or fresh water."

At the Burgess works the editor noted the fine wing finish produced by the Conover "dope" which is now| used in preference to the already prepared fabric. This varnish is put on with a brush after the cloth is stretched and tacked, making it water, weather and fireproof.


Plying about 885 miles, from Chicago to Detroit, in less than fifteen hours flying time, the only one out of five starters to finish the course, J. B. Yer-planck's Curtiss flying boat, with Beckwith Havens as pilot, won the cruise, though one day late according to the schedule. Mr. Verplanck was a passenger throughout the trip. The trip started July 8 and finished July 18.

The starters were: Antony Jannus in the Benoist machine, Walter Johnson in the Thomas, Glenn L. Martin in the Martin Tractor, and Roy N. Francis in the l'aterson-Francis. Owing to an accident Martin had to delay the start until Friday, July 11.

The details of the race, day by day, are as follows:

Tuesday, July 8.—Jannus started with Paul Mc-Cullough from Grant Park, Chicago, with Havens close on his heels in advance of a big storm. Jannus and McCullough, his passenger, flew as far as Gary, Ind. The propeller was broken off at Gary and they started to piddle seven miles to shore. A gale

struck them and completely wrecked the machine and the boys were rescued by a tug. The machine! has never been found. The race was abandoned byl Jannus at this point.

Havens reached Michigan City and made the approximately 50 miles in 50 minutes, actual flying time. He made but one stop and this was to offerl assistance to Jannus.

Johnson started third, without a passenger, but] got to land before the storm broke at Robertsdale.l Ind., just outside of Chicago. Francis did not start] until the following day on account of the high wind.l

Walter Johnson abandoned the race here on thel 12th after an unsuccessful attempt to get a start from) Robertsdale, Ind., where he had been delayed. John-] son launched his craft and started the engine. Heading into the face of the sun, he failed to notice a piece of wreckage which punctured two of the watertight compartments; he had no facilities for making the necessary repairs.


Send sketch or model for FREE Search of Patent Office records. Write for our Guide Books + and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our J special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes.


We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of T patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay 4. as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed. +


Main Offices - 724-726 NINTH ST., N. W. - WASHINGTON, D. C. J



Ex-member Examining Corps, U. S. PalenI Offiee Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patents American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bide. WASHINGTON, D. C.


Patents and patent causes. Specialist in Aeroplanes and Ga-i Engines.

JOHN O. SE1FERT 50 Church Street New York, N.Y.



That Won't Tip Over-

CHARLES H. BURLEIGH, South Berwyck, Me.

Ideal" Plans and Drawings

are accurate and areaccompanied by clear, concise building instructions, postpaid at the following prices: Wright 3-ft. Biplane, 25c. ' Bleriot 3-ft. Monoplane, 15c. "Cecil Peoli" Champion Racer, 25c. Curtiss Convertible Hydroaeroplane (new), 35c. Nieuport 3-ft. Monoplane, 25c.

COMPLETE SET OF FIVE, . . . $1.00 Postpaid Send for iur ncw4.i-pp."Ideal 'Model aeroplane supply catalog, fully illustrated. 5c. brings it (None free) IDEAL AEROPLANE & SUPPLY CO., 82a West Broadway, New York

Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan 'or Skids lj4 diameter and under any length.

J. DELTOUR, Inc. 804H^ilf.er,St '


Samples and prices on request


112 Duane Street,

New York City


Port Jefferson ::

ready for power


New York


have positive action, are small and light, easily applied to any motor

———- write for circular ""~~~"~—~~"~—


A bi-monthly magazine of artillery and other matter relating to coast defense.

Published under the supervision of the School Board, Coast Artillery School, Fort Monroe, Virginia.

$2.50 a year. With Index to Current Military Literature, $2.75.


638-644 First Avenue, New York, U. S. A.

Building Season Now On

Full line of woodwork. Metal Fittings and accesories for all types in stock, ready for immediate delivery.

Builders should have our catalogue, describing 750 parts and fittings, for reterence.

Buy Direct From the Manufacturers and Save Money and Time

Send 10 cents for catalogue

Cordeaux - Etter Mfg. Corporation'

(formerly New York Aeronautical Supply Co.) (OJ

11, 13, 15 McKibben St., Brooklyn, N. Y.

Marshall Earl Reid's Curtiss Flying Boat as it struck, nose first, on the marsh back of Wildwood. When! Reid struck the " hole in the air" which wrecked his boat he started to glide to a lagoon, but the flying boat came down within 14 feet of the water's edge and safety. The planes were smashed, but the boat did not receive so much as a scratch. The boat will be repaired.

at Duncan, near Cheboygan. They were away agaij after lunch and then made the longest non-stop fligm of the cruise, a distance of 105 miles to Alpina. Them setting out again at 5.45 they flew to a port neal Point Lookout, landing at 7.35 p. m.

Wednesday, July 16.—Havens flew to Bay Cityl thirty miles away, flying the distance in 40 minutesi

Thursday, July 17.—Owing to the bad weather irl the morning, they did not start until 12.29 p. m.l flying through a storm, which broke while in flightl they reached Port Sanilac, north of Port Huronl where they passed the night.

Friday, July IS.—The aviators left Port Sanilacl Mich., flying down to Edison Beach, near Port Huron! in a heavy wind.

Starting away again at about 2.30 p. m. they coml pleted the trip from Edison Beach to Detroit, a disl tance of 60 miles in 60 minutes.

W. E. Scripps, of Detroit, in a Burgess hydrol aeroplane, met Havens and yerplanck in Lake St! Clair and escorted him into the city.

Havens and Yerplanck are considered to have worl the silver trophy offered by the Aero Club of Michi! gan for the best elapsed time between the two cities! there having been no other contender.

Photos of the Thomas and Martin machines appeal in this issue. Details of the Vilas were in the Junl number. (See scale drawings in February.) Benoist! boat described in January.


The automobile industry enjoyed a mosa prosperous year, expansion along all lines! surpassing that made during 1911. Foreign! trade grew from $14,000,000 in 1911 to $2i,-J oco,ooo in 1912, the increase manifesting itself] principally in the exportation of passenger cars.

The aircraft industry, on the other handl passed through a bad year and remains in al critical condition, owing to overproduction.! The army and navy are practically the onlyl customers and for various reasons they con-line their purchases to as few types as pos-J sible, while new manufacturers, most of therrl with little capital, are constantly opening up shops for the development of new ideas and unduly increasing the field of production.—I Daily Consular Report.

Wednesday, July 9.—Havens flew from Michigan City to South Haven for more gasoline. He finally flew into the harbor at Macatawa by dark.

Hot in pursuit of Havens, Roy M. Francis, with Irving in the passenger's seat, started from Chicago and flew to Michigan City. After taking on a fresh supply of gas he left Michigan City for Macatawa Bay, expecting to overtake Havens. It was nearly 7 p. m. when Francis made an attempt to start for Macatawa but ran into a log and he was forced to put back to shore for the night.

Johnson stayed ashore at Robertsdale.

Thursday, July 10.—None of the contestants made an attempt to proceed, owing to the high winds.

Friday, July 11.—Francis left South Haven and flew over the land to Macatawa, alighting on the water there at 7.15 a. m. and was under way again an hour later, flying to Pentwater, 236 miles from Chicago.

Havens and Yerplanck flew from Macatawa to Pentwater, a distance of 74 miles in a headwind.

Glenn L. Martin, the last of the contestants to start, sailed away from Chicago at 7.30 a. m. He set out to catch up with the leaders and registered the record day's mileage thus far, a distance of 162 miles. He flew the distance from Chicago to the first control, Michigan City in 40 minutes, a distance of 50 miles. He stopped at Michigan City for one hour, and was off again. After stopping at the Macatawa control, 84 miles away, Martin, with Charles Day, as passenger headed for Manistee. A thumbscrew worked loose 011 his carburetor and dropped off a spring. They glided to the surface of the water at Lake Harbor, near Muskegon, a distance of 162 miles from Chicago.

Saturday, July 12-13.—High winds, rough seas and accidents to machines from the storm, during the night, suspended the race for the day, with the only three flyers, who remain, at the same points where they spent the night.

monday, July 14.—Havens and Yerplanck started from Pentwater, were checked past Manistee and arrived at Frankfort for gasoline. Starting again from Frankfort they flew to Charlevoix, Mich.

It was reported that Martin left Muskegon and flew to Pentwater within an hour after Havens soared away from the latter town.

Roy Francis made several unsuccessful attempts to leave Pentwater in the afternoon and finally announced that he would pack up his boat and return to Chicago, the referee having disqualified him.

Tuesday, July 15.—(ilenn L. Martin returned to Muskegon, Mich., this afternoon from Pentwater and withdrew from the cruise.

After Francis and Martin had withdrawn from the contest, Havens set out from Charlevoix and passed the checking station at Mackinac Island and landed

gentlemen: st. louis, mo.. july 24, 191 3

we have been using one of your new 1913 6-cylinder 75-h. p. motors in one of our new flying boats, and would say that

we have found this motor to be exactly what we want for our flying boats without a single qualification.

we were able to carry two passengers beside the aviator in the new lakes cruise boat, and are now working night and day

on another flying boat for one of your motors.

we congratulate you on your success in getting out this last product, and beg to remain

yours very truly, the benoist aircraft company,

Send for our IQIJ Catalog.__ pcr tom w. benoist, mgr.

The ROBERTS MOTOR CO., 1430 Columbus Ave., Sandusky, Ohio

Now Ready

The Airman's Vade=Mecum


By Colonel H. E. Rawson, C. B.

(vice-president royal meteorological society; council aeronautical society)

CONTENTS : Introduction and 5 Chapters on Temperature, Pressure,Wind, and Precipitation. Weather Forecasting. Index. {Illustrated) Price 40 Cents Net Post Free

"AERONAUTICS," 3, London Wall Buildings, London Wall, London, E. C.


We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

for further information address

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

trenton, n. J.


Made in two sizes

50 H. P. 6-cyl. Air-cooled, JSC

PRICE, $650.00 Complete

100 H.P. 6-cyI. Water-cooled, ٦pound;tl

PRICE, $850.00 Complete Catalog Free Agents Wanted




established 1865

Printers, Stationers Lithographers

Aeroplane, Motor and Accessory Catalogues Circulars, Brochures, Bulletins, etc. :: ::

135 W. 14th STREET



goods of quality at less than the cheaper kind. get our 40-page catalog "EVERYTHING AVIATIC" and a small order will tell you why those who know send to us when they want the best at the right price. let us give you a special figure on that supply list.


208 30th Avenue Seattle, Wash.

U. S. Patents Gone to Issue

Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

Even in these enlightened days, the crop of patents on absolutely worthless, or even ques-tionahle, devices increases rather than decreases.

It would take an entire issue of the magazine to abstract in a full and clear manner the claims of the majority of the patents issued. In a great many cases it is even impossible to give in a few lines what sort of an apparatus the patent relates to. In most instances we have used merely the word "aeroplane" or "helicopter" if such it is. Where it is impossible to indicate the class, even, in which the patent belongs, without printing the whole patent, we have used the word "flying machine."

The patents starred (*) are those which may be found of particular interest; but it must be understood we do not pretend to pass judgment upon merits or demerits.

Where patent seems to have particular interest, the date of filing will be given.—Editor.

Do not attempt to invent in a field the science and prior art of which are unknown to you—William Macomber.

ISSUED JUNE 17, 1913

1,064,872—David S. Thomas, North Platte, Neb., FLYING MACHINE.

1,065,033;—Frederick William Dufwa, Mexico, Mex., Equilibrium Device, in which a swinging car operates various rudders.

1,065,216—Julius C. Christiansen, New York, N. Y., Universally operating STEERING MECHANISM.

1,065,263—Gustav Mees, Dusseldorf, Germany, STEERING and STABILIZING MECHANISM ; shaft, spokes radiating therefrom, blades rotatable on spokes, outer and inner frame, flexible sheet, etc.

ISSUED JUNE 24, 1913

*L065,389—Harry A. Orme, Wesley Heights, D. C, LANDING GEAR, of flexible design, in which wheels are capable of swinging outwardly for landing on skids, etc.

1,065,394—William Rabsilber, New York, N. Y., FLYING MACHINE consisting of tubular body, propellers and supporting planes therein.

*1,065,506—Louis Constantin, Paris, France. Reducing the Resistance of a Surface by means of a "screen" of appropriate section less than that of the midship section at an appropriate distance in front of a wing (or vehicle), screen constituted of several inclined walls parallel to each other and separated by vacant spaces, attachments connecting them, and connection of screen (or bow) to wing (or vehicle). See p. 219, June.

1,065,656—Paul Benni. Lublin, Russia, AUTOMATIC MEANS for STEERING and BALANCING. Pendulum and electro-magnetic system.

1,065,739—Ludwig Sommer, Munich, Germany, MAN POWER FLYING MACHINE.

* 1,065,799—Ambroise Goupy, Paris, France, AEROPLANE, in which planes are "stepped" and may be moved forward or backward to the desired angle with relation lo the longitudinal dimension of the frame.


1,066,203—Richard Gilardone, Mutzig, Germany, AEROPLANE TRACK; amusement device.

1,066,346—Ernest Peter Vincent, Oceanic, N. J., AEROPLANE, in which supporting planes rotate.

ISSUED JULY 8. 1913. *1,066,860—Edmund Sparmann. Vienna, Austria-Hungary. Filed Dec. 5, 1910. AUTOMATIC STABILIZER, both lateral and longitudinal. Uses gyroscopes whose axes of rotation are vertical but | whose axes of oscillation are perpendicular to each other. The claims are too long to abstract here.

066,981—Thomas W. Benoist. St. Louis, Mo. Filed July I, 1912. CURVE changing mechanism in which the camber may be reduced and changed | back to normal while in flight or otherwise, in which I a third lateral (but sectional) beam is used and apparatus for altering the camber by flattening the ribs.

1,067,086—William Tames Wells and Daniel Lewis, Cananea, Mex., AIRSHIP.

ISSUED JULY 15, 1913

*1,067,271—Lewis Hector Ray, Ottawa, Ontario, Can., CONTROL FOR AEROPLANES; wheel on a column extending through a bell-shaped member, spindle below column with lever for rudder, universal joint connecting column with spindle, etc.

1,067,272—Arthur J. M. Recklin, Bay City, Mich., KITE.

1,067,425—Herbert E. Hawes, New York, N. Y., AEROPLANE.

*1,067,432—Charles Francis Tenkins, Washington, D.r C, AILERON STABILITY and ELEVATING SYSTEM; usual ailerons between outer portions of wings, longitudinal central seat rod arranged to swing vertically and having oppositely projecting lateral arms, a rotary and sliding steering column arranged to actuate said vane in rotating, means whereby sliding said column compels variation in the elevation of the arm-bearing portion of said rod, and wires connecting the arms to the wings and compelling both to move in the direction of the movement of the arms.

1,067,466—Norman Clark and Albert E. Plank, Quincy, 111., SURFACE. An aeroplane having a plane flat top surface and a convex-curved lower surface adjacent to the front edge and extending back beyond the middle of the body of the plane almost to its rear, and reversing into a concave surface adjacent to the rear, substantially as described.

1,067,559—Joseph A. Steinmetz, Philadelphia, Pa., PARACHUTE for an entire aeroplane.


{Continuedfrom page y) from that shown in figure 3 to that shown in figure 4 produced a marked improvement in flying qualities.

This is all very interesting and remarkable; but, until we can see the tabulated data giving Kx and Kv we can not form a definite conclusion as to the actual value of this improvement.

If the thickness of a wing is increased by changing the contour of its upper surface, both the lift and drift are increased. The use of a concave entering edge and the existence of head resistance in a complete aeroplane bring about that the ratio of lift to total horizontal resistance is not greater for a thick wing than for a thin one. Consequently with a wing of variable thickness we obtain an aeroplane of variable speed. This method is safer than changing the cambre of the wing, and simpler than changing the area.

m. b. sellers.


Tage 37

Jab, 1913







For all photos, descriptions, data, news, drawings, etc., regarding FRENCH AVIATION, address below:

Letudes aeronautiques alex. dumas, engineer, e.c.p. 20 rue ste. marie, neufchateau (vosges\ france





h athol street, dubuque, iowa, u. s. a.

—Thomas School



Addresi, Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. BATH, N. Y.

The Bowden Patent Wire Mechanism




Built In capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

write for prices on standard makes. send your specifications for special designs


broadway and 57th st., new york city Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators cl all types


jeffery's marine glue

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing' the canvas covering of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat.

For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces.

sf-n'd for samples^circu-iars, directions for use.'etc.

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street Boston, Mass., U.S.A.


{Continued from page j6)

inches diameter. the center of the hollow chrome nickel steel propeller shaft is placed 14 inches below the rear main beam. the diameter of the shaft tapers from 2 inches at the propeller and gears to 1 foot 5 inches at the forward end. the radiator is at the rear of the motor and the 20 gallon gasoline and the oil tanks are located in the hull under the motor.

wing floats are used at extremities of lower plane. these are torpedo shaped in vertical section, oval at front and flattened at the rear.

the control is of the dep type.

v-ray spark-plugs never lay down

the v-ray CO.

marshalltown, la.



have you seen our new price list ? write for it. a price for everybody.


Agents: Eamei Tricyle Co., San Francisco; National Aeroplane Co., Chicago.


'Page 38

M>, 19lJ

Harry Bingham Brown

The Greatest of the Great

Especially engaged for the

Halifax Exposition


Nova Scotia

Assisted by

Law and Lapham

The Two


under contract to perform the

"Stevens Pack Act"

during the Season of 1913.

Managers of high standing that want something extraordinary will do well to address

A. Leo Stevens

Box 181, Madison Sq. N. Y. City


Vulcanized Proof Material

For Aeroplanes, Airships, Balloons. First Rubberized Fabric on the market. Lightest and strongest material known. Dampness, Heat and Cold have no effect. Any strength or color.

"Red Devil" Aeroplanes

That anyone can fly. Free Demonstrations.

Hall-Scott Motors

Eastern distributor. 40 h. p., 4-cyl.; 60 and 80 h. p., 8-cyl., on exhibition at Wittemann's. All motors guaranteed. Immediate delivery.


Will install a Hall-Scott free of charge in anyone's aeroplane and demonstrate by expert flyer. Expert advice. 'Planes balanced.

Private Flying Field

Fine private field with smooth water frontage for hydro-aeroplanes. Private sheds and workshop. Located at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island.


Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O. New York



Translated by Lieut. Jerome C. Hunsaker, U.S. Naval Constructor

Resistance of the Air and Aviation IN ENGLISH

Magnificent Quarto Volume, Cloth, 242 pp. 27 large plates and table of polar diagrams 1913 ENLARGED EDITION

Lieutenant Jerome C. Hunsaker. U.S.N., naval constructor, detailed by the government to superintend the courses in aeronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has made a notable contribution to his subject by translating into English Gustav Eiffels master-work, "The Resistance of the Air and Aviation." The translation includes the record of experiments conducted at the Champ-de-Mars laboratory, and an appendix giving a summary of the results, and supplementary chapters containing valuable and impor tant tables and diagrams.

Captain W. IRVING CHAMBERS, of the Bureau of Navigation, says:

"This book, in my opinion, contains the most valuable information on Aviation yet published, and it is very desirable for our American students, designers, manufacturers, aeronautical and engineering associations, clubs, colleges, and libraries, to secure copies in English as soon as possible."


" Eiffel's work makes it possible to calculate a full-sized aeroplane from the data obtained in experiments with a model. In nearly all cases, the full-sized machines thus determined have given the results expected."

Heretofore, this misterly production has only been procurable in French, yet even in the original version it is now extensively used in America for reference. The translation of the text with additional matter is of the greatest importance to every one interested in the scientific study of aviation.




AERONAUTICS, 122 east 25th street, NEW YORK


100 H-P delivers 120 H-P at 1500 r.p.m. BRAKE TESTl

It is the only motor in the world designed especially for the Flying Boat. 60 H-P has proven itself a guarantee to success, especl

ially over land flyirig. 40 H-P is the lightest motor for its power upon the marl ket especially adapted to geared down planes. I

■ Write for Catalogues =■

upon these power plants and let us figure on your equip! ment if you want the BEST.


Hall-Scott Motor Car Co.,