Aeronautics, February 1913

Auf dieser Internetseite finden Sie ein Digitalisat der Zeitschrift „American Magazine of Aeronautics“. Die Zeitschrift „Aeronautics“ war in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (USA) das erste kommerzielle Luftfahrt- und Luftsport-Magazin. Die Zeitschrift wurde in englischer Sprache herausgegeben. Die Digitalisierung und Konvertierung mit Hilfe der automatischen Text- und Bilderkennungssoftware hat teilweise zu Format- und Rechtschreibfehlern geführt. Diese Fehler sollten jedoch im Hinblick auf den Gesamtumfang von weit mehr als 20.000 Einzelseiten als vernachlässigbar angesehen werden.

PDF Dokument

Für das wissenschaftliche Arbeiten und für das korrekte Zitieren können Sie auch das originale Digitalisat im PDF Format in hoher Druckqualität gegen Zahlung einer Lizenzgebühr in Sekundenschnelle herunterladen. Sie können das PDF Dokument ausdrucken bzw. in Ihre Publikationen übernehmen oder auf einem eBook-Reader lesen.

 » PDF Download

Published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, 122 East 25th Street, New York



C-4 Model, 4 Cyl. 45 H. P. C-G-6 Model, 6 Cyl. 75 H. P.

C-6 Model, 6 Cyl. 65 H. P. C-8 Model, 8 Cyl. 110 H. P.

1^These 1913 models have been thoroughly^^ tested for over six months. An AC-6 model now holds the American duration record for pilot and one passenger—3 hr., SI min., y5"c- Օՠ Օՠ Օՠ -J

M || Notwithstanding the exceptional reliability shown by 1912 model motors ^1 those for 1913 must pass as a part of the regular routine of manufacture a -il more severe test than any American motor has ever before been subjected to. That is, every 1913 motor before leaving factory must pass a six hour, full load, full speed test, with a speed variation of not more than 5% throughout the run. During this test they will be required to equal or exceed their rated horse power. This assures you of SERVICE UNQUESTIONABLE, yet they are reasonably priced.

Catalog and full data on request.



NEW PROCESS PARAGONS twisted under moist heat and pressure. Seamless and jointless blade faces. Weight 9 to 12 lbs. Tested to 400 lbs., bending strain. Approved and purchased by U. S. Navy Aviators. Get prices.


243-249 East Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

Our Aeroplanes and Hydroplanes Have Become the American Standard

Our tractor type with enclosed nacelle introduced by us last season is being copied by builders all over the country this year.

Our Coast Defense Hydro equipped with muffled, six-cylinder Sturtevant Motor, flying over the ocean off Marblehead in mid winter, passed the Government tests and was accepted in two days—ONE TRIAL FOR EACH TEST.

We are prepared to build for prompt delivery aeroplanes especially adapted to exhibition, sporting and military use. The purchaser has choice of motor. The Sturtevant leads all American types. Crank starting and fully muffled.

An assortment of aeronautical motors at greatly reduced prices is offered.

Burgess Winter School

is located at Palm Beach under the charge of Frank Coffyn, Hotel Ponciana, Palm Beach. Special winter rates upon application.

Do You Know What a Scooter Is ?



The Only nttle ^ro^clUr ll*al ia alH0 a The Only

IMPROVED ^^^^^^^^^/^ PATENTED Propeller "^IHifijBS^^ Propeller



Tests of Two-Bladed Paragons Furnished For Flying Boats

Report of Curtiss Aeroplane Company, Feb. 8, 1913.

Make of Dimensions Revolutions Speed of Climb in ft. Slip of

Propeller per minute ' machine per minute screw

Curtis 8 ft. dia. x 5 ft. pitch 1225 54.5 mi. per hr. 139 21..70*

Paragon 8 ft. dia. x 5 ft. pitch 1244 56.5 mi. per hr. 140 20.07*

Paragon 8 ft. dia. x 4.50 ft. pitch 1335 56.0 mi. per hr. 155 18.97*

Weight of machine 1335 lbs. Load carried 555 lbs. Total in each case 1900 lbs.

Nearly four percent gain in horizontal speed. Nearly twelve percent gain in climbing speed. Note the reduced slip. Paragons score on all counts.

Reports on Three-Bladed Propellers will follow. It is one thing to make friends; another to keep them. Paragons do both.

Page 44

February, 1913




JN the German National Contest for Aeronautical Motors, the winners employed Bosch Magnetos and Bosch Plugs, of course.

1st Benz -2nd Mercedes 3rd N.A.G. -

Bosch Magneto and Plugs Bosch Magneto and Plugs Bosch Magneto and Plugs

' I 'HE Bosch Magneto will be found on all those aeroplane engines which are known for their record-breaking performances or their consistent and unfailing service. The Bosch Plug is as good as the Bosch Magneto, of course.

BE SURE YOU GET "Locating the Spark Plug" It tells you what you ought to know.

Bosch Magneto Company

201 W. 46th STREET, NEW YORK

The remarks of Lieut. Colonel Espitalier disclose a curious slate of mind among critics, i. e., the jealousy of established and prospective manufacturers or rather a fear that the researches of the technical laboratories will lead to something radical that may diminish the importance or value of established products. The argument of the critics is that constructors alone are competent to judge in such matters.

Without following the lengthy preamble of Lieut.-Colonel Espitalier, Captain Chambers gives his own version of the scientific viewpoint and follows it with a brief description of the value of the laboratory in developing the "Autostable."

If aerial architecture is to improve or to be further developed it will be due principally to the influence of technical or scientific knowledge. This influence will be combatted by stubborn ignorance, but not, of course, by those constructors who are also scientific technicians or who bring to their aid the information of the scientific engineer.

All architecture is art and, in art, invention plays a distinguished function, but its very foundation is based upon the strict laws that are discovered only through the aid of scientific research, and its harmonious progress depends a'iso upon its wedding with science.

Marine architecture furnishes an example of wonderful progress; its art is very old but its science is comparatively young. Xowadays, thanks to the science, zvhen a ship is planned for any purpose whatever, in the drafting room, the architect and the engineer are able to say exactly what she will do when launched and in service.

Aerial architecture is yet young. Its growth has been somewhat forced. K'either the art nor the science have had time for healthy development, and it is already apparent that the constructor who is merely an inventor does not possess scientific con-

fidence. But the science is overtaking the art and the successful aerial architect of the future, the one who will succeed in the march of progress, must be also a technical engineer.

It is because Aerodynamics is yet lacking in a sufficiency of precise observations that we should regard the science of aerial architecture as still in a rudimentary stage.

Nevertheless, one cannot fail to he optimistic of its future in view of the wonderful work already accomplished and the fact that the scientific study of aerodynamics has already been established on a sound basis in various laboratories and that we already possess a precise documentation of exact observations which enables us to design flying machines on correct principles and by established laws.

The record of researches made at the laboratory of M. Eiffel is alone a precious mine of dependable scientific wealth, the influence of which is already felt in the progress of aerial navigation.

M. Eiffel has published the mathematical characteristics of such a large number of surfaces that there is already a vast field for choice and modification. One can use any of them or any combination of them in perfect assurance of the lifting power, the traction potver required, and even the position of the centers of air pressure at all the inclinations and speeds recorded.

Taking a combination or group of the elements thus recorded we are able to anticipate exactly the characteristics of that combination, the effects of varying the angle of incidence or the speed and, in fact, to predicate the conditions which are required to produce stable equilibrium or "inherent stability."

This has been known for some time and although it represents an important step in progress, there yet remains much to do in discovering the keys to many mysterious problems.

X La Technique Aeronau-tique for December 15, 1912, Lieutenant-Colonel G. Espitalier has an article describing the machine that was mentioned by M. Eiffel in his address at Auteuil, last year, in which he stated that M. Drzewiecki has evolved a machine, as a result of his laboratory researches, which gave promise of providing a great improvement in respect to inherent stability. This statement was made at about the same time as the publication of his discovery with regard to the superior efficiency of tandem planes, with the rear plane set at an angle negative to that of the forward plane, and, although several people in the United States made a similar discovery prior to the publication of Eiffel's second book (notably Mr. Robert Andrews of Boston, and Air. Grant of Norfolk*), I have speculated much 011 the actual form that M. Drzewiecki's machine would assume, always believing that it would appear with the front plane smaller than the rear plane, although in the machine flown by Air. Grant over a year ago the rear plane is the smaller. But all speculation is satisfied now by the publication referred to above.

AI. Drzewiecki, a Parisian savant, seems to have been the first to show how to make use of AI. Eiffel's determinations in establishing a rational arrangement of surfaces to satisfy a novel predetermined conception and so has given an excellent example of one of the important functions of an aerodynamical laboratory. It is not known yet whether AI. Drzewiecki first suggested to AI. Eiffel the testing of tandem surfaces or whether AI. Eiffel's determination of their superior efficiency, with the rear plane set at certain negative angles, led AI. Drzewiecki to lay down the principles governing the design of a rational machine possessing the qualities of what is now known as the "Autostable." But it is known that these distinguished scientists worked in harmony and collaborated in the development of the machine which gives such fair promise.

The term "Autostable" should not be confounded with the term "aerostable"

For example, it is said that on the trial of another machine, made by the Aloreau Bros, called "Aerostable," with the wind blowing about 15 miles per hour, the pilot kept his arms folded throughout a flight of 30 minutes, using his feet only for working the vertical steering rudders. This machine, however, does not possess inherent stability but

The Influence of Aerodynamical Laboratories and the "Autostable" Flying Machine

By Captain W. IRVING CHAMBERS, U. S. Navy

The Drzewiecki Monoplane.

The monoplane designed for automatic longitudinal stability by M. Drzewiecki, as of the tail-first type, but differs from other machines of similar type by the fact that the front plane is nearly as large as the rear plane, and that the centre of gravity is approximately in the middle of the fuselage. The front and rear planes are of different section; the front—of Eiffel No. 8 section—is normally at 8°, where it has a lift co-efficient = 0.058; the rear plane—Eiffel 13 bis. or Bleriot XI bis, section—is normally at 5° and and then has a lift co-efficient Ky 0.041.

is automatically balanced on the pendulum principle with the weight of the pilot used as a pendulum. I will not speculate now on the possibilities of safety in all weathers when the best automatic stabilizer is applied to an "Autostable" machine.


The theory or object of the Drzewiecki design is thus announced. To so adjust the plane surfaces that when exterior perturbing forces disturb the equilibrium, a dynamic couple is born which restores the equilibrium immediately and automatically. This aeroplane is supported by two tandem surfaces, the forward surface being smaller than the rear. This combination has appeared on other French machines, the Canard (or duck) type, but there is an essential difference between the two. In the Canard the forward surface which forms the elevator is very small by comparison with the rear surface, in consequence of which the center of gravity is nearly under the latter. In the "Autostable," the difference between the size of the planes is less and the center of gravity is found near the middle of the fuselage or body. This is important because the horizontal position of the center of gravity influences the nature of the correcting couple and the value of the righting moment.

The forward plane has an angle of incidence of 8 degrees and that of the rear plane is 5 degrees, or 3 degrees negative to the forward plane. The profile of the forward plane is that of Eiffel's No. 8, which gives, at 8 degrees, a lift of K'y=o.058, while the rear plane conforming to Eiffel's No. 13 bis (Bleriot No. XI bis) gives, at 5 degrees, a lift of Ky=o.04i, about. On account of the difference in area of the forward and rear surfaces the total lift of the forward surface varies less rapidly than that of the rear surface when the angle of incidence changes.

If then, at the instant when the two lifts, Ry=KySV2, and R'y=K'yS'V2 are in balance with respect to the center of gravity, the machine rears under the influence of a perturbing force, the lifting force shifts quicker aft than forward, forming a couple tending to raise the tail or to restore the equilibrium.

In case of a sudden dip, caused by external perturbing forces, the difference in the power of the two lifts is reversed; that under the forward plane becomes preponderant and rights the machine.

The two wings of the forward plane can be moved independently of each other through limited angles around a horizontal axis, by means of two levers in the hands of the pilot. These levers are parallel and abut against a small transverse bar which marks the position of normal or horizontal flight. The bar thus prevents reducing the angle of incidence of either wing of the front plane and its position is adjusted, before the flight, by means of a screw attachment, to occupy the exact position of the center of gravity, in accordance with the trim of the movable weights, without decreasing the 8 degrees of incidence for the front plane.

Lateral stability is controlled by working the wings of the front plane, just as in other machines it is controlled by moving the ailerons. The machine can be made to ascend either by moving both forward wings together or by increasing the power of the motor. It is made to descend by decreasing the number of revolutions, or the power of the motor.

There are two small -vertical rudders for steering, one at each extremity of the rear plane and they are worked alternately by the feet. Turning is accomplished by checking or moving one of the vertical rudders towards the axial line. These rudders offer also a means of checking the speed on landing, by turning both sharply inward. They also offer

a means of regulating the slope or angle of inclination for descent, by reducing the speed, and are thus another guaranty of safety. A drift plane placed in the rear above the body checks whatever tendency there may be to roll.

The motor is installed near the middle and in the interior of the body, the propeller being placed in rear.

There is also an articulated landing gear (chassis) supported on wheels and furnished with an oleo-pneumatic brake, the cylinder of which is placed horizontally under the body. Revolution of the wheels, on landing, moves the piston of the brake and this throws down a skate or drag, thus checking gradually but quickly the speed over the earth.

After the principle of this machine was laid down, a reduced model, one-tenth the size, was tested, at the Eiffel laboratory, suspended in different positions corresponding to different angles of incidence. These tests demonstrated that inherent stability was assured. Furthermore, the laboratory investigations of this model permitted a vigorous determination of all conditions of equilibrium connected with the circumstances of flight and to trace the diagrams shown in Figs. i. 2 and 3.

Fig. 1 shows the two curves Ry and R'y indicating the simultaneous lift of each surface in all positions of inclination. The sum of the ordinates Ry-j-R'y gives the curve A which represents the total lift.

0°l° 2°3°4° S060l080Q0IO°triZ0/3>° For J3 b/s 304^^^7060i>0/^7/0/20/5°/4°/5°/6" For N°3

Fig. 1.

Variation of Sustentation of Wings No. 8 and No. 13 Bis., in Function of the Angles of Incidence. A—Curve of Total Sustentation Ry -f- Rx. B—Curve of Sustentation of Rear Wing (Type No. 13 Bis. Eiffel). C—Curve of Sustentation of Forward Wing (Type No. 8 Eiffel).

The two curves first mentioned, B and C, intersect at a point which is outside of practical limits of inclination and, by reason of the choice of profiles, the curve R'y, which corresponds to the forward plane surface, is, on leaving this point for a dip, above the cucve Ry, which represents the rear surface. We see also that Ry increases more rapidly than R'y on rearing and decreases more rapidly on dipping, as previously indicated.

If it be desired that the normal flight occur at a given angle of incidence, it is evidently necessary that, in this position of flight (at the ordinate 8°—50, for example),

the center of gravity must be located at such a position on the ordinate as to make the two parts of the ordinate inversely proportional to the two lifts. The curve C gives precisely that proportional division of all the ordinates; it represents, in a way, the locus of the points of application of the resultant forces tending














-3°-2°-l° Q° Jc 2" 3°4° 5° 6° 7°3° 9°


Fig. 2.

Variation of the Two Components Rx and Ry of the Resistance Shown by the Model Tested at the Laboratory of M. Eiffel.

to right the machine when out of balance, and for a flight to take place under incidences of 5 degrees and 8 degrees for the rear and forward plane surfaces respectively, we can say that the point of the curve R'y which is situated on the ordinate 50—8° defines the position of the center of gravity, but that it is not displaced if the angles of incidence become temporarily 130—160, for example. The real position of the center of gravity, always


dividing the axis in the ratio —, we can rep-


resent the locus of its various positions by the

rn c G a

curve passing through G and m of-=-

m n G b

The couple that is born bv oscillation around the center of gravity G is represented by m p on the ordinate 130—160 and by p' m' on the ordinate o°—30, changing sign on opposite sides of G.

Fig. 2 sums up the practical tests of the reduced model in the laboratory tunnel and gives the values of the total lift Ry of


the resistance Rx and of the proportion —


= tan 6, indicating the angle G made by the resultant of the two components of the air resistance with the vertical component.

The angle of incidence shown as abscissae are those of the fuselage—in other words, they represent the angles of inclination of the base line. This base line, in normal flight, is horizontal and forms an angle of 2 degrees with the axis of the body.

Fig. 3 represents the actual position of the successive pressures for inclinations between —3° and +9°, each being the resultant of Ry with Rx and passing by the point of suspen-

Fig. 3.

Curves of Stability of the Model, Showing the Displacements of the Center of Sus-tentation With the Variation of the General Incidence and Also the Different Values of Rx, Ry and 9.

sion of the model when these values were obtained. These different positions of the pressure would suffice to determine a metacentric curve but this would fall outside the

limits of the diagram and, besides, would be useless to consider.

The prolongation of the oblique pressures to the axis permits of measuring the distance to the center of gravity, i c, the arm of the lever of the correcting couple which is mil when the pressure passes through the center of gravity. The axis of the body then makes with the horizon an angle of +2° which corresponds to the incidences of +8° and -(-5° of the two surfaces conformably to the conditions imposed.

Fig. 4.

Characteristic Profiles of "Aerostable' Wings. (From Eiffel, 2nd Vol.)

Finally, the different elements of the diagram permit also of calculating the speed for which the pressure equals the weight and the motive power capable of overcoming the resistance R x, thus giving complete characteristics of the aeroplane.

Fig. 4 shows the characteristic profiles of the two surfaces as reoresented in M. Eiffel's second volume.

* See AERONAUTICS for August, 1912, for scale drawings and description of Sir. Grant's machine; and the November issue for article on the Andrews' tandem system.

EDITORIAL NOTE: In the "hearing" of Captain Chambers before the House Naval Affairs Committee, Jan. 9, 1913, we find a reference to his anticipations of a machine like the one he describes above. Page 557, par. 5-10.

U. S. Patents Gone to Issue

1,048,932, Alexis IVeurrier, Montguyon, France, HELICOPTER.

1,048,990, Daniel P. McLaughlin, Chicago, 111., FLYING MACHINE.

1,049,075, Oscar Gaul. Chicago. III.. PROPELLER of a continued screw form inclosed in a semi-circular shell.

1,049,117, Ernest Marek, Chicago, 111., FLYING MACHINE.

1,049,280, George Sturgess, Newquays, Marble-thorpe, England. RUNNING GEAR; large wheels with machines supported by rollers which run inside the large wheels.

1,049,315, Eli Pollak, Washington, D. C, Combination D1RIGIP.LE AEROPLANE.


1,049,486, Robert F. Iluber, St. Louis, Mo., FLYING MACHINE.

1.049,498, Christopher J. Lake, Bridgeport, Conn., AEROPLANE with stepped planes, each of which are of triangular shape, with apex as entering edge.

* 1,049.521, Michael A. Parisano, New York, N. Y., RUNNING GEAR.

1.049,540, Tohn and Edward Sharp. Cleveland, Ohio, AEROPLANE.

1.049,571, Nat II. Freeman, Denver, Col., PROPELLER.

*1,049,713, William F. Hensel, Chicago. 111.. STAIULIZER, in which compressed air is used for operating, warping, etc. The valves of cylinders with pistons are opened by a ball which rolls to the low side of its own tube when machine is tilted. Filed Feb. 17, 1912.

*1,049,820, Armand lean Aueuste Deperdussin. Paris, France, CONTROL SYSTEM, consisting of his well known 'A'" elevator control with hand wheel mounted thereon. Filed Jan. 16. 1911.

* 1,049,865, Shakir S. Jerwin and Faud S. Terwen, New York, N. Y. HYRO-AEROPLANE; boat-shaped car with air propeller in front of top, marine propeller at rear of car at bottom, clutch for latter, air chamber in ear, air tanks under wings, vieldablv supported. Filed March 24, 1911.

1,049,927, Edward L. Si-eg, Moscow, Idaho, HELICOPTER.

* These patents are of particular interest.

Tandem Surfaces and the Gliding Angle


jjHEX an aviator finds himself in the air without

WHgj] power, the distance he |JII can glide before landing JH| may determine whether he lands safely or not. Evidently, then, of several machines the one which can glide the farthest for a given fall is the safest.

We will call the angle between the chord of the surface and the surrounding air stream the pressure angle, and the angle between the path of the machine and the horizon the gliding angle.

For every machine flying horizontally there is a certain pressure angle at which the weight will be supported with the least thrust. This angle varies according to the loading, the head resistance, the camber and the disposition of the surfaces. For any given machine we find this angle. If we divide the weight by the total resistance at this angle we get the contangent of the gliding angle.

Of several machines the one which has the smallest gliding angle will glide the farthest from a given height. If then we rate machines according to the cotangent of their gliding angle we will find how far they will glide from a given height. I have done this for monoplanes of different camber and for monoplane, biplane and tandem of the same camber and the results show that the disposition of surfaces has more effect upon the gliding angle than the camber has.

My figures are taken from Eiffel's tables, whenever possible and when the tables do not give the necessary angles I have consulted Eiffel's graphs. Eiffel's constants are supporting area = i sq. meter, speed = i meter per second. I have introduced another constant equivalent area for head resistance = i-20 sq. meter. In doing this 1 have followed, approximately, modern monoplane practice.

The values for the cotangent of the gliding angle (9) at any given pressure angle (a) are determined from the following equation:


For any value of a, cot 9 =

Kx + .004

Ky and Kx are taken from Eiffel and 0.004 = the pressure on 1-20 sq. meter at 1 meter per second. I have solved the equation for different values of a for 8 surfaces and Table I shows the rating of 6 monoplanes of different camber. 9 is the smallest gliding angle.


Surface u 9 Cotangent 9

Breguet .......... 7 90 31' 5,965

Camber 1 in 13.5. 6:5 90 34' 5.933

Bleriot Xo. 11 bis. 7.5 10° 15' 5.53

Camber 1 in 7 .... 7 io° 52' 5.209

Camber 1 in 27... 6.5 11° 42' 4.829

M. Farman ...... 8 11° 50' 4-773

I have also done the same thing to three different dispositions of surfaces all having the same camber (1 in 13.5) and Table II shows the rating.

TABLE II. Surface a 9 Cotangent 9

Tandem ......... 9 8° 59' 6.332

Monoplane ....... 6.5 9° 34' 5.933

Biplane .......... 6 120 39' 4.455

The tandem is Eiffel's disposition Xo. 2 and the biplane has a gap equal to the chord.

Table I shows a great variety of cambers ranging from 1 in 7 to the almost flat M. Far-man surface, yet the best glider (Breguet) is to the worst (M. Farman) as 1.25 is to 1.

Table II shows that the best glider (Tandem) is to the worst (biplane) as 1.42 is to 1. This shows that disposition is of more importance in gliding than camber. Xote the relation between a and 9 for the tandem. Such a relationship does not occur in any other system and it shows the remarkable superiority of the tandem. This is particularly remarkable considering he fact that head resistance is included when figuring the value of 9. It will be recalled that Lillienthal mentioned the fact that the forward tangential pressure was what made curved surfaces superior to flat ones. It is because of the large forward tangential at 9° that the tandem is so superior to other systems. Even with the head resistance added, the forward tangential does not entirely disappear.

It seems strange to me that designers, especially in the LTnited States, have not studied Eiffel with more care. Had they done so they would have seen the superiority of the tandem. Eiffel's notes on the tandem occupy only three or four pages in his "Annexe" but the data he gives are sufficient, if properly analyzed, to convince anyone that the disposition of surfaces now in use, i. c monoplane and biplane, are more dangerous and less efficient than the tandem known as Eiffel's Disposition Xo. 2.

I have reason to believe that one builder in this country is proposing to put on the market soon an apparatus to prevent stalling. It is to be attached to a biplane and presumably its purpose is to control the position of the horizontal rudder so as to prevent the machine from taking too large a pressure angle. The apparatus is to work automatically. Such {Continued on page 72)

How an Aero Tire is made


Manager of the Aeronautic Supplies Department of the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.

,0 date aeroplane tires have been built in three distinct forms. The first ones to be made were all of the single-tube type, and were manufactured in exactly the same way as the single-tube bicycle tires, the only difference in the tires being that the aeroplane tire is generally of less tread diameter and larger cross section.

A single-tube tire is generally made as follows: First, a long pole, of exactly the diameter that the inside of the tire is to be, is placed in a stand. A sheet of rubber, the length of the tire when laid out straight, and of proper width to go around the pole, so that the edges will lap about one-quarter of an inch, and of a proper thickness (generally about one-sixteenth of an inch), is placed around this pole, and the rubber, being green or uncured and rather sticky, readily holds itself in place. Then a piece of fabric, which has been frictioned with rubber and cut from the roll at a 45-degree bias, is rolled on the pole, the fabric being cut wide enough, so that it will go around the pole two or three times, according to the thickness of the wall of the tire and the number of plies desired. A hole is cut in

Dunlop Type.

this fabric and a rubber valve stem inserted, and then a strip of more heavily compounded rubber is placed around the whole, which forms the outside surface of the tire. The center of this outside strip of rubber is thicker than the edges, this rubber having been run on a machine known as a tread calender, one roll of which is grooved to run the rubber in the desired cross section. This thickened portion of the rubber cover forms the tread of the tire.

After the tire has been thus far completed, it is removed from the pole, and the two ends are brought together and spliced by inserting a small piece of rubber tubing about the diameter of the inside of the tire, one half the length of this tube projecting into each

open end of the tire. The joint so made is covered with a small piece of frictioned fabric, which is long enough to wrap the required number of turns around the spice, to make the wall of the tire at this point of equal thickness with the rest. Lastly, a piece of the tread rubber is placed over this friction, and the tire is ready to be vulcanized.

Most of the single-tube aeroplane tires made todav are vulcanized in a mold and the pressure obtained by expansion of air or steam inside the tire. The method generally followed is to put a certain amount of water into the tire and fasten the valve stem, so that it cannot leak. The tire is then placed in a mold of proper shape and size, and the whole put into a steam-heated hydraulic press, the pressure is applied to the mold, and the steam turned on, the heat causing the water inside the tire to turn into steam.

Clincher and Single Tube.

thus creating an internal pressure which forces the tire evenly into the mold. The heat in the press also causes the chemical action between the rubber and the sulphur in the tire, or so-called vulcanizing. The length of time required for the vulcanizing depends entirely on the composition of the rubber compounds used in the tire. The general run of stocks now used in aeroplane tires requires an average cure of 15 to 20 minutes. After the curing, the tire is removed from the mold, the valve stem fastening removed and the regulation valve inserted, when the tire is ready to be used.

The next type of aeroplane tire to come into prominence was the Dunlop type tire, which is similar to the Dunlop type of bicycle tire, and built in a similar manner. These tires require an inner tube, the cases being opened along the rim side and having wires in the beads hold them on the rim. This type of tire is made on an annular form, or so-called core, as follows: First, the required number of plies, cut on the bias, are pulled over the core, one at a time, the ends meeting and being lapped about one-quarter of an inch. These plies are each rolled into place over the crown and down the sides of the core. Next, a long length of wire is taken and looped a number of times and the ends soldered together, making a hoop of approximately the same diameter as the rim upon which the tire is to be run. One hoop of wire thus made is placed in each side of the tire, the fabric being placed around it, so fastening them into place. After the fabric and wire beads have thus been put into place, a tread rubber is put onto the tire and the building of the carcass so completed.

The method generally followed in curing this type of tire is to wrap the carcass onto the core with a long strip of moistened cloth. This is wound spirally around the tire until the latter is bound firmly against the core around its entire circumference. The tire and core thus wrapped is placed onto a truck and rolled into a large steel cylinder or vulcanizer. After vulcanization has continued for the proper period, the tire is withdrawn and the cloth wrapping removed. The vulcanized carcass is now ready to be taken off the core. The bead of this type of tire is inextensible, and the cores upon which they are built have to be made collapsible, so that they can be dissembled and removed from the inside of the tire in sections. After the removal of the core the tire is ready to be used. This Dunlop type of tire has to be applied to a special rim. This is a one-piece rim, and is rolled with a valley in the center and a ledge on either side, upon which the tire bead seats itself when the tire is in place. When applying a tire the beads at one point in the tire will set together down in the valley in the middle of the rim, allowing the beads at the opposite point in the tire to pass over the flanged edge of the rim. Tires of this type are extensively used abroad and have recently come into prominence in this country.

The third type of aeroplane tire is the regulation clincher tire. In the regulation core and mold construction the tire is built up in plies of rubber-coated fabric cut on the bias, the plies being stretched onto an iron core. Generally these tires are built of three strips which are made of a semi-hard rubber compound, are placed in position on the

sides of the tire, then the second and third plies are pulled on and rolled down over these beads, after which a ply of tread gum is put onto the tire to cover it entirely on the outside. This tread gum is generally run in a tread calendar to make it thicker in the center, similar to the single-tube-type treads described above. The building of the tire is now finished, and, with the core still inside, it is placed into a mold. The mold is put into a heater press under hydraulic pressure and the tire is there vulcanized. After the vulcanization, the tire and core are removed from the mold, and the tire pulled off the core. These tires having a bead of semi-hard rubber, can be made to pull off of a one-piece core, as the beads will allow for considerable stretch.

Most of the clincher aeroplane tires have been of very small diameter and very large section, and their manufacture has been almost entirely confined to this country. As yet the aeroplane tire has not come into very great prominence in the rubber industry, but the present outlook is such that before long they may be a close second to the motorcycle tire.

[NOTE—This article will be followed by others of a similar nature, describing various processes in connection with aeronautics.]


Weldon B. Cooke has built a tractor biplane in which a Roberts 6-cylinder motor is placed upside down in the fuselage, in order to reduce head resistance. The engine is said to operate as well in this oosition as in

its usual one. The Roberts Company furnishes comparative figures on exposed area of engines, as follows :

Inverted motor .................353 sq. ft.

Vertical motor .................94 sq. ft.

V-type American motor ........ 1.88 sq. ft.

V-type French motor .......... 1.78 sq. ft.

50 H. P. French rotary.......... 2.72 sq. ft.

70 H. P. French rotary........ 3-62 sq. ft.

On Aeronautical Motors


(Continuedfrom January Issue)

HETHER air-cooled or water-cooled motors, or two- or four-cycle motors are superior, are questions still open to discussion and not within the limits of my remarks but I do not believe the two-cycle motor is, in its present form at least, perfectly adapted to aeroplane use. Personally, I am a very strong advocate of two-cycle motors and have used, studied and built this type of motor far more than the four-cycle and have had most remarkable success with many innovations; but 1 am perfectly aware of the shortcomings of the two-cycle motor and until these are entirely eliminated this type of motor cannot be depended upon to the same extent as the four-cycle. In the two-cycle type the compression in the base must be maintained by gas-tight joints and this can only be accomplished by using tight, plain-bearings or by a separate compression chamber of some sort. The latter method adds materially to weight and size while the former method eliminates the use of ball or roller-bearings which are the only form of bearings upon which absolute dependance can be placed for high-powered, high-speed loads. If, as our two-cycle advocates would have us believe, the plain bearing is as durable and free from trouble as the ball-type, why are the ball or roller-bearings universally used on automobiles? * * * Next in order are the opposed-cylinder motors. Oddly enough there are practically no reliable or efficient opposed-cylinder motors made in this country. While several are made and used to some extent by amateurs and others, yet, among professionals, and for record flights, we seldom or never find an opposed motor in use. This fact is undoubtedly due to the fact that this type has been woefully neglected by American builders. It is a well recognized mechanical fact that the opposed motor gives a more even torque, more regular impulses and is better balanced than any other form. Moreover its shape renders it particularly well suited to aeroplane use as it presents small head resistance and has a low centre of gravity.

France has produced some exceptionally reliable and efficient motors of this type; notable among them being the Xieuport and the Darracq. The latter was the make used by Santos Dumont on his Demoiselle and weighed but 66 pounds for 35 H. P., or less than 2 pounds per H. P. and was water-cooled at that

The Call motor is really the only American opposed-cylinder motor that can be named in comparison with these and while this motor has proved itself very powerful and capable of flight yet its weight is 5 pounds per H. P., in the two cylinder 50 H. P. motor and 4 pounds in the four-cylinder 100 H. P.,— or about twice as heavy as the Darracq. It possesses many unique and excellent features, however, among them being the water circulation in which the water is forced four times around the cylinders by means of a helical flange cast integral with them; large valves, 2 inches in diameter, with 7-16 inch lift; lubrication by a chambered connecting rod which throws the oil to both crank pins and piston pins, and the valve-controlled breather openings in the crank case.

The crank shaft of 2-inch solid steel makes the motor heavy, however, and the cast flanges on the cylinders also add to the weight. By employing a hollow shaft of larger diameter and flanges of thin metal on the inside of the water-jacket instead of cast on the cylinders, many pounds in weight could have been saved without loss of strength or efficiency.

This motor is very finely finished, all outside parts being ground, nickel-plated and polished and with a few minor changes and refinements it will no doubt prove a very valuable addition to our American aeronautical motors.

It is but a step from opposed to radial motors and I have no doubt that any mention of radial or star motors at once brings the name "Anzani" to mind. So well recognized has the efficiency and reliability of this motor become that to most people it is the sole and only radial motor. As a matter of fact the R. E. P. and many other foreign motors are of this type and the Albatross made in Detroit, is very similar.

The reason that many American motors have not met with more success is because our manufacturers do not take the personal pride in the axacting detail and finish of their product that Europeans take in theirs. Foreign motors are built by men with an intimate knowledge of metallurgy, mechanics and aeronautical requirements and are largely made by hand labor of the most skilled and experienced class, while our motors are built by men accustomed to taking someone else's word for the metallurgical and technical part, and machines and cheap labor replace the skilled mechanics of Europe.

This exacting and minute attention to the

smallest details hold true particularly of the world-famous Gnome motor for while certain American rotating motors, notably the Gyro, have proved very efficient and reliable and have remarkable records to their credit; yet the Gnome is so much better known and holds so many more records that it far overshadows all our native products. As a matter of fact, the Gyro is mechanically superior to the Gnome in cylinder attachment, cooling methods, valve-lifting cam and several other details.

Another great trouble with American manufacturers is their tendency to copy and imitate others. Certainly we have enough originality in this country to turn out new ideas in motors and yet no sooner does a successful motor, either foreign or American, make its appearance than dozens of men begin to imitate its best features and hitch them on to some automobile or boat engine and advertise the mongrel product as an aeronautical engine.

Another matter is the disinclination of American manufacturers to listen to new ideas or employ new talent or even pay a reasonable salary to men of highly inventive and practical ability. Abroad the manufacturer is always looking for new ideas and the European engine builder does not hesitate to stake a few thousands on a new invention, a new man, or a new principle, and will try one after the other with confidence that only by this method can improvements and brilliant achievements be obtained. American manufacturers on the other hand are very loath to take up a new idea or a new man unless of proven value or attainments and I do not hesitate to declare that hundreds of mighty good motors have been designed and then abandoned by the designer merely for the lack of capital or facilities which any well-established manufacturer could have furnished with scarcely any risk of loss, while even if a loss did result the amount involved would have been so small as to have been of no consequence in comparison with the benefits that might have resulted.

Oftentimes a motor of new design will possess certain new or unique features of great benefit and value which could be readily adapted to any other motor so that even if the new engine as a whole were a failure its features might well repay the risk of trying it. I have already mentioned the disinclination of manufacturers to employ really competent and practical men at decent salaries. If a man is thoroughly practical and able to work at a bench or lathe and carry out his own ideas, he is at once classed—in the mind of the manufacturer at least—as a mere mechanic with a salary in accordance; while if entirely of a theoretical calibre he is considered an office man and gets corresponding pay.

To be sure, competent men with a thorough theoretical and practical working knowledge of internal-combustion motors are rare but such men do exist and are looking for positions and only men of this stamp can

ever succeed in producing the ultimate perfect motor. These are not idle statements for I speak from actual experience and my own experiences are very similar to those of others with whom I have talked and while these statements do not hold true of every manufacturer yet they do apply to the majority.

As proof of these assertions I might mention the Knight sleeve valve motor which failed to create any interest here but was eagerly taken up in Europe, after which our American manufacturers were mighty glad to use it.

A lot of our American motors are good: that is, they are constructed of good material, are well built and for ordinary uses would answer very well but in most cases some minor part or detail is of inferior design or construction and develops weakness or inefficiency when subjected to the severe test of aerial use. Such defects occur in some of our best and most reliable aerial motors and could be altered or eliminated with little trouble or expense and with greatly increased efficiency. A mere glance at some of the motors now in use discloses such defects in nearly every case and in at least one instance I know that a casual suggestion resulted in a little alteration which changed a motor that would not fly into a most successful aeromotor.

Only by breaking away from old fashioned ideas and familiar and hackneyed methods and forms can any great future progress be made. The first suggestion of a rotating-cylinder motor was scoffed at and yet today the}' are among the leaders in the motor world. The Knight motor was looked upon with distrust in this country until taken up in Europe and various other examples could be cited. Aviators as a rule are ready and willing to try out any new or novel motor in *hvir effort to obtain the perfect engine and the matter of producing such a motor rests entirely with the manufacturer.

Anything new in the way of motor design is, therefore, of great interest and importance and when such motors have passed the experimental stage and proved their efficiency they become doubly interesting.

How long will it be before all our American motor builders wake up to the fact that they are being left behind; that European motors three or four years old are the equals or superiors of many of our latest models; that to bring America to the fore in aviation they must exert every effort to produce new and' better engines and must use the 'Yankee" ingenuity that in other lines of mechanics has made America lead the world. We blazed the way for others in the early days of aviation but now we take second place and are beaten by France, both in aeroplanes and motors and unless engineers and aviators rouse themselves to the importance of doing something "early and often" we will find ourselves at the rear instead of at the front of the procession ; following and not leading the great march of aviation.

Page 54

Curtiss Military Tractor

The tail surfaces are quickly and easily detachable for packing up. The entire fuselage is covered to reduce head resistance and the seats are placed side by side as in all standard Curtiss construction. The field of view from this machine is exceedingly good, as the seats are about midway between the front and rear beams over the lower plane so that a good downward angle of vision is obtained and for looking directly downward a space of 12 inches is left alongside the fuselage out to the first rib on each side.

The engine is located directly in front of the operators and the carburetor projects through the dashboard into the cockpit where it may be adjusted by either operator and is at all times under observation.

The gasoline tank is placed under the seat and has a capacity of 40 gallons. There is an auxiliary tank on the dashboard which has a capacity of two gallons and is kept supplied by a mechanical pump driven by the engine from the main tank. There is a plate-glass window in the front of this auxiliary tank which answers two purposes—the level of gas in this tank may be seen and also the stream of gasoline coming in from the pump, and this being directly in front of the pilot, any failure of the pump to work would be quickly noted. If for any reason the pump should stop working, it is only necessary to throw over a small lever on the front of the tank which controls a distributing valve and give a few strokes on a hand air pump, which is located within easy reach of either operator, when the level in the auxiliary tank will be maintained as before by air pressure in the main tank.

The propeller is a 9-foot by 8.5-foot pitch three-blade Paragon, driven by roller chair from the engine shaft. The motor is fitted with a 22 pound flywheel and the chain used is a ^4 hich width, ij^-inch pitch Diamond Roller, running over a 16-tooth sprocket on the engine shaft and a 30-tooth on the propeller shaft. The chain pull and propeller thrust are taken care of by a large size (Continued on page 72)

LELIMINARY trials of the Curtiss chain-driven tractor

Pjsyij have been made at San Bpl Diego. The maker claims it (III w'l' assume its own gliding angle upon motor stoppage.

The wings of this machine are practically the same as used on the standard machines, except that they are made in one piece each side of the chassis, instead of the panel construction, which gives them a little greater strength. The beams are very strong and heavy at the inner end and taper all the way out to the tip of the wing, giving them the maximum of strength in proportion to the load at each point and reducing the weight. The planes are very rigid and quickly demountable by the removal of four bolts, one each at top and bottom of either plane.

The chassis with the wings removed is only 42 inches wide at the points where the wings attach, and the over-all width of the running gear is about 65 inches. The tread of the wheels is 56 inches, which is standard road guage so that the chassis may be towed along a standard road if necessary.

The tail surfaces and elevators are the same general shape used on the flying boat.

The fuselage is constructed of four members of white spruce, which are tapered from the rear beam out to the extreme end, thereby reducing the weight in proportion to the strain at each point.

A new system of wiring and bracing is used which does not require any holes through these corner members, so a lighter piece may be used and the same strength secured as a larger one fastened in the ordinary way with holes through at each joint.

The lateral balance is by ailerons, separately connected so that they can either be operated in unison or independent of each other. It is claimed the machine can be balanced by either in case of accident to the other.

February, 1913

"Miss Columbia" Flying Boat

]HE Washington Aeroplane Company has produced a flying boat for Marshall Reid, which will appeal to the fastidious one who is willing to pay for the finest of work, elegant upholstery and fancy fittings.

The upper plane spreads 38 feet and the lower 29 feet. The upper is in 3 sections, engine and two outer. Both wings swing about a hinge on the rear spar so that they fold up in line with the boat. Cotton fabric with 2 coats of Valspar, is used both sides of wings. The sections are cross-wired be-


tween surfaces. The ribs are spruce, not laminated, of "1" cross section. The spars are solid ash. The struts are fish-shaped ash, solid. Bronze fittings are used throughout. The chord is 6 feet and the distance between planes 5 feet. The area is 400 square feet.

Each section is wired with Roebling No. 10 steel wire, doubled in the engine section.

The boat has 8 compartments and is of mahogany sheathing, *4 'ncn over white oak ribs. Three iron-bound shoes run lengthwise the forward half of boat to protect the sheathing from the sand of the beach. Each compartment has a 5-16-inch copper tube going to one central point where a bilge pump is located to empty the water. Any one compartment can be emptied. The trimmings of the boat are brass. The weight is 410 pounds. There is a 3 inch step located far aft.

An 80 H. P. Gyro rotative motor drives direct a 3-bladed 7.6 foot by 6 foot pitch Simmons propeller.

Lateral balance is by ailerons hinged to the rear beam of upper plane only by bronze hinges.

The tail flexes for elevating. The control wires run along the top of the boat, which is decked in with mahogany varnished with Valspar. The rudder extends down into the water, this part being made of wood. A skid protects this from danger. The control levers operate on the Wright system to suit Reid. The total weight of the machine is 1,050 pounds empty.

A shop test was made of the new 80 H. P. Gyro with two and three-bladed Simmons propellers. The total weight of the motor is 207 pounds, including oil pump, tachometer and magneto. The outside diameter of the motor is 34 inches. The cylinders are S/i inch bore by 5 inch stroke. The motor starts from the seat.

Burgess "Coast Defense" Hydro

URSUANT to some special requirements of the U. S. Sig-

PHllJi nal Corps, a departure has $M been made in the new "Coast Defense" hydro-aeroplane by the Burgess Co. & Curtis, its builder. One main object was to obtain for the occupants an absolutely unobstructed view on all sides. The machine fulfilled its acceptance tests, Mown by Frank Coffyn, who is officially connected with the company. Climbing was accomplished at the rate of 210 feet per minute, with 500 pounds weight aboard, in addition to fuel and oil.

The 2-hour flight with the minimum live load of 450 pounds was duly made with Lieut. Call as passenger. In this flight the following was carried: Gasoline, 120 pounds; floats, 310 pounds; pilot, 175 pounds; passenger 160 pounds; instruments, etc., 10 pounds; total, 775 pounds. The average speed was 59.2 M. P. II.

The consumption of fuel and oil by the 6-cylinder motor was as follows: Gas.—per hour, 44.3 pounds; per mile, .768 pounds; per horsepower hour, .68 pounds; capacity of tank in miles, 278.0 pounds. Oil—per hour, 5.2 pounds; per mile. .09 pounds; capacity of tank in miles, 285.0 pounds.

The power plant is a Sturtevant Six, driving by chains, twin propellers, as in all Burgess machines. The engine is completely out of sight in the fuselage. The engine is started by a ratchet on one propeller sprocket, using a small bar, as described previously in AERONAUTICS.

Credit is due to the performance of the Bosch equipped Sturtevant motor which enabled this plane to pass its trials so successfully and when the extra weight is remembered, and that the motor was equipped with a muffler and starting device.

These muffled motors are rapidly being adopted by the United States Government

for both land and water flying. It is easily realized that the muffled motor will become one of the most important factors in future aerial manoeuvres. The penetrating "bark" of the unmufiled aviation motor can be heard almost before the machine is sighted. At 250 feet, the Sturtevant muffled motor is abso-noiseless.

No change in the machine was made after it was taken from the drawing board, save to slightly increase the area of the rudder.

This new 'plane was designed late in 1912 by W. Starling Burgess, of the Burgess company. The chief dimensions are as follows: Spread of the plane 39 feet 9 inches, chord 6 feet 3 inches, length overall 31 feet 4 inches. The main plans are built up with a new type rib, of the I-beam variety. Spruce battens top and bottom enclose a central web piece of wood. The ribs are hinged at the front end so that when the planes are warped no strain comes on the spar. Both front and rear spars are hollow, being practically hollow girders. The rear spar is built with a solid section through the center in the form of a web. The planes are covered with Irish linen, coated with spar varnish. The camber is 3 inches.

The power is delivered through extra heavy chain guides and shafts mounted on Italian ball bearings to two Wright-tvpc propellers 9 foot by 11 foot pitch, especially designed by Air. G. S. Curtis. Shaft ratio, 13-36.

The fuselage is entirely enclosed. In front and rear it is covered with cloth while at the motor section aluminum sheeting is used.

The control is of the standard Wright-type.

The hydro-aeroplanes are of novel design, especially made with a view of rising easily and alighting with a heavy load. They are constructed with mahogany sides and copper bottoms and tops. One step located amidships, concave in form, running back at a distinct angle upwards towards the stern to a flat bottom. This type is especially designed by Mr. Burgess and will be protected by letters patent.

New Cooke Tractor


?§§£§§g§§gELDON B. COOKE has launched into the construction of machines with the formation of the Weldon B. Cooke Aeroplane Company, of Sandusky, where the first 'plane has been built under the direction of Messrs. Cooke and E. W. HMBWO»B.WMWJ Roberts, of the Roberts Motor Company.

The machine is of the "baby" class, being but 24 feet spread by 25 feet over all. The planes have a chord of 5 feet, cambre 2 9-16 inches, spaced 5 feet apart and set at an angle of incidence of but 2 degrees. Of course, the wings are double covered; unbleached muslin, treated with a composition of glue and spar varnish. Each surface has two sections of 12 feet each, and are braced crosswise between the fabric in each section and each half is braced again between the cloth by Roebling wire.

The ribs are built-up of spruce of % inch by z/2 inch in cross-section, tapering to the rear ends. The overhang back of the rear beam is 1 foot 9 inches. This construction has not proved satisfactory. Each section has three solid ribs, which retain their cambre, but the others are inclined to flatten out. The next set will have all solid ribs, and fewer longitudinals.

The present entering edge is a half-round, of wood, hollowed out, and the trailing edge a Y& inch steel tube.

The fuselage is constructed in the usual manner, with straight lines, of spruce longitudinals irA inches by 1% inches cross section, in motor section, with cross-struts of similar wood inches by 1% inches, guyed criss-cross with wire. There are no guy wires of any kind running from the fuselage to the wings or tail, though on each side there

are two small oval steel tubes from the fuselage up to the front and rear of the fixed plane forward of the elevator. The fuselage is in 3 pieces for convenient shipment, and is very small, being but 22 inches by 24 inches cross section at the widest point. Over the framing is placed a 5-ply mahogany veneer, about % inch thick, which greatly increases the strength of this portion of the aeroplane's anatomy.

The second section of fuselage is of 1 inch by 1 inch spruce, and the third of Ya mcn by Yx inch.

There is a fixed surface at the tail measuring 2 feet by 8 feet, to which is hinged the two elevator flaps (3 feet bv 4 feet) by 2 inch square hinges in which the pins are replaced by cotter pins. The rudder pivots about a steel tube rudder post (34 inch) 15 inches back from front edge. The ribs of the rudder bend around this post joining again front and rear in a half-inch edge. Double independent cables control both elevators and rudder.

The balancing is by ailerons, 6 feet by 1 foot 9 inches, hinged to the rear beam, upper and lower, of the outer sections. Each pair is connected by a light spruce strut, braced diagonally with small steel tubes. A special control has been developed by E. W. Roberts. A wheel is used for operating the ailerons; twisting the wheel operates the rudder and a fore-and-aft motion operates the elevator, which closely resembles the James Means universal control system.

The 6-cylinder 2-cycle Roberts 75 H. P. motor is placed upside down, an absolutely novel arrangement. The idea is to reduce head resistance, which the scheme undoubtedly does, by placing the entire motor within the fuselage. A steel hood covers the motor and protects the passenger and pilot, who sits behind the former, from the propeller gust. There is also a steel pan under the cylinder

i 4


are now being manufactured in four sizes to meet the demands for smaller and larger motors. Nothing but first-class material, equipment and workmanship used throughout. Why not consider a reliable power-plant at a reasonable price for your 'plane?

Model G-2 16 H. P.

Model 1-4 35 H. P.

Model H-6 55 H. P.

Model J-8 75 H. P.


Muncie, Ind.


PLANES hold Ihe following records:

World's long distance hydro record with one passenger. World's long distance hydro record with two passengers. American endurance record, aviator and three passengers. Have more world's records than all other m'f'rs combined. The first successful Tractor Biplane built in America.

The Neio licnoist Flying Boat

Records indicate superior efficiency. Why not get an efficient machine 1%>hile you are about it ?






For all photos, descriptions, data,news, drawings, etc., regarding FRENCH AVIATION, address below:

Etudes Aeronautiques ALEX. DUMAS, Engineer, E.C.P. 20 Rue Ste. Marie, Neufchateau (Vosges\ France


Learn on Ice! No Field Safer!


<±f\S Designed Scientifically

Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. BATH, N. Y.









Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs


Broadway and 57th St , New York City

Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators cf all types

heads, closing the bottom of the fuselage. The company claims that the motor runs in this position fully as well, and actually saves gas and oil. The oil for lubrication of the cylinders is mixed with the gas, and grease cups lubricate the bearings which are nickel

babbitt. The propeller shaft center is in line with the upper member of the fuselage and just inch below it. The exhaust is carried off through a 3 inch steel tube, opening below the planes. Although this pipe does not choke the motor in the least, it reduces the noise to such a degree that a conversation may be carried on between the occupants. It also reduces the fire risk.

The running gear is very simple, comprising but a heavy leaf spring affixed to the axles of the 20 inch by 4 inch Goodyear

wheels set at an oblique angle inward and upward. The landing gear is so short it need not be removed in crating for shipment so that the power plant section in its crate can be moved about on its own wheels, using the end of the skid as a handle.

The weight of the machine empty is 750 pounds, for 240 square feet of main supporting machine, for 75 rated horsepower. The speed has not been measured. The fuel consumption is 7 gallons per hour, with 14 pints of lubricating oil mixed therein in addition. The Paragon propeller, driven direct, is 7 feet diameter by 7 feet 6 inches pitch. The ignition is, "of course," Bosch, with V-Ray plugs.

The first trial of the machine was made in January on the ice, which unfortunately was not strong enough and the machine broke through.


As the magazine is on the press, news comes that the U. S. Circuit Court at Buffalo has handed down an opinion in the Wright-Curtiss suit in which the court considers the Wright and Curtiss balancing systems "different in form but alike in principle," and permanent injunction is granted The Wright Co., prohibiting the defendant Curtiss company from the manufacture and sale of infringing machines, subject to a stay pending further appeal.

Yesterday, February 26th, the Wrights won the suit brought against the German Patent Office by independent builders.





California's Marathon Aviator

Us Recently

The Roberts Motor Co. Sandusky. Ohio: Cicero, III. Nov. I, 1912.

I have flown my 6X received last February in filling 73 different engagements and have not missed a single day. Two flights were made in Idaho at an elevation of 5240 feet, 18 at Salt Lake, at an elevation of 4300 feet, and many others in the rain, and the motor was always on the job. It has been in the air about 40 hours without any repairs and is as good as new now. Weldon B. Cooke. Write today for other copies of letters from Men Who Know. Standard Equipment, Paragon Propellers

THE ROBERTS MOTOR CO., 1430 Columbus Avenue, Sandusky, Ohio

February, 1913

Winler Headquarters




While our contracts with Foreign Governments may require the entrance of a considerable number of Aimy Officers, we have increased our facilities so as to afford ample accommodation to our regular pupils. Enrollments should however, be made as promptly as possible.

Write for beautiful free booklet and address all communications to


Moisant International Aviators

U. S. RUBBER BUILDING Broadway and 58th Street, New York, N. Y.


To Our Friends-Our Patrons and Aviation Generally

The New York Aeronautical Supply Co. of 50 Broadway, New York City, has consolidated with the Cordeaux-Etter Mfg. Corporation of No. 1 1-13-15 Mc-Kibben st., New York City (B.B.) N.Y.-—and in the future they will do business under that name. A large stock of Aeroplane Supplies and Woodwork is carried jn stock at all times. Send 1 0 cents for catalogue describing over 750 1"2 parts and fittings. (

Cordeaux-Etter Mfg. Corporation.

11-13-15 McKibben St. New York City (Borough of Brooklyn^


Because of


In 50 to 150 H.P. units

The Military MAXIMOTOR Gives 1.—The utmost power from a given cylinder capacity.

2.—Extreme ga3oline and oil economy to provide

for long flights. 3.—Ample robustness for the hard knocks of

cross country work.

Write for Catalog

KMSfc, others*



Take Notice!

Harry Bingham Brown

The Great English Pilot

will demonstrate to the Porto Ricans his great flying ability by elevating

Frederick Rodman Law

who will dive from an enormous elevation in a "Stevens Safety Pack/* at the Third Insular Fair, San Juan, Porto Rico, February 22d to March 2d, 1913.

These two wonderful Airmen have been engaged as a Star Feature at the largest Expositions and Fairs of the World.

Under the careful management of

A. Leo Stevens

Address all communications

San Juan, Porto Rico

New Developments in Aeronautics


A new six-cylinder, vertical type motor, rated at 60 H. P., (38.4 A. L. A. M.) is now being put on the market by the Curtiss Motor Company, of Hammondsport, N. Y., and still another, rated at 120 H. P. is expected for the near future.

This new 6-cylinder, 4" by 5" motor is not designed as a mere stop-gap, or filler-in between the 4-cylinder 40 H. P. Curtiss motor and the 8-cylinder V-type 80 H. P., but is designed particularly to meet the demand for a motor of fairly high power with an unusually wide range of effective speeds. Where the 40 and 80 H. P. Curtiss motors are designed to operate normally, on the ground, at approximately 1100 R.P.M., the new "six-sixty" is promised to run all day at 1350 to 1600 R. P. M, The double advantages of this speed range are in the use of large, geared-down single tractor or twin propeller screws in weight-lifting machines, and in direct-driven light racing machines.

In a standard water brake test of several hours' duration recently made at the Curtiss factory the motor developed, according to the company, its rated 60 P>. H. P. at 1100 R. P. M., and maintained this power delivery steadily for about an hour, when the speed was increased to about 1325 R. P. M. where the brake showed the delivery of 65 H. P. At J 500 this motor showed 70 H. P., which, "though by no means its maximum, is the speed at which the motor is designed to do its best and most economical work."

While in the principal features of its design this motor is very similar to the Curtiss V-type 8-cylinder 80 H. P. motor, at the same time in some minor details changes have been made.

Exhaust and intake valves, for instance, are, as in the 8-cylinder Curtiss motor, on apposite sides of the head, but instead of work-

ing on a single rocker arm, they are operated by two independent rockers, which permits any combination of timing adjustments; so that there need be absolutely no interval between the closing of one valve and the opening of the other.

Lubrication is by no means of a combination splash and force-feed system. The oil pump is gear driven, and submerged in oil at the bottom of the crank case, oil being forced through the hollow cam shaft to outlets opposite each of the connecting rod bearings. This gives a steady stream of oil on connecting rod bearings, cooling and lubricating them at the same time. Pistons are lubricated by the splash from the rods.

Finely ground hollow crank-shafts, three-ring pistons, and many oil grooves are employed, as in the 8-cylinder motors. A single gear and shaft with universal joint are used for driving the pump and Bosch dual magneto, by which starting may be done by battery if desired. One set of plugs only is necessary.

A safety starting crank and crank bracket with which each one is provided. With it the matter of one-man control is made a simple matter.

Muffled exhausts are made easily possible through a slight change in the cylinder design, which permits the attachment of exhaust manifold or light independent muffler for each cylinder.

As shown by the end view here presented the new "six-sixty" is a clean-cut motor, occupying less space than the 8-cylinder V-type motor. Its principal dimensions are: length, 40 inches; height, 20 inches; depth below bed stringers. 9^2 inches. The price of the new motor, complete with special radiator, Bosch dual ignition, safety starting crank, propeller, gasoline tank, etc., is $1,600.

This motor can be set up for either clockwise or counter-clockwise rotation, so that where it is used to replace a motor of less power in a 'plane otherwise complete, no special arrangements need be made to accommodate a possible difference of rotation.

You trust me for space to advertise to your readers; I trust the readers for my product; I crowd the purchaser for payment and he says he has nothing and will go bankrupt if I force him; you crowd me and I have to tell you the same story. We two do the work, put up the money, and both get stuck. The third party gets away with the goods. —In a letter from an Advertiser to the Publisher.

ABREGE SUR L'HELICE et La Resistance de TAir, par Maurice Gandillet; Quarto, 187 pp., published by Librairie Gauthier-Yillars, 55 Quai des Grands Augustins, Paris, at 10 francs. Chapters: Resistance de l'Air. Rendement, Epiphenomenes, Gepale, Traction helicale, Traction motorale, Traction moto-propulsive, Helice au laboratoire, Helice en vol libre. Questions diverses, Resume et Conclusions.

APPRECIER UN AEROPLANE, l'ameliorer s'il y a lieu, par le capitaine du genie Duchene. Un volume de 60 pages. Prix: 1 fr. 50.— (Librairie Aeronautique, 40, rue de Seine, Paris.)

Page 67

February, 1913

Another Record for the


American Passenger Altitude:—5,006 feet — 1 hour, 6 minutes SLOANE AEROPLANE CO. 1733 Broadway, NEW YORK CITY

Agent*:— Eamei Tricycle Co., San Francisco; National Aeroplane Co., Chicago ; W. E. Boughton, Washington, D. C.


Made in two sizes

50 H. P. 6-cyl. Air-cooled, 2w0eifbhs!

PRICE, $650.00 Complete

100 H.P. 6-cyf. Water-cooled,

PRICE, $850.00 Complete Catalog Free Agents Wanted




New and Enlarged Edition, Commencing January, 1913

The Leading British Monthly-Journal Devoted to the Technique and Industry of Aeronautics.

(FOUNDED 1907)

Yearly Subscription One Dollar, Eighty-Five Cents Post Free

^/-vf^.__A specimen copy will be mailed

nULC. free on rece;pt of 15 cents.


3 London Wall Buildings, London, England American Office: 250 West 54th Street, New York









We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.


John A. Roebling's Sons Co.


7!-—-.......... : '

J. C. (Bud) MARS, now booking season 1913.

Have never been connected with the American Aeroplane Mfg. Co. and School of Aviation.

17 North La Salle Street, Chicago, Ills.



Ball Bearings

2&o west fifty-fourth. arew i'oru,


20.000 KILOMETERS THROUGH THE AIR, by Hclmuth Ilirth. An absorbing story (in German) of the flights and records made by this famous German flyer, his early life and his adventures in the machine shops of the United States. His observations and experiences during flight are recounted. Written for the aviator and the dilettant as well. Published by Gustav Braunbeek, Lutzowstrasse, 102, Berlin, at 5 Marks.


Page 68


The almost universal adoption of the electric starter for automobiles will bring about more rapidly the use of self-starting devices on aeroplanes. Hand cranks are already standard on Curtiss and Burgess-Curtis machines. Soon will come the electric and compressed air self-starters.

The use of the same magneto for the three objects, lighting, starting and ignition, in some systems, has caused a word of warning to be issued by Alfred H. Bartsch, of the Bosch Magneto Company, in his monthly Bosch magazine.

The quest for a perfect ignition system, one combining reliability and efficiency, has long been completed; the magneto, since its adaptation to the gasoline engine twenty years ago, has easily swept aside all other methods for igniting the mixture.

Of the various arrangements for starting the engine, the electrical system has proven without a doubt the most popular, due we may say to the fact that electric lighting has been so universally adopted and therefore the basis of the equipment is to a large extent already in use. It appears then that in combining the function of ignition with lighting and starting, the first consideration was none other than economy in production costs.

In making an analysis of the aeroplane we may quite readily divide it into two distinct parts; the engine or power plant generating the power being one group or part, the chassis and body as well as the refinements and those luxuries which utilize the power generated forming the other group. In the latter group we classify the electric lights, also electric horn, cigar lighter, radio apparatus, signalling devices, etc.

Reliability of service is desirable in components of the second group, but is not absolutely essential. In the first group it remains that we have nothing but the engine, the power plant, on which the reliability of all depends. It must be absolutely reliable and efficient, for without these essentials the entire is a failure so far as service value is concerned.

In consideration of this, the ignition system must be free from interference, free from the influence of those accessories which have nothing to do with the generating of power. It should be considered as part of the engine—just as much a part as is a valve or piston. Obviously then, it is absurd to risk the so much desired reliability of the power plant on luxuries requiring an arrangement which may be likened to the human system, having a multitude of delicate nerves spread over a large area and thus subjected readily to exposure or damage.


A test has recently been concluded at Columbia University, by William T. Donnelly, an engineer, of a feathering "paddle," the in-

vention of a Mexican, Ciro F. Mendez. The propeller was run at 300 R.P.M., and at this speed showed an efficiency of 88%, the efficiency curve running up uniformly from 70% at 155 R.P.M. to 300 R.P.M. The thrust at the latter speed was 39.12 pounds, the brake horsepower being 7.73, the effective horsepower being 6.8. Power was derived from the regular 120 volt current of the laboratory and readings were made by volt-meter and an-meter. Series of runs were made at 155, 200, 250 and 300 R.P.M. and the amount of current and thrust recorded, and after the capacity of the apparatus had been learned, a brake pulley was attached to the propeller shaft and readings made directly of the power transmitted to the propeller. Then the coupling in the propeller shaft was disconnected, the brake band and brake attached and test run at the same reading of volt-meter and an-meter, determining the actual power delivered to the propeller and eliminating the electrical and mechanical efficiency of the motor, belting and shafting.

The efficiency curve was determined as follows : considering amount of work done by propeller is its resistance against revolutions measured by its thrust, multiplied by the distance of travel of the center of effort of the blades.

In the device, the radius of the center of effort was 3.06 feet from the center, it being understood that the resistance of a radial surface of rotation varies as the square of its distance from the center of revolution. The product of these two forces divided by 33,000 expresses the work done by the propeller in horsepower, and the reading of the prony brake determines the actual power applied to

(Continued on page j2)

Do You Trust Your Motor f

Lincoln Beachey trusts his Curtiss; he holds the American Altitude Record, and does things no one else would attempt.

Jealously guarded as are the Aviation appropriations of the World's Powers, after most severe tests, Curtiss Motors have been adopted for Government use by the United States, France, Russia, Germany, Austria, Italy, Japan, Brazil, et al.

If you are building a machine for yourself;

If you manufacture machines for others;

If you are interested in aero motors in any way:


The best grounds The best equipment The best climatic conditions for practice

47 Graduates for 1912

Greater opportunities than ever before

Get our proposition


Lake Street


Learn to Fly at the Curtiss Winter School


/ Dept. Y


< >y flF pilot's license trial at Curtiss

Ian Diego, Cal.


THE time has passed when one aviator operated but one make or type of machine throughout all the period of his activity. Nowadays the monoplane pilot flies the biplane, and vice versa—after changing over the controls. The Burgess Cup Defender machine was changed to Wright control, Sop-with changed his Wright to Farman system, Hamilton tried to switch from the Curtiss to the Burgess-Wright without a change and quit after an accident, and so on.

Every bicycle has a standard system; every automobile is approximately the same in general respects, the motor boat control systems are standard, as are those of ferryboats, steamships, sailboats, ad infinitum. Who would ever think of driving a horse drawing one make of wagon by other methods than those employed in driving the other make of carriage. These operations, for instance, are either instinctive from the beginning of civili-zaton or have become such as a matter of heredity—passed on from the chariot races of antiquity and "bred in the bone."

The Army and Navy Gazette (London) demands a standardization of aeroplane control systems. The field of discussion is at once large. There are scores of "accepted standards" in actual use. Mr. Means points out:

"It seems to me it is too early in the development of the flying machine to pay much attention to 'acccepted standards' in matters of standardization. Many of these accepted standards are positively bad. * * *

"There is only one way to fix upon a standard control and that is by making records of success or failure in teaching pupils. If a man undertakes to invent a new control, he must ask himself just what it is that he has to do. Certainly it is this, to provide the shortest cut between the brain and the machine. He will then decide whether the flier shall use hands, feet or both; and whether or not he shall use the shoulders."


THE club which assumes the "control" of aeronautics in this country might— with profit to the art—temporarily abandon the afternoon tea and devote a little time and energy to practical endeavors. It might take a page from the British club book and investigate the manner of fatal accidents, arrive at an approximate idea of the causes and, upon the advice of competents, suggest methods of repairing such discovered weaknesses in the future.


THE various States have automobile laws providing for the registration of the automobile, the examination of drivers and for the punishment of reckless or dangerous driving.

For years, a Federal law has been urged by automobilists to obtain uniformity in the matter of laws, license tags, and facilitate inter-State touring.

There is no law in any State in working order for the safeguarding of the aeronautical movement The reckless flying of the expert, the foolhardy "stunts" of the novice, or the crazy antics of the hare-brained should be toned down by knowledge of the law's penalty. There is many a good reason for the registration of machines and for the examination of pilots. The good flyer will gain, and so will the one who fails to fulfill the conditions of a proper law or set of rules.

Before we have more fool State laws, let those who have the interests of aviation really at heart urge the adoption of a proper national statute.

"Published Monthly by Aeronautics "Press 1.122 e. 25th st., NEW york Cable: Aeronautic, New York ֐hone, 9122 Madison So.

ERNEST L. JONES. Pres't - - THOMAS C. WATKINS, Treas'r-Sec'r ERNEST L. JONES, Editor - M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor

subscription rates United States, $3.00 Foreign, $3 50

No. 66 FEBRUARY 1913 Vol. XII, No. 2

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postotfice, New York, under the Act ot March 3, 1879.

f| AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each ^L Month. All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th. :: :: :: :: £[ Make all checks or money orders free of exchange ^L and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: :: ::


The half-tone on the cover is of the Boland tail-less machine with which the late Frank E. Boland has been experimenting and flying for the past five years.

50 H.P.



80 H.P.


Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout

Endurance Record to Date 4 hrs., 23 min.

From the


of Nov. 20. I'M2 In the testing establishment of Dr. Bendemann at Adlershof (neai Berlin), a 7-cylinder Gyro Motor was recently tested. In a 5-hour endurance run and at 1,000 R. P.M., an average of 45.7 H.P. was obtained. The fuel consumed was 14.7 kg. gasoline per hour and 3.06 kg. lubricating oil, which is more favorable than the Gnome motor of the same horse-power. The weight of the motor was 73 kg.

Send for Catalog

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

Airmen Should Be Interested In Photography


Has long been regarded as the standard American Authority on photographic matters.

Each number has forty pages of interesting photographic text, printed on fine paper from good type, and illustrated with many attractive halftones.

The cover for each month is printed in varying colors, and is ornamented with a different and pleasing photograph.

The valuable and authoritative formulae furnished throughout the year are alone worth the price asked for subscription.

Some of the other regular features are

Articles on practical and timely photographic topics.

Illustrations showing examples of the work of the best American and foreign pictorialists.

Foreign Digest.

Camera club happenings, exhibitions, and photographers' association notes. Items of Interest.

A department devoted to "Discoveries."

Reviews of the new photographic books.

Desciiption of the latest novelties and specialties brought out by dealers and manufacturers.


Foreign Subscription, Two Dollars A Sample Copy Free


135 West 14th Street, : : : New York



(Continued from page j4)

Schafer ball bearing and the rear end of the propeller shaft is carried by an ordinary Hess-Bright radial bearing. These bearings are 24 inches apart, giving ample rigidity to the propeller shaft.

The engine is mounted low and the center of thrust is located at the center of resistance, which gives very good handling qualities. The center of gravity is slightly below the center of lift.

The radiator is mounted on the forward end and just back of the propeller and the hood over the engine is attached to the rear edge of the radiator, similar to an automobile. The air coming through the radiator and around the cylinders is deflected out on each side and away from the operators by curved metal shield which forms the dashboard and closes the cockpit away from the motor.

The hood over the engine has a small up-curve which deflects the air over the heads of the opeerators and stops the strong blast in the face, which is common to the ordinary tractor.

This machine is much more convenient for tearing down or reassembling than the standard machine, as the power plant and running gear stay intact when packed for shipment.

The fuselage is easily and quickly attached when setting up, the wings being in one piece are more easily handled so that the assembling can be done in a very short time.

This machine is equipped with spring running gear and has been tested on some very rough ground with the best possible results.

The rear wheels are 20 inches back of the center of weight and the front wheel is just


(Continuedfrom page 68) The apparatus is arranged to change the direction of the thrust while in motion. By revolving the cam which controls the feathering of the blades it is possible to apply the thrust to drive a dirigible ahead, backward, or cause it to descend or ascend without changing the speed or action of the engine.


(Continuedfrom pJge 40) a mechanism is necessary on a monoplane or biplane because as the pressure angle increases (tending to produce stalling) the movement of the center of pressure is forward and tends to increase still mure the pressure angle. Hence the horizontal rudder has to be used to offset the dangerous couple produced. Pulling down the horizontal rudder raises the tail and prevents stalling. With the tandem, however, no such dangerous pressure angle can occur because as the pressure angle increases, the center of pressure rushes back and this of itself raises the tail and prevents stalling. To put it another way; with the increase of the pressure angle the lift of the rear surface increases faster than the lift

under the propeller and prevents any tendency to "nose over" in rough landings.

This machine handles exceptionally well on the ground and may be turned around without outside assistance on the ground in a very small space. It is fitted with a standard folding shoulder yoke and dual wheel, which gives either operator control at will. It can, however, be fitted with a single throw-over wheel if required for military work.

In the latest Curtiss flying boat the engine is fitted with a starting crank. As on an automobile, the starting crank is fitted to the forward end of the motor, and the starting clutch is on the end of the water pump shaft, which has been made heavier for this purpose. The crank is operated by a bracket across the forward end of the engine bed outside of the radiator. This is cast from magnalium, and is very light and rigid, the crank is also cast from this same metal. It has a throw of fifteen inches, and is fitted with a trip cam, which disengages the crank in case of a kick back. When the machines were first fitted with these cranking devices, both magneto and batteries were used, but after employing these for some time, it was found that the engine started so positively on the magneto that the batteries were not required. The batteries are now furnished only on special orders, as when using the standard Bosch magneto, considerable more weight is saved, and also the complication of wiring necessary to a dual system.

General dimensions follow:

Spread of top plane, 37 feet 4 inches; Spread over all, including ailerons, 38 feet 4 inches; chord, 61 inches; distance between planes, 66 inches ; length, 24 inches ; approximate weight, 1050 pounds; approximate speed, 60 miles; approximate climbing speed, 200 feet per minute.

This propeller would largely take the place of elevating planes, as while the rear propellers of a dirigible were thrusting directly forward, the action of the forward propellers could be modified as to act both forward to any degree upward, lifting the head of the dirigible. The diameter of the test propeller was 8 feet.

of the front surface and this checks any further increase of the pressure angle. How much safer then, this system is, than one which has to use a mechanism for moving an auxiliary surface.

The Doutre stabilizer is another, more or less complex mechanism for maintaining a constant pressure angle by the movement of an auxiliary surface. Such mechanisms are entirely unnecessary with the tandem system because this disposition of surfaces holds the plus and minus variation of the pressure angle between such limits that neither stalling nor steep diving can occur.

If it ever is safe to draw conclusions relative to practice from laboratory experiments, Eiffel's notes indicate unquestionably that tandem surfaces can be made more efficient and safer than either monoplane or biplane.

cylero cJTWart

RATES: 15 cents a line, 7 words to the line. Payment in advance.


FOR SALE—A few Model D-4 Gray Eagle motora slightly used, that have been taken in trade for larger motors. In first-class condition, and guaranteed, at bargain prices. Kemp Machine Works, Muncie, Ind.—T. F.

FOR SALE—6 cyl. "Aero Special" Elbridge 2-cvcle, magneto, radiator, complete, new, sample. Original price $1,800, will sacrifice at $800 cash. Also 4 cyl. used, good shape, with magneto, at $450. Address at once, Two-Cycle, care of AERONAUTICS.

ENGINE FOR SALE—8-cyi. "V," list price, $1,500; new, never used. The one who buys this motor gets one of those few real bargains that aren't picked up every day. Thoroughly tested by maker who desires to sell the last one in his shop. Complete with propeller. $S00. Address, "Eight Cylinder," care of AERONAUTICS. 122 E. 25th St., New York.

ANTOINETTE AERO MOTOR FOR SALE— 70 H. P., water cooled, practically unused, fine condition, regular price $4,000; going for $400. Also 4 Bosch magnetos, and a quantity of engine fittings. Address "Antoinette," care of AERONAUTICS.— Mar.

30-40 II. P. engine with 7-foot propeller, $250. We buy wrecked aviation motors. Repair and sell. Albatross and Detroit Aero. Save your stamps. A. J. llartmann Co.. Silverleaf Ave., Burlington, la.

ROBERTS four-cylinder with radiator and propeller. Used very' little. Price. $850. Address Roberts Four, care of AERONAUTICS.


SACRIFICE—A Curtiss type biplane, flown by one of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Hall-Scott 60 II. P. motor, all in Al condition, for $1,800 cash, subject to demonstration to bonafide purchaser. Shipping boxes, propeller, crates, completely equipped for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchaser at well-known flying field. The best bargain of the season. Opportunity knocks but once at every man's door. Address "Sacrifice," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

GET MORE POWER—Send 25 cents for details of valuable combination device, for priming, cleaning carbon from cylinders and obtaining greater power through increased R. P. M. Easily attached to any motor; inexpensive. No changes in motor need be made. Address Beier, care of AERONAUTICS.

HYDRO PONTOONS—In our stock of duplicate parts we have a number of extra sets of pontoons for standard Curtiss hydro-aeroplanes. These sets include the complete boat, the small pontoons for ends of planes, all necessary braces, etc.. everything com-pleee and ready to put on. As they occupy space we need for other uses we will sell these few sets tor less than the cost of making the pontoons. Write today if you want a bargain. Curtiss Exhibition Co., Ilam-mondsport, N. Y.

ASSORTMENT of complete power plants, including: Curtiss 25 H. P. 4-cyl.; Clement-Bayard 30's; Hendee (Indian) 7-cyl., 50. Bargains at 50 per cent, below cost.

Immediate delivery of genuine Bleriot and several antiquated but successful aeroplanes of unexcelled workmanship "for a song." Address Assortment, care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St.. N. Y. City.

FOR SALE—Tractor biplane; 42-foot spread, 5-foot chord, double-surfaced, Farman running gear, 8-cyl. 60 H. P. motor, Bosch magneto, Schebler carburetor, radiator, combination tank, 8-foot Paragon and Normale propellers. Extra parts, tent, crates; complete exhibition outfit. Would make fine hvdro-aeroplane. Price $1,500. F. Robinson, 191 Caledonia Ave., Rochester, N. Y.—Feb.

SPECIAL GOOD BARGAINS—1 Gnome engine, 50 H. P., complete with mountings for biplane, everything ready to run. Can demonstrate. Nearly new. Fine Condition, $2,000.

Complete set of parts for Gnome 50, enough to assemble complete engine: all kinds socket wrenches and tools for same; mounting frames, controls, etc.

Bleriot type monoplane for Gnome engine, two Bleriot types with Anzani engines. Sets of parts.

All these from well-known concerns. Everything can be seen before purchase. Cheap for cash. Address Mono, care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., N. Y. City.

FOR SALE—Curtiss type biplane equipped with 50 H. P. Gnome motor. Everything in excellent condition. Shipping crates. Must be sold at once. Best offer takes it. Address Curtiss, care of AERONAUTICS.

FOR SALE 1912 genuine Curtiss aeroplane with hydro-aeroplane attachment. Model "D" exhibition type. P.rand new Curtiss Model "O," 8-cylinder, 80 II. P. motor. Extra parts, crates, etc. The ideal high-powered exhibition machine. Quick sale necessary. If interested write at once. Address Curtiss Hydro, care of AERONAUTICS.

TIRES—Double the service of your aeroplane tires by using Security reliners. Make ycur double tube tires as good as new at slight expense. Security Reliner Sales Co., 250 W. 54th St.. New York.


THE DYNAMICS OF MECHANICAL FLIGHT, by Sir G. Greenhill. 8vo., cloth, with illustrations and diagrams. Published by D. Van Nostrand & Co., New York, at $2.50, or may be obtained from AERONAUTICS. The volume consists of lectures delivered in the Imperial College of Science and Technology in 1910 and 1911. Chapters include: General Principles of Flight, Light and Drift; Calculation of Thrust and Centre of Pressure, Helm-holtz-Kirchhoff Theory of a Discontinuous Stream Line; Gyroscopic Action and General Dynamic Principles, the Screw Propeller, Pneumatic Principles of an Airship.

I CAN convince any one with $500.00 that $25,000.00 can be made in 1913 with a monoplane. You handle your own money and act as manager. The only chance you take is my being killed in flight. There is big money made. I can make it for you. Exhibitions, over-city flights, races. Write at once. E. F. S., care of AERONAUTICS.


after fl« injr, niotnrinc or being out in the all, use n.w ip-son's danoo lotion the finest prepaiation foi theskin. soothes and refreshes. heals clmpped hands in no time. send for tii.il bottle with 10 cents or 30 cents for larjre size Bottle to

W. A. Shields & Co., 153 E. 96th St., New York City

Double Hydro Floatt, weight, 55 lbs. each. pair. $250- I Running G*ars, Farman or Wright, complete, $42.50- I Hubi, knock-out axle or to lit, 1", V/H\ 134", or lV- |


J. A. WEAVER, Jr., Mfr., 132 West 50th Street, N.Y. Wheels, 20" \2>4n. complele. $6.00 — 20" x 3". $8.25, with Curtiss or Farni.m type stock Ilnb, 6" wide. We make any size or typo of wheel. Send for list. Compare my prices with all others.


THE Signal Corps, U. S. Army, contemplates the purchase of about three Military Scout aeroplanes, the general requirements for which, are as follows. The full details may be had by addressing the Chief Signal Officer, Washington, D. C.

REQUIREMENTS FOR SCOUT TYPE. (1.) Enclosed body. (2.) Protective armor for aviators and engine, of chrome steel, about .075 inches thick, and subject to the Ordnance Department penetration test for small arm fire before being placed on any machine. (3.) Instruments and radio equipment placed on each machine by the manufacturers, including: Tachometer, compass, aneroid barometer, barograph, map holder, pad and pencil holder, clock, angle of incidence indicator. All instruments of make and type approved and furnished by the Signal Corps. (4.) Provisions for a radio apparatus shall be made on each machine. This apparatus shall be furnished by the Signal Corps, drawings and specifications ot which will be furnished to the manufacturer by the Signal Office. (5.) The power plant of each aeroplane may be designated by the Chief Signal Officer, U. S. Army. When so specified, it shall be given a six hours' test on the block to determine its horsepower, speed, and gasoline and oil consumption before being installed in the machine. The horsepower of the motor will be designated by the manufacturer who will be _ responsible that the aeroplane fulfills the actual air tests when the motor is turning out the horsepower that he specifies. The Chief Signal Officer will be responsible for the reliability and horsepower of any power plant that it specifies or par-chases for installation in aeroplanes. (6.) Upon delivery _ for tests the manufacturer will furnish the following data concerning the aeroplane: (a) weight,

(b) normal angle of incidence in horizontal flight,

(c) gliding angle, (d) gasoline and oil consumption of engine, (e) Safe increase angle of incidence, (f) two blueprints of engine and aeroplane.


1. Carry two people with seats located to permit the largest field of observation for both.

2. Control capable of use by either pilot or observer.

_ 3. Ascend at least 2,000 feet in 10 minutes, with live load of 450 pounds, and fuel and oil for 4 hours. Live load does not include weight of instruments and radio telegraphic equipment, which are part of the machine. This load to be carried in all prescribed flying tests, except test in paragraph 10.

4. Machine capable of being transported by road, in which case width must not exceed 10 feet. The construction must allow assembling for flight within 1 hour by 6 men.

5. Engine capable of being so throttled as to allow one person to start engine and make flight without assistance.

6. The machine must fly continuously 4 hours, first part, a cross-country flight of at least 180 miles over a course designated.

7. Minimum speed not more than 38 M.P.H., and maximum not less than 55 M.P.H.

8. Land ton and fly from harrowed ground and long grass within 100 yards.

9. Machine must he capable of safe gliding.

10. Execute figure eight within a rectangle 500 yards by 250 yards, without decreasing altitude more than 100 feet upon completion of the figure.

11. Manufacturers must provide a name plate for each machine, giving necessary data, such as maker's type and serial number. Painting of names or similar data on any part of the machine is prohibited.

12. The manufacturers shall furnish the demonstrators for all tests.

13. The system of control must be of a pattern approved by the Board of Officers conducting the tests.

11, 12, 13, 14. Name plate must be provided, also aviator for demonstrating and control system of design approved.

15. The following desirable features will give the machine a higher rating: (a) An effective silencer with cut-out on the engine. (b) An actual flight in a 20-mile wind without damage to machine, (c) Engine started from within the enclosed body, (d) An efficient stabilizing device.


Organized within the past few days for the purpose of manufacturing military flying machines and marine aeroplanes for sportsmen, the "Aquaero" Manufacturing Company, of New London, Conn., capitalized at $60,000, has applied for a charter. The plans of the new aeroplane company, as announced by its officers, provide for the application of the designing and construction methods employed by the successful automobile manufactories. They state that their company will employ a staff of engineers to design air-craft and that while the machines, which will be manufactured will have no radical changes from existing models, many innovations will be introduced in the construction of the machines and in their equipment.

Heading the _ new company as president and general manager is Jerome Fanciulli, well known as the manager of the Curtiss aeroplane^ business for three years. lie has been prominently identified with the development of_ aviation in this country for six years, and last winter introduced the hydro-aeroplane in Europe.

The company has acquired a factory on the Thames River, adjoining the grounds of Fort Trumbull. The president's office will be established in Washington, D. C, where all business will be transacted.


The Richmond Aeroplane and Exhibition Corp., Richmond, Va. J. E. Crass, Harvey Baker, L. M. Thomas; $50,000.

Weldon B. Cooke Aeroplane Co.. Sandusky, O. Weldon B. Cooke, E. W. Roberts. Frank U. Fried. James Flynn, Sr., James Flynn, Jr.; $25,000.

Crawford Air Navigation Co., Tacoma. Wash. J. B. Crawford, Kate L. Crawford, W. H. Crawford, S. C. Wheelock, of Puyallup, and J. C. Shepherd, of Tacoma; $100,000.

The First American Passenger Sailing Airship Co., Inc., New York City. Capital, $20,000. Incorporators: Frank Weninger, 122 Schnectady Ave., Brooklyn. N. Y.^ George A. Faller, 72 Schenectady Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y„ and Tony Mundus, 495 Bainbridge St., Brooklyn, N. Y.

Christofferson Aviation Co., Portland, Ore., $10,000. Silas Christofferson, Harry Twitchell and Ernest Hammer.

First National Aerial Navigation Co., Los Angeles, Cal.. $75,000; already subscribed. $50. L. L. Hill, A. D. Roy, D. T. Winne, A. B. Ward and E. Seavey.

P. A. R. Airboat Co., Milwaukee, Wis., $10,000. Wm. Ruehl, F. E. Post, W. J. Morgan.

Huber Safety Aviation Mfg. Co., by Robert F. Huber, 4508 N. 20th St., St. Louis, Mo.

Silver Lake Aviation Company, Jersey City, $300,000. Joseph F. Curtin, Lynn Comstock and H. O. Coughlin.


Vulcanized Proof Material

For Aeroplanes, Airships, Balloons. First Rubberized Fabric on the market. Lightest and strongest material known. Dampness, Heat and Cold have no effect. Any strength or color.

"Red Devil Aeroplanes

That anyone can fly. Free Demonstrations.

Hall-Scott Motors

Eastern distributor. 40 h. p., 4-cyl.; 60 and 80 h. p., 8-cyl., on exhibition at Wittemann's. All motors guaranteed. Immediate delivery.


Will install a Hall-Scott free of charge in anyone's aeroplane and demonstrate by expert flyer. Expert advice. 'Planes balanced.

Private Flying Field

Fine private field with smooth water frontage for hydro-aeroplanes. Private sheds and workshop. Located at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island.


Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O. New York


Sturtevant Six Cylinder Motor in Army Coast Defence Plane

In the Burgess Coast Defense Plane recently accepted by the Government, the Sturtevant Six Cylinder Motor with Muffler and starting device passed every trial at the first attempt, not only meeting the specifications, but exceeding them in every event.

The requirements were :

That the motor should climb 150 feet per minute with a load of 450 pounds. The Sturtevant climbed 210 feet per minute, with 500 pound load.

That motor should fly two hours without stop with 450 pound load. Sturtevant flew two hours six minutes with 775 pound load.

Speed with 775 pounds weight 59.2 miles per hour. 16 gallons gasoline and 1.58 gallon oil used during endurance test.


B. f. Sturtevant Company


Farman Running Gears Complete, as above, $47.50

Aeronautical Supplies


1913 CATALOGUE with Working Drawings of Curtiss, Farman and Bleriot Type Machines mailed free on request.


Curtiss Gasoline Tank 5" x 60"................ $5.50

7 H.P. 2 cyl. Curtiss Aero Motor, weight, 50 lbs. 5o!oO Curtiss type Main Planes s ft. section wired up.. 100.00

30 H.P. Harriman Motor (never used).......... 250.00

50 yards Naind Cloth per yard...................30

20 x 2 Aero Wheels............................. 5^00

Requa Gibson Propeller 6 ft. 4 ft. Pitch.'\5.00

Bosch Magneto ............................... 30.00

El Arco Radiator 30 H.P...................20!00

Further information upon request

E. J. WILLIS COMPANY, New York City 85 Chambers St. (Tel. 3624 Worth) 67 Reade St-

The Overland Stores Company, Toledo, $10,000. Walter Stewart, Royal R. Scott, A. M. Smith, G. W. Bennett and E. L. Clapp.

The First American Passenger Sailing Airship Company, New York City, $20,000. Frank Weninger, George A. Faller, Brooklyn, X. \\, and Tony Mundus.

Aeroplanes, Motors & Equipment Company, Inc., New York, N. Y., $20,000. Bernard Cowen, 76 William Street; Max Miller, Audubon Place, and Maurice Lazone, 88 Bleecker Street, all of New York.

Chrome Manufacturing Company, Inc., New York City. To manufacture motors and other equipment for aeroplanes, dirigible balloons, etc. To hold exhibitions of aeroplanes, balloons, etc., $25,000. James E. Marshall, 25 West 136th Street; William H. Buckley, 445 Lenox Avenue; William P. Green, 21 West 134th Street, and Alfred J. Simmons, 68 West 139th Street, all in New York City.


Morok Aeroplane Co.—Schedules of the Morok Aeroplane Co., 303 Fifth Avenue, show liabilities $19,545, and assets $8,023. There are nine creditors of whom the largest are Mortimer M. Sloss $17,000, and George M. Dyott $1,700.

Georgia, Thunderbolt—Aeroplanes.—Baton Aero Co., Capt. Matthew A. Batson, manager, Springfield, Mo., purchased site for aeroplane factory hangars andl practice field; plans manufacturing hydro-multi aeroplanes.


W. Irving Twombly was elected president of The Aeronautical Society, New York, at the annual meeting, February 13th. Louis R. Adams, the retiring head, takes first vice-presidency. J. C. Yates is the new secretary. A special program was arranged for the evening. Ralph H. Upson, of the Goodyear Company, talked on rubber fabrics, and E. P. Noel gave an illustrated lecture.


DuCasse & Co., of New York, have entered the advertising field, employing a hydrogen balloon illuminated from the inside by electric lights. The captive balloon itself is covered with an opaque fab-J ric in which designs and la.tters are cut. The light easily shows through the silk of the balloon and the letters stand out against the night far up in thej sky. Leo Stevens is making the balloons, and the' balloon can be seen in use every night along the Great White Way of New York.


The New York Aeronautical Supply Co. has merged with one or two institutions heretofore run separately by the proprietor Walter E. Watts, and the new name is the Cordeaux-Etter Mfg. Corp., of 11-15 McKihben St., Brooklyn, N. Y. These various industries are now under one roof and puts 'the concern in a still better position for making prompt deliveries of supply goods. Wralter Shulman still remains as his services were too valuable to be dispensed with. Business is prospering and the company is stocked up complete with everything from a turnbuckle to a knock-down machine.

Rarely does it happen that one manufacturer captures practically 100 per cent, of all prizes in competition, but this is true in the case of the Bosch magneto, which holds practically every single world aviation record. In crossing the Swiss Alps, Bielo-vucic used a Bosch equipped llanriot and in the winning of the Kaiser prize of 50,000 marks by a Benz, the winning of the Imperial Chancellor prize of 30,000 marks by a Mercedes, the winning of the Minister of War prize of 25,000 marks by a N. A. G„ the winning of the Secretary of the Navy prize of 10,000 marks by a Mercedes, and the winning of the Secretary of the Interior prize by an Argus, were also Bosch winnings, inasmuch as each individual motor was equipped with Bosch magnetos and plugs.

il C. & A.Wittemann


Manufacturers of

I Biplanes


Hydro-Aeroplanes | Gliders Propellers Parts

Special Machines and Part* Built to Specifications

Large stock of Steel Fittings, Laminated Ring, and Struts of all sizes carried in stock. Hall-Scott Motors, 40-60-80 H. P. +


Works: Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road jj


Established 1906 Tel. 717 Tompkinsville jj

Pf TTf 1 F I I I I ■ T'FTTI'l1 T'I'T 1'TT'i\'TTT


One of the few moderate-priced motors that has actually made good.

50 H. P. 4 Cycle

Weight 200 lbs.—Valves in head—Cylinders cast separate—Every moving part oiled automatically

Let us send you our illustrated catalogue showing Fred Eells' great flight over the city of Rochester in biplane equipped with this motor.

If you wish to do something better than "Grass Cutting"


REG. U. f. PAT. OFF.

Aeronautical Motor

During the months of September and October 1912, Mr. W. E. Scripps, of Detroit, made 108 flights and carried 69 passengers in twenty-three flying days.

His total time in the air was 24 hours, 36 minutes, and his longest flight was 95 minutes. He used a Burgess Plane motored with a Sturtevant 4 cylinder muffled motor. (We would be glad to furnish a detail copy of this report upon request).

Full particulars about the Sturtevant Aeronautical Motor upon request.

Ask for catalog No. 2002.


Hyde Park, Boston, Mass-

And all Principal Cities of the World.




conducts the

Only Caudron

and Deperdussin Flying Schools in America

Learn to Fly Safely at the SLOANE Aviation Grounds at Domin-quez Field, Los Angeles

Our California Aerodrome is

the best equipped the best managed

and most complete on the American Continent Efficient pilots insure Safe and Thorough Instruction Make application for instruction without delay Buy your Aeroplane from us We sell

Deperdussin Monoplanes, Caudron Monoplanes,

Sloan Monoplanes Let us tell you why you should buy our Aeroplanes—Write us

Sloane Aeroplane Co.

21 OMerchants Trust Bldg. 1733 Broadway

Broadway & 2nd St., Los Angeles New York City

'Phone Main 3674 "Phone Columbus 5421

National Aeroplanes Co., 606 S. Michigan Ave. Chicago, 111.

PAT E NTS SECURED OR fee returned

Send sketch or model for FREE Search of Patent Office records. Write for our Guide Books ♦ and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our ▼ special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes.


We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed.


t Main Offices

724-726 NINTH ST., N. W. - WASHINGTON, D. C.



Patents and patent causes. Specialist in Aeroplanes and Gas Engines.

JOHN O. SE1FERT 50 Church Street New York, N.Y.




Wings 20'x 5'. Length 16'. Weight 50 lbs.

Immediate Delivery Flights Guaranteed

Plana and Specifications l'a in. to 1 ft., $1.


Founded 1905


Goods of quality at less than the cheaper kind. Get our 40-page catalog "EVERYTHING AV1ATIC" and a small order will tell you why those who know send to us when they want the best at the right price. Let us give you a special figure on that supply list.


208 30th Avenue Seattle, Wash.



Over 100 complete drawings. Scale 1" to foot; some full size


AERONAUTICS, 122 East 25lh St„ New York



-That Won't Tip Over-

CHARLES H. BURLEIGH, South Berwyck, Me.


Ex-member Examining Corps, U. 8. Patent Olllea

Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patents

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bid*. WASHINGTON, D. C.

"Ideal" Plans and Drawings

are accurate anrl are accompanied by clear, concise building instructions, postpaid at the following prices: Wright 3-ft. Biplape, 25c. Bleriot 3-ft. Monoplane, 15c. "Cecil Peoli" Champion Racer, 25c. Cnrtiss Convertible Hydroaeroplane (new), 35c. "Ideal" three-foot Racer (new), 15c.

Complete Set of Five...............$1.00 Postpaid

Send for our new 40 pp. "Ideal" Model Aeroplane Supply

catalog, fully illustrated, oc. brings it. (None free). IDEAL AEROPLANE & SUPPLY CO., 82a West 8roadway, New York




Port Jefferson

New York

>:>:>::♦: MONOPLANE

DRAWINGS, Bleriot XI Type. 3 Sheeti.

Complicated Parts Full Size. Price JjJ QQ

The three sheets constitute the best set of mono- ٠* plane working drawings now on the market. There is no need for the purchaser of a set of these drawings to guess at anything; since all dimensions of every part of the machine are given, together with the thickness, and gauge of every piece of wood or steel used in the construction.

aeronautics, 122 e. 25th st., New York


have positive action, are small and light, easily applied to any motor

Write for circular


636-644 First Avenue, New York, U. S. A.

Spoclal grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan for Skids \\i diameter and under any length.

J. DELTOUR, Inc. "֓tiSn"-

A New Wright Flyer

We will present this season a new model, known as Model C'E", designed especially for


This model will be equipped with either four or six cylinder motor, turning a single propeller. It is so designed that it can be taken down for express shipment and reassembled within a few hours.

The old models, refined in details, will be continued for use of those who wish to fly for pleasure and sport.

All models may be equipped with HYDROPLANES.

The Wright School of Aviation

Our School of Aviation will open at Simms Station (Dayton) about April ist with a corps of competent instructors. The_school will be under the personal supervision "of Mr. Orville Wright. Tuition for a complete course will be $250.00. Enroll now.


Dept. "A", Dayton, Ohio

New York Office, - - 11 Pine Street

Hotel Cumberland

NEW YORK Broadway at 54th Street

"Broadway" cars from Grand Central Depot in 10 minutes, also 7th Avenue cars from Pennsylvania Station

Headquarters for Aviators and Auto-mobilists.

New and Fireproof

Strictly first class Rates reasonable.


With Bath

and up

Send for booklet

Ten Minutes' Walk to Thirty Theatres


Formerly with Hotel Imperial


4- +

Aeronautical Cloth


Aero Varnish

We were the first in the field, and the test of time is proving that our product is the best.

4* Sample Book A-6, Data and Prices oa Request

I The C. E. Conover Co. +



* + + +


+ 4-4» *

* 4» 4» 4» 4» + 4> + 4-+ 4» +

J 101 Franklin Street, New York f ***.f.*+*****4.***4H*4>4>4^4*4'4"M'4-4>4>4»



The predominance of HALL-SCOTT equipment, used by professional aviator entrants in three recent consecutive aviation meets, is a most emphatic and convincing proof of their true worth as reliable and efficient aviation power plant equipment beyond comparison with all others.

LOS ANGELES, Nov. 28th, - Dec. 1st, 1912 60%


SAN FRANCISCO, Dec. 25th, - 29th, 1912 50%


LOS ANGELES, Jan. 22nd, - 26th, 1913 50%

(4th Los Angeles International Meet) FRED SCHUMAN - EARL DAUGHERTY - FRED DE KOR

The HALL-SCOTT factory organization, equipment and modern business methods, is a guarantee to customers that HALL-SCOTT equipment, when received by them has been built to give absolute satisfaction.

Let us figure on your requirements.




Eastern Representative, CAPT. THOS. S. BALDWIN,


Press of Styles & Cash, New York.