Aeronautics, July 1912

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Vol. XI, No. 1 JULY, 1912 Serial No. 59

Pllhlimhaft A*. A Vt>f\\l A f 1Ttr>C DDTCC ne-r\ P jl il Pi___x AT____ V__L



Model B-6, 50 H.P., Weight, 235 lbs.


Model B-4, Model B-6, Model B-G-6, Model B-12,

35 H. P., 50 H.P., 70 H.P., 120 H.P.

Weight, 185 lbs. Weight, 235 lbs. Weight, 255 lbs. Weight, 400 lbs.

KIRKHAM Motors are used and endorsed by Thomas Bros.; Rex Monoplane Co.; Burgess Company and Curtis; Mills Aviators; Prowse Aeroplane Co.; Sparling-Craig Co.; Twin City Aviators; American Aeroplane Mfg. Co.; Tarnopol Aviation Co., besides several individual owners, and are acknowledged to be the Best American Motor, regardless of price.

When you buy that new motor it is for your interest to investigate thoroughly before you buy any motor. There is a reason why the KIRKHAM has become so popular with those who know and buy on merit only.




" Strength—Efficiency—Design—Durability "



DIDIER MASSON, Licensed by Aero Club of France Masson-Gnome Biplanes, Management of Ivan R. Gates

AMERICAN PROPELLER COMPANY, Clinton, Iowa, May 20, 1912.

243-249 E. Hamburg Street, Baltimore. Md.

Gentlemen:—Enclosed please lind some pictures of the Para son Propeller mounted on the Gnome engine in our machine. 1 have also enclosed some pictures of Mr. Masson and the new military biplane.

1 wish to slate in behalf of Mr. Masson, that in our four years' experience in this business, we have found no other propeller equal to the Paragon in strength, efficiency, design, durability and appearance, which 1 think covers all the good fatalities a propeller should have.

We wish to thank you very much for your considerate and courteous treatment in taking care of our orders. Your promptness is greatly appreciated and if there is any way we can favor or assist you in a business way, we will be pleased to do so. Thanking you again for your favors, 1 remain.

Very truly yours, IVAN R. GATES, Manager for Didier Masson.

The above is an example of the kind of letters that come to us every little while, unsought and unexpected, from customers who neither ask nor receive favors.

Propellers are cheap or dear according to the results they produce—the satisfaction they brinsr. Measured by their results, their lasting qualities, their genuine value, PARAGON PROPELLERS are the best and the cheapest in the world. Think it over, Mr. Purchaser. Let us furnish you the best propeller you ever used. It won't cost much. Then ask our price for a dozen or twenty. Their cheapness will surprise you. Our fine new factory enables us to kill competition when it comes to quantity orders. Try us. We take all the risk. We guarantee every one.


New Large Factory 243-249 East Hamburg Street

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The Hydro-aeroplane Has the Call fcr 1912

<I Unequalled facilities are provided for instruction in the "operation of the marine flier over Marblehead Harbor and the bay adjoining. By giving training at our manufactuiing headquarters we offer pupils an opportunity, at no extra cost, to become thoroughly familiar with the details of construction and design, and ensure against delays. Course consists of FOUR HOURS actual flying during which time we assume all breakage risk. We provide hydroaeroplane for license test.

Instructors: Howard W. Gill, Phillips W. Page, Clifford L. Webster—All licensed aviators

Booklet with full particulars furnished on request. ։ Aeroplanes and Hydro-aeroplanes for military, sporting and exhibition purposes ready for prompt delivery.


Efficiency of Service

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Wilbur Wright was made the recipient of many high honors as follows: Gold medals of the Smithsonian Institution, Decoration "Chevalier of the Legion of Honor of France," Souvenir of the Aero Club of Sarthe, Medal of the Congress of the U. S. A., Bionze medal of the International Peace Society, Gold medal of the Aero Club of the United Kingdom, Gold medal of the Academy of Sports of France, Gold medal of the Society (French) for the Encouragement of Aviation, Gold medal of the Aero Club of France Gold medal of the Academy of Sciences of France, Gold medal of the City of Dayton, Gold Medal of the Aero Club of America, Gold medal of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britian, Gold medal of the City of Le Mans, France.

With the exception of the last above mentioned, duplicate honors were conferred upon Orville Wright.

Among other recognitions of the Wright invention are the degrees of L.L.D. of Oberlin (O) College, Master of Science by Earlham College, (Richmond, Ind.), and Doctor of Technical Science of the Royal Technical College of Munich, granted to both Wilbur and Orville Wright.

Both the brothers were made honorary members of many societies, including: Aeroplane Club of Dayton, Aero Club of the U. K., The Aeronautical Society (U. S. A.), Aeronautical Society of Great Britian, Aero Club of America, Oesterreichischen Flugtechnischen Vereines.

THOUSANDS of eulogies have been said and written since the death of Wilbur Wright. The news of his death brought telegrams and resolutions from all over the world. Strange as it may seem, few have commented on him as a Man, though his work has been lauded to the skies. He was generally misunderstood; he realized this but apparently cared little what the world thought of him. This is unfortunate. Those who knew him best were scarcely able to pierce the veil which seemed to surround his intricate nature. Suffice it to say, however, that the better one knew him, the more he was loved. The world never obtained the proper perspective.

The greatness of the Man, the wonder-fulness of his invention, made it difficult to place on record an estimation of the loss to human progress.

The Committee of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania was "confronted with a task made doubly difficult by the inadequacy of any mere words or formal phrases to express the deep sense of loss which his death has brought to all who are interested in the science for which he was the pathfinder.

"We feel that the passing of this pioneer indefinitely postpones the next great step in aviation. What that step will be, no man now living can say with certainty, but Wilbur Wright's marvellous instinct of flight was such that we, with many others, have long felt that from him would come, sooner or later, the discoveries which would remove the present limitations of the art and lift it above the prejudices and objections with which it is now so frequently confronted."

Wilbur Wright's methods of work were such as amply to justify the belief that he would first make flying safe as he first made it possible. He was no sensationalist. The wave of popular enthusiasm over unsafe and ill-considered aerial feats of daring left him unmoved. He not only recognized, but insisted upon the limitations of his art as so far developed, and his whole interest was not in present day popularity, but in that unselfish and truly scientific delving for something better and higher in its usefulness that would have meant ultimate triumph and the true launching of the great art of aviation upon the career of service to mankind which we all believe the future holds in store for it.

Wilbur Wright was one of the world's great achievers. His mind was a furnace of thought, and out of its fierce focal fires came a perfected ideation. It requires centuries to produce his like. He was an original and when Nature fashions an original she usually hides the molds for a long time.—Detroit News.

Wilbur Wright will rank in the esteem of future generations with Watt, Stephenson, Morse, Edison and Bell.—New York Times.

With his brother, Wilbur Wright stands forth as the true conqueror of the air, the father of flying, the inventor of the method of balancing without which the modern aeroplane could never have been.

—London Daily Mail.

It was one of the premier feats of man's invention.—Portland Ore., Journal.

Never did men do a big thing as modestly as the Wrights.—Muskogee News.

Place such benefactors of mankind, as Wilbur Wright and Orville Wright in an entirely different class from Caesar and Napoleon. To have served mankind unselfishly in the arts of peace is greater than to have waded through slaughter to a throne.—Dayton Journal.

The Nobility of the earth make pilgrimage to reverently honor the transcendent merit of the silent, modest, immortal Wilbur Wright.—Rev. Dr. Hale.

He was the first man to conquer space with a craft heavier than air.

—Reno Gazette.

The American whose spirit has just soared higher than any aeroplane will ever reach was fully entitled to the honors which are the inalienable right of the pioneer in the untrodden fields. If Wilbur Wright was not the discoverer of a new principle in mechanics at least he was the first to apply

in a practical way the method of flying which he and his brother jointly evolved. ********** The Wrights were creators, the French adaptors—Pasadena News.

In the death of Wilbur Wright the world has lost the man who really showed the way to fly. ********** The science of aviation owes practically all its progress to Wilbur Wright, for he regarded his work as a contribution to human achievement in locomotion and strove ever for a greater degree of safety.—Sacremento Record Union.

To them is due the great credit of first publicly demonstrating to the world the practicability of dynamic flight.

—Brig. Gen. James Allen. The world was soon beating a pathway to the door of Wilbur Wright. Once he had demonstrated that his machine would fly, the world's presidents and kings were anxious to do him honor. ********* He takes his place in the world with Watt, Stephenson and other real originators.

—Great Falls, Mont., Tribune. Wilbur Wright was not a martyr. His life, if it means anything, shows that a man can carry a great work to success, not only without credit from his fellows, but with supreme indifference to their opinion.

—N. Y. Times. What Edison has been to applied electricity that was Wright to aeroplaning. He mastered the theory and principles of flight, and put his rare American talent for mechanics to the peculiarly difficult task of making these principles work in practice.

—Spokane, Wash., Review. Columbus gave man-kind a new world, and Wilbur Wright, too, may be said to have given it a new world—the world of the air.—Boston Globe.

They are to be recorded as the actual creators of the aeroplane—the men who made air navigation a fact.

—Wilmington, Del., News. He was the pioneer in a new avenue of human enterprise and his name will be coupled with Stephenson and Morse and Edison as a conqueror and harnesser of cosmic forces.—Portland, Me., Express.

He deserves to stand with Fulton, Stephenson and Bell.—President Taft.

No one was better fitted than he to solve the many remaining problems in the science to which he had devoted so much of his life, and his death therefore is a loss that will be felt by all the world.

—Cincinnati, O., Star. Their invention was as distinct a departure from all known means of travel as was the first steam engine or the first steam vessel. Except in mythology, we have no record of any birdmen who antidate them.

—Detroit, Mich., Free Press. But in everything the brothers did their work was one, for they worked not each one for himself, but both for one result.

By this unity of their lives the world still retains the Wright brothers, in the person of Orville Wright.—Detroit Journal.

Yet if we measure the significance of navigating the air in an aeroplane by the difficulties which have accompanied the building of the really first practical heavier-than-air machine, who will deny that Wilbur Wright must be accorded the honor of standing in the annals of invention beside Morse, Bell, Fulton, Bessemer, Watt, Ark-wright, in a word, beside the men who have given us the machinery of modern civilization?—Scientific American.

Presidents, Emperors and Kings were eager to shake his hand, and the Old World and New alike acclaimed his genius; amid all of which he remained ever the same serious, modest, tremendously earnest man.

—Wichita, Kans., Eagle.

It is to those celebrated inventors (Wilbur and Orville Wright) that France owes its present supremacy in aviation, and it is only just that we should take our share in the mourning of the family of the tireless workers of Dayton.—Paris Presse.

With Wilbur Wright disappears the astonishing inventor, the first and the most celebrated of all the aerial pilots, the man of genius whose discoveries allowed an astounded world to witness the launching of a mechanical apparatus of which he had found, before anyone else, the secret of its suspension in the air.—Paris Temps.

Before Wright came to France all other attempts at flying were like hopping on fleas. His work was a genuine revelation. Not only France, but the entire world is indebted to him. He possessed many personal friends here, all of whom deeply deplore his death.—Count Henri de la Vaulx.

The death of Wilbur Wright is a terrible loss to aviation. France owes to him the practicability of aviation. Personally I am depressed at his loss, which for the aviation world is irreparable.—M. Tissandier.

It may be taken for granted that, in all histories of aviation, the greatest of the names recorded will be that of Wilbur Wright. He may not have been absolutely the first human being to ascend in a heavier-than-air machine, for our French friends will persist for all time in attributing that performance to Captain Ader, but Wright's achievement at Kill Devil Hill, North Carolina, on December 17th, 1903, was undoubtedly, of all journeys in the air in the history of the world, the first to which the term "flight" could be properly applied.—The Car, London.

If anybody in 1899 had suggested that these two young men were likely to influence the future of the human race more deeply than any two monarchs or statesmen then alive, he would have been regarded as a lunatic. Yet, so it has been. Wilbur Wright and his brother have gone far to erase frontiers and join the nations by links hitherto unknown. They may change the course of trade. They have already gone far to revolutionize the art of war by land and sea and caused all the war offices and admiralties to remodel their strategy.

—London Standard.

cyiviator Factories and Their Methods

ATCHING their money fly into certain hot-air pockets that trap the unwary into correspondence courses of flight, many 'plane fool pupils of these disseminators of book ^earning are peevishly fussed over their inability to coax a flying machine off the ground. The idea of becoming a pilot by mail must be very amusing to practised airmen, though they confess one superiority in the method—none of its pupils have so far "bit the dust." But, again a suspicion exists that the lowest hanging cloud has never been brushed by a correspondence school graduate without previous or later familiarity with the practical handling of an aero.

While on the subject, another class of pilot makers will bear some watching. They are the schools that propose to make a skilled pilot out of anyone with from twenty-five to one hundred dollars. It is not always possible to show that many of these schools make no effort to provide the necessary equipment for the safe instruction of pupils. Possibly the men back of some of these unsafe schools are entirely sincere in their representations, but I am only concerned with the lack of precautions as they appear in the conduct of certain schools that have been investigated.

Certainly a school should employ none but a good pilot as instructor, but I am told that one school of aviation started with a

Mr. L-, whose employer appeared

to be under the impression that his instructor had gained a pilot license at Mineola. If this is so, an unfortunate error, one that the alleged aviator and the school employing him should have remedied without delay, has been allowed to pass in the recoras of qualified pilots, for this flyer's name does not appear in the list. In the matter of equipment I have been informed that school facilities consisted of but one machine ot dubious flying qualities and another that awaited motive power, possibly until the roll of pupils should represent a sufficient income to make a power plant within the check-writing scope of the company.

Another school, conducted in Chicago, offers the interesting information that pupils will be taught by mail "guiding on the ground, turning, drifting (sic) and landing," but my most enthusiastic inquiries have failed to make known to me the nature of "drifting," though the term may have been coined to meet the exigencies of flying around the Windy City. One is at loss to comprehend the policy that lies in training greenhorns when experienced flyers are burning the air in their efforts to land engagements, unless the object is to get the hundred dollar training fee.

Again, the operations of another "school" with a long name has attracted unfavorable attention. This, too, is a Chicago concern and the interest shown in its methods by the Post Office Department, together "with the dissatisfaction said to have been expressed by several pupils who are reported to have paid for instruction they did not get, has had a deterrent effect upon the public confidence in the men and methods identified with aviation.

The first mentioned Chicago concern reproduced bodily text and illustrations from a copyrighted booklet issued by the New England Automobile Journal, and clothed these lessons in a wrapper which bore a large halftone purporting to be from a photograph of one of its pupils and exhibition flyers in flight. Those in a position to know state that the picture was one of Charles P. Wil-lard. Fifteen dollars were charged for a series of five of these pamphlets. "Actual training in the machine" cost $125 per month with an allowance of $15 charged for the correspondence course if the practise course were taken.

While there is a good deal of sameness about these aviation universities in the matter of advertising and In the schools themselves, some carry the principle toff "anything to get the money" to greater lengths than others. Advertising in the technical and semi-technical papers usually is the first step. The whole business is so cunningly planned as to appeal not only to the indolent ne'er-do-well who, in his ignorance, thinks he sees the gates of fabulous prosperity standing ajar, out also to Uie ill-informed but ambitious youth who has an honest desire to make something better of himself and who devotes his scanty savings and infrequent spare hours to the task.

"Already the demand for aviators far exceeds the supply," says the prospectus of this school, "and there is no relief in sight. ****** One (aviator) is under contract for the 1011 season at a salary of $104,000.00, another $72,000.00, ***** even comparatively unknown pilots are receiving salaries equal to those of bank presidents."

"The knowledge which has taken the Wrights, Ourtiss, Farman, and others, years of work, study and experiment to acquire, we bring to you through the medium of our school. You can master this science as far as it has been exploited to date in a few months. Once in possession of this knowledge you are equipped to build and fly all types of aeroplanes and you have opened to yourself the broader field of designing and manufacturing."

It seems almost unbelievable that anyone would "fall" for such lies as these. In addition, a list of alleged prizes "available in America" was printed, totalling $225,000. A query to any aero magazine by a prospect would have cut this figure immensely.

This correspondence course cost $40, but $25 extra was charged to practise in a "Curtiss"' aeroplane in the "Post-Graduate Course."

What did the students do?

"We were on this field about a week when we were ordered off because the school had no written permit to use it. T paid $40 for the correspondence course and $25 for a flying course, but only got two rides as a passenger for about 400 feet and we never left the ground. All we did was grass cutting. Some of the men told me they were there three months and were not given a chance to leave the ground all this time."

"As regards a position, we would say that some time before the completion of tiie course we will place you in communication with various exhibitors and manufacturers who apply to us for aviators." states a personal letter to one student just after he paid his fee. "The correspondence course, even though you never mount the pilot seat of an aeroplane, equips you to earn a splendid income."

Another one of the frauds perpetrated is the use of foreign pilot certificate numbers. One flyer in this country advertises himself as holding French license No. 12. This is an early number and the legitimate holder of it no doubt is as proud of it as he ought to be. It was granted to Santos Dumont. The French flyer who has adopted America for his field of endeavor and has taken for himself this same number, aoes not at all resemble Santos Dumont.

As to what constitutes a scheme to defraud, any attempted definition opens an endless discussion. It may be said however, that in general, the question as to whether or not a given scheme or company is an "artifice to defraud", is a question of fact in each individual case for the jury, and thus the door is widely opened upon the question of the admissibility of the evidence, in that practically all facts and circumstances with reference to the business of a given concern are admissible in cases of the nature with reference to which you inquire. It is proper to show the incidents of tne organization, the facts as to whether or not a given concern is equipped with such paraphernalia, and with such competent and experienced instructors as would enable them to fairly accomplish what they promise to do by their advertising and other representations, although in this connection it must be borne in mind, that it would probably be insufficient to merely prove that the concern in question failed to fully perform what it promised, but further that criminal intent must be proven, and this places upon the prosecuting power the necessity of establishing that at the time the scheme was put into execution, the defendent or defendants did not intend to carry out their promises. This lack of intention might be established in a given case, by showing that the defendant possessed no aeroplane or other equipment, had no plant, and no text books or proper literature or instructors for the pursuit of the training which it undertakes by its advertising to furnish.

A difficulty which has ..een encountered in attempting to persecute alleged frauds is that in endeavoring to prove bad faith on

the part of the defendants in a failure to carry out their promises to train and educate pupils in the art of aeropianing, one may be met by the defense, tnat the science is a new one, precarious, anu from its very nature, actual work and demonstrat'ons can only be performed with favorable climatic and mechanical conditions, and that many unforeseen difficulties may combine to prevent the carrying out of agreement; although this would hardly be a successful defense,—for instance, to a concern that guarantees to ta«.e pupils upon the field, place them in one of a numoer of aeroplanes which it claimed to own and operate for actual demonstration to such pupils, and under the supervision of a certain instructor who had had a definite experience, and was proficient in the art, when in fact said concern had no aeroplane or other machine, no field for operations, and no competent instructor.

"Whoever, having devised or intending to devise any scheme or artifice to defraud, or for obtaining money or property by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations, or promises, * * * * shall * * * * place or cause to be placed, any letter, postal card, package, writing, circular, pamphlet or advertisement * in any post ofttce, or station thereof, or street or other letter box of the I'nited States ****** shall be fined no more than one thousand dollars, or imprisoned not more than five years, or both," is the way the section 215 of the new Criminal Code of the I'nited States reads.

To establish any offense, practically two general propositions must be proven, first: that a scheme has been devised which is organized and conducted not in good faith but to defraud the public. Second: that said scheme to defraud was intended to be effected by correspondence through the mails, in the way of letters or circulars, or by advertising in periouicals or magazines which are transmitted through the mans,

It is thus seen that it is a difficult matter for an individual to attempt the prosecution of such fraudulent schemes. The only method of frustrating the plans of fraudulent schools and other operations is by publicity through the aeronautical journals and through the correspondence and announcements of aero clubs which are supposedly formed for the good of aeronautics.

This difficulty of securing proper evidence is the loophole through which the frauds "get by."

It seems to be an unfortunate quality of the American people to allow themselves to be inveigled into the most palpable and cheapest kind of "fake schemes" that can be evolved by swindlers.

Fake schools, stock selling concerns that can never be made paying propositions, and aviators who advertise for dates when they can barely fly, all carry with them the earmarks of a swindle and people endowed with common-sense should certainly be able to detect many suspicious statements that would prevent them from being separated from their money. When their suspicions are aroused the best thing to do is to im-

mediately get in touch with the magazine publishing the advertisement and call upon it to investigate the company concerned and demand a report to the writer as to knwol-edge of the advertiser.

Unquestionably much blame devolves itself upon the magazines that carry questionable advertisements. If they have taken the copy without securing further information, they are culpable; if they have knowledge that the concern is not legitimate, they should discontinue the advertising and state their reasons for doing it.

Again, a duty rests with the subscribers. They should consider it their duty to give a magazine every opportunity to keep fakes out of the advertising columns. The place where a great deal of it is found is in the

classified department. A small sum enables many fakirs to get into this column and as long as the ad reads all right, the magazine has no way of determining the merits of the advertiser unless someone who has answered it and found it unsatisfactory communicates with the magazine. These classified advertisements come from all parts of the United States and in most cases cost less than a dollar for insertion. It is obvious that, unless the publication is endowed, it cannot trace all these advertisers out and decide upon their merits in advance.

Cooperation on the part of the readers of the magazines will go a long way toward eliminating the swindling schemes that today are a disgrace to the honorable science and inquiry of which they 'claim to be a part.


There is now a "Columbia" monoplane, made by Paul Peck and R. S. Moore, of Washington. It is Gyro-motored, as well as the Columbia biplane which made the

new American endurance record mentioned in the previous issue.

Technical details: length 24' 8"; spread 28' 10"; camber 4^"; chord 7' 2y2"; surface 167 square feet; weight 5§0 lbs.

A. C. Menges, of Memphis, Tenn., who In September last, purchased from the American Aeroplane Supply House of Hempstead, N. Y. a Racing Bleriot Type Monoplane, equipped with a 70 H.P. Gnome engine, received his French pilot license, at Pau, France on February 22, and has returned to this country to fill a number of contracts for exhibition flying.

The American Aeroplane Supply House, reports that they have received an order for a monoplane of special design, from Howard Huntington, of Princeton, N. J. This concern has been manufacturing Bleriot Type Monoplanes for the past two years.

They have now at the Hempstead field a single seater, equipped with a Roberts motor, and are prepared to demonstrate the machine to prospective purchasers and three machines are on hand for immediate delivery.


Atlantic City, July 2.—The "Vaniman dirigible, which has been built under the financial support of V. A. Seiberling, President of the Goodyear Tiie & Rubber Co., exploded at a high altitude today, killing Melvin Vaniman, the designer, his brother Calvin; Fred F.lmes, George Bourillon and Walter Guest assistants. The wreckage took fire and landed in the sea two miles off shore. Three of the bodies came to the surface and the others are expected to be recovered. It is believed that the explosion occurred from a spark from the exhaust. It was current report previously that a large amount of air had become mixed with the gas and this would cause a highly explosive mixture in the envelope. Mrs. Vaniman saw the accident from her home and was prostrated.

Notes on the Recent Experiments of M. Eiffel'


S^JI^PgjK^jS^jONTINUING his experiments with planes and arched surfaces of different aspect-US I HI ratios> M- Eiffel flnds that

Wl S the efficiency (Le- |y-) of

^^^^^ a wing increases with the S^JS^jS^^S^j aspect-ratio up to a ratio of ^re^t^r^rt^ G; there seems to be no advantage in exceeding this ratio.

The angle of attack corresponding to the reversal of the centre of pressure curve, varies with the aspect ratio: for a cambre of 1/13.5, it is 15° for a ratio of C; 30° for a ratio of 1; and 60° for a ratio of 1/6. Similar results are found for a cambre of 1/7; therefore, at the usual

angles of attack, the centre of pressure moves toward the rear as the angle diminishes.

Regarding the thickness of the wing, M. Eiffel finds that the thinnest wing is most efficient. Nevertheless, this advantage is not so great as to oppose the use of a wing of moderate thickness to obtain greater strength; a trial of three profiles of different thicknesses showed that the polars differed very little, and that the positions of the centre of pressure, and the distribution of pressure were sensibly the same.

A study of profiles flat below and curved above, and having the maximum cambre 1/5 from front edge, (found often in propellers) showed that here also the thinnest was the most advantageous.

Kx 0.02









V. ■


' 1







* i




U !




A s



> i ■ \\







\ \ \


! ռ/p>












Entering: Edge

§ co 1,0 L_ _20'

10* Z0m 30'

.Angle "of the chord of the front plate

Position I




Position II

h ---=i






—'-Position I

......+—Position II.

—— Position III ______ Single wing


*See previous articles in the March and April numbers.

Regarding the surfaces of double curvature, the centre of pressure moves toward the front as the angle of attack diminishes; which is of advantage for longitudinal stability, but the lift is quite small for this form of wing.

Wings in which the inclination of the chord varies from the centre to the tip, show an interesting peculiarity, viz: the

Position I

Scah fs


centre of pressure is displaced very little with change of incidence; the reason being that, while for certain sections the centre of pressure is approaching the front edge, fOT others differently inclined, it is approaching the rear. For the same reason, one might expect a reduced efficiency; and that is what is shown by the experiments. The more a wing is warped, the less efficient it becomes. As above stated, the c. of p. varies very little and is displaced in the same sense as on a plane surface. It is interesting to note that the streams of air flow off the back of the wing perpendicular to the direction of the wind, a condition occurring only near the lateral edges of an unwarped wing.

To determine the advantage in offsetting the wings, as in the Goupy biplane, M. Eiffel tested biplanes with wings 90 by 15 centimeters and a cambre of 13.5. In the first series of experiments the vertical spacing was 20 cm. throughout, while the degree of offset was varied. In the other series, the upper plane was offset y2 width forward, and the vertical spacing was varied. He finds very little difference due to offsetting up to 9° (the best results being with the upper plane forward) and concludes that there seems to be no advantage in offsetting planes so far as supporting power is concerned. Increased vertical spacing is of advantage for offset planes as well as for those not offset.

A preliminary study of following planes (as used by Prof. Langley) was made: (1) surfaces with their chords in the same plane; (2) rear plane inclined at a negative angle of 2y1>°; (3) rear plane inclined 5° negative. The results (Fig. 1) show that

position II is the best, its supporting power being equivalent to that of a single plane of equal area and even greater for the larger angles of attack. In positions II and III the center of pressure approaches the front of the system as the angle diminishes, which promotes longitudinal stability.

The wings proposed by M. Faucault comprise a series of similar following surfaces placed close together. Four arrangements were tried as shown in Fig. 2. As in case of the other following surfaces, this disposition may give considerable lift, but the excessive drift limits its usefulness.

The advantages of narrow superposed surfaces (like Venitian blinds) have long been foreseen, viz: great supporting power in small space and centre of pressure practically fixed; and the inconvenience, excessive drift. The surfaces submitted by M. Bablon comprised parallel slats 19 mm. wide, 19 mm. apart, and cambred 9.5. Those of M. Caron comprised slats 25 mm. wide and 12 mm. apart, cambred 2 mm. (12.5), being a portion of the full sized surface. The results obtained with the last surface are shown in Fig 3 and are similar for both surfaces. They show that the ratio of drift to lift is considerable, requiring a high thrust to support a given weight.

A perforated curved plate was found to have about the same drift as a similar unper-forated surface, but the lift is considerably


0' 5" iff 15' 20" iS' SO' & AO' J)5" Jg. Angle of inclination of frame to the vertical FIG, 3-HORIZ. & VERT. PRESSURES ON SURFACE OF M. CARON

reduced; there is, therefore, no advantage for lightening aeroplane wings in this way.

A study of the Fabre beam or truss was also made.

Experiments with the Farman struts showed that, for bodies of oval section, the coefficient of resistance diminishes with increase of speed. The strut No. 1 (see Fig 4) is not so good; and the resistance of No.

Strut No. 1

Speed in m. p. s. 5 JO .15

Strut No. 2

^J3__10 20 30 W 50 60'A^* Ditt'eienee in level in Pitot tube

speed In m. p. s.

00S. 5. ■ ■ , 1P IS-

-+J O.OJt o Q03|



-+o 0.01



Strut No. 3

. 0 10 20 30 J)6 SO 60 Difference in level in Pitot tube

Speed in m. p. s. ore ?. ■ . . IP t5



JO 50 30 JtO 50 60 (Difference in level in Pitot tube


2 and of No. 3 is less, the more the sections are lengthened.

This series of articles on the work of Eiffel by Mr. Sellers was begun in the March issue. They comprise, in short form and in simple language, the results of Eiffel's re-

cent elaborate studies. The full report of the recent work of Eiffel in his laboratory "Champ du Mars," from which Mr. Sellers has made his abstracts, is published in a large quarto volume at 12 francs, by H. Dunod et E. Pinat, 49 Quai des Grands-Augustins, Paris.

I like AERONAUTICS better than any other magazine of its kind.— E. D. P., Wise.

Under "Deaths Abroad" I notice that someone has "succumbed to burns and bruises in the hospital." He should have had his hospital protected, as that is a very vital portion of one's anatomy.—Gil Rankin.

Inclosed find $3 covering another year's subscription. She's worth the money.—Ernest C. Hall, Ohio.

Did you see the new booklet of the .American Propeller Co.? Get one!

Yours is a great magazine: places one in easy reach of practical and scientpie information of today's progress in aviation. Success to it.— H. O. B., Missouri.

I procured sample copies of what were supposed to be the best publications In this line and after looking them over decided AERONAUTICS stood a long way ahead for what I wanted.— C. G. W., Mass.

AERONAUTICS is very interesting and I do like it very much. It has given me a great deal of information. T. A., Waterloo.

The "Fallacy" of the Dirigible


[N an article called "The Fallacy of the Dirigible," Victor Lougheed, of Chicago, discovers that the governments of France, Germany, Italy and other European nations, besides the great Zeppelin and Parseval Airship Companies in Germany and that of the Clement-Bayard in France, are spending millions foolishly, in building scores of dirigible airships. Mr. Lougheed has concluded in his own mind that these crafts are delusions from the standpoint of utility and economy.

What he offers the public as facts is simply an avowal that he is densely ignorant of the entire subject, and this unfamiliarity does not fit his air of pretentious authority, which in countries where the public witness the steady operations of dirigibles during every day of the year, would immediately discredit him. Since not a single big, highspeed dirigible has yet been operated in America, this public falls an easy victim to this kind of slander.

This writer says that thirty miles an hour is the maximum speed of dirigibles. Yes; it was six years ago. What are the facts?

In 1907, Zeppelin airships were running 33 miles an hour. Their speed is certified.

In 1909, the military dirigible, "M 3," of the German army, made 38 miles an hour, and did it regularly.

In 1910, the passenger dirigible "Parseval VI" made regularly, her 33 miles an hour.

In 1911, on increasing the dirigible's size, improving its motors and refining its design, the dirigible progressed by leaps and bounds. Now the largest of all Parsevals "P X," makes 42 miles an hour; the still larger Siemens-Schuckert, 43 miles an hour; and the still larger passenger Zeppelins, Schwab-en and Victoria Luise, 43 miles an hour. But the latest military Zeppelins "Z 2" and "Z 3" each make 47 miles an hour. And for this writer's information, we will impart Europe's common knowledge that any of these Zeppelins run faster than the aeroplanes built and loaded for offensive work in war-time.

Mr. Lougheed's statement that European dirigibles reach their destinations only on practically windless days is not founded on fact. Count Zeppelin's recent stay of 32 hours in the air on his return trip w'th the "Z 3" from Hamburg to Friedrichshafen, through a storm that wrecked all but one of the aeroplanes in the Berlin to Vienna race, should furnish Mr. Lougheed with new reflective perception. That airships do reach their destinations is extremely practical; while it is still an event for an aeroplane to even arrive.

The old Parseval III, with an actual maximum speed of only thirty miles an hour,

and T. R. Mac MECHEN

always reached her destination if running against squalls and high winds. The wind's speed near the ground rarely exceeds 27 miles an hour. Now-a-days it is commonest practice for any expert pilot to always steer any dirigible near the ground where buildings, forests, villages, hills and mountains shield the ship from the full force of the wind. This may surprise Mr. Lougheed, but he must learn the fact that steering the dirigible at a level where the winds are weakest, compensates for its drifting backward along the more exposed parts of its course where the wind's force is unbroken.

This manoeuvering demonstrates the overwhelming by practical utility of even a thirty-mile dirigible in comparison with a forty-mile Wright aeroplane, which, to even fly in an average 30-mile wind must climb much higher in the air where the wind is not disturbed by the very obstructions that protect the dirigible. But, while the wind at greater height is unrestrained, it actually blows forty miles ah hour there, whenever it is blowing thirty nearer the ground. This stops the aeroplane from making headway, and in flying higher, the machine generally encounters dangerous gusts. Even Mr. Lougheed knows that it is suicidal for an aeroplane to fly near obstacles on the ground. It is apt to be quickly upset while aproach-ing the obstacles and before its own speed could assist it. The most skillful pilot, if he could keep his aeroplane on even keel would not equal the dirigible. It requires all of the aeroplane pilot's skill in gusts coming from every side, to avoid running into the very obstacles that shelter and assist the dirigible on its course. A pilot who is busy balancing himself cannot steer with such nicety. Suppose that a super-naturally expert pilot kept his balance anu steered his craft as cleverly as Captain Stelling steered the dirigible Parseval III, on its trip from Munich, through valleys, little1 wider tha^ a street, between mountains—the aeroplane would still fail from lack of staunchness. This shows Mr. Lougheed that he states the very reverse of the truth.

The aeroplane, because of its frailty, failed under conditions where the dirigible succeeds, because of its staunchness. Captain Stelling could not prevent the Parseval HI from bumping the ground and almost killing cattle, though his airship continued to make an enforced headway through a terrific airsurf. An aeroplane would have been upset and completely wrecked, while the dirigible, supported by the great upward pressure of its gas, is enabled to neutralize the worst collision. None of the "critics" have pointed to the staunchness of the ordinary balloon in thousands of landings made before the "ripping panel" was invented. Exhausting gas brought the balloon to earth; its anchor was cast, but always failing to catch immediately, the car struck the ground

July, 1912

with a force that would smash any aeroplane or boat; then it rebounded, and with the escape of enough gas, again came down, to drag at high speed over all kinds of obstacles, until the anchor finally held, with a terrible jerk that abruptly stopped the craft. Quite apart from a frail aeroplane, no watercraft or automobile could withstand such an experience. Passengers have been severely injured, but rarely the car and never the envelope, in spite of the terrific tugging by the wind. -

When the rigid dirigible "Schuette-Lanz" recently rebounded, after striking the ground at full speed, the collision simply spilled four of its passengers. The airship rose intact. The Zeppelin airship Deutschland, short of fuel and sinking, broke thick pine trees in the Teutoburg forest, before it settled deeper and became so entangled that the airship threshed itself apart, but not before it had ploughed a deep furrow for more than 200 yards through the forest. This proved the staunchness of rigid balloons.

Mr. Lougheed is only an amateur in stating that the dirigible loses its gas because of the weak retainiug qualities of its envelope. Besides they would have to reinflate extremely little if they did not want to replace the gas lost in crossing mountains. It is the commonest practice to operate dirigibles for two months without completely reinflating them, except a little fresh hydrogen daily. Mr. Lougheed grossly overestimates the cost of gas; in Germany it costs less than 2 cents per cubic meter. The inflation of the airship Schwaben which displaces some 20,000 cuDic meters, cost 40,000 cents, or $400, but this lasts two months and eight passengers carried on one trip pays for the entire inflation. Loss of carrying power as the result of gas escaping is entirely negligible because the constant burning of gasoline automatically lightens the ship; if no other influence were at work, the airship, instead of losing lift would have too much gas and have to exhaust this surplus, to restore the balance between its load and its lift, as long as fuel lasts.

The writer shows the most glaring ignorance of the dirigible in not using in his own favor arguments based on the dirigible's chief inherent fault—that it will ascend with great force when the sun's rays heat the envelope and the gas, and that its gas will expand when it reaches great altitude beyond the capacity of the envelope and escape and be lost through the safety valves. When the gas cools again in the upper air, in the shadow of a cloud, or in rain or mist, not to mention snow, there is not enough lift to support the airship. A conscientious critic would, on the other hand, use argu-

Symposium on Propeller Standardization, by Gibson

Heath, Charavay and others. Grant-Morse Monoplane. Benoist Tractor with Scale Drawing. Christmas Biplane with Scale Drawing. Simple Computations Relating to Aeroplane Design, by

W. S. Horton.

ments that Mr. Lougheed has failed to employ in his favor, by pointing out that the Zeppelin double envelopes have overcome any difficulty from gas.

This has been largely overcome by all modern airships through the remarkable aeroplane action of their hulls when driven at high speed. In other words, if there is too much gas lift the ship bow is simply pointed down and it is driven forward in that position; owing to its surplus gas which would otherwise send it skyward, it continues on a horizontal course, instead of sinking. If the gas has shrunken by cooling; or there is snow or rain on the envelope (another argument this writer fails to mention) the pilot points the bow slightly upward; instead of rising as it would do with surplus gas lift, the ship speeds on a horizontal course, because of its lifting efficiency and because it has now practically a heavier-than-air machine.

Airships, despite their staunchness, have been wrecked. Mr. Lougheed illustrates his article with pictures of nearly all the few airship wrecks. But these were due to faulty operation and handling and were inevitable during the heroic period of the dirigible as well as the aeroplane. But aeroplanes continue to be wrecked at such a lively rate that to display even a small percentage of pictures of aeroplane wrecks would fill a large book. All the money spent on aeroplanes far exceeds the total spent on airships and the aeroplane has yet to show the first return of utility. Expensive airship sheds are practically permanent and not exposed to dangers.

The most charitable thing to say of Mr. Lougheed's essay is that he is simply mistaken.


A monoplane, with fuselage uncovered, is easier for novices to fly. A covered body presents considerable resistance in making a turn, according to the expert "Dep" flyer, George M. Dyott.

And in order to make a short turn the pilot must cause the machine to bank. An open fuselage will make a fairly sharp turn remaining level if the natural tendency to bank is counteracted by warping the inside wing. The other type of machine is more sensitive to the rudder which, therefore, can be used as a means for helping lateral stability. Preliminary instruction with an open fuselage is most beneficial as it teaches the pupil the complete art of rudder work and how to employ it intelligently. When this is mastered, and the pupil becomes a proficient pilot, the enclosed fuselage presents superior advantages.

COMING---Am" teur Aeroplane Builders, by Earle (Kington. Construction of a Weather Bureau Kite, by l'rof. A. J. Henry.

Leonardo da Vinci and Flying, by Charles Beecher Bunnell.

Efficient Development, by Hugo C. Gibson. Columbia Monoplane, with Scale Drawings.

The Mattullath Patent Application


Editor's Note: In the Official Gazette of June IS appears for the first time the decision of the Court of Appeals, of the District of Columbia, rendered April 1st.

HEN the invention of Hugo Mattullath issues in the form of a United States Patent, it may play a most important part in the patent situation of aeroplane construction.

This application was filed by Hugo Mattullath, January Sth, 1900. At this time the Patent Office officials classed flying {machine inventions on »a par with perpetual motion inventions and the first action by the examiner was rather discouraging, part of which reads as follows:

"The construction is regarded as inoperative for the purpose intended and therefore not useful within the meaning of the patent law. No successful attempt has yet been made to rise from the earth's surface by means of an aerial vessel unprovided with a balloon. The results of previous experimentation indicate that even if the rising could be successfully accomplished, the vessel would be uncontrollable through inability to maintain its normal position or balance. Applicant has disclosed no new principle or construction which would on its face exempt his device from the difficulties by his predecessors in this line. However plausible applicant's theoiy may be, in view of the present state of the mechanic arts and the results of previous experimentation the step is so long from the theory to actual use, and the practicability of his apparatus is so problematical that actual demonstration of operativeness will be required before the grant of a patent."

The inventor, through his attorneys, Barthel & Barthel, however, made amendments to satisfy the technical requirements of the examiner and while he repeated in each of his actions that the rejection on the ground of inoperativeness and consequent lack of utility was adhered to, the application was prosecuted until the death of Mr. Mattullath, December 30th, 1902, shortly after which the examiner notified the attorneys, Barthel & Barthel, of the revocation of their power of attorney by the death of the applicant and there being no further action, the examiner made an indorsement on this application, September 29th, 1903, that "this application as amended September IS, 1903, has been considered. An amendment has been received in this case, but no action can be taken upon the merits thereof for the reason that the applicant's death operates as revocation of the power of attorney to Barthel & Barthel and there is no one of record authorized to prosecute the case."

The application lay dormant until 1909 when the Wright suits against the Aeronautical Society and the Curtiss company

were instituted and it was thought that this invention would provide a successful defense of the Wright contentions in view of the fact that it contains the three rudder system of control. The widow, Mrs. Meta Mattullath, was then urged to .revive this application so long dormant and held to be abandoned, but the first decisions were against the reviving and only upon the last appeal to the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia, decided April 1st, of this year, has this application been revived and returned to the Patent Office files as a pending application.

The decision was based upon the fact that the widow was not aware of the application and that, therefore, the delay on her part was "unavoidable" and on the further ground that no attempt was made by the Patent Office to notify the widow of the pending application and it appears that the solicitors were not aware of her address.

It is interesting to note that during this recent litigation to revive the application that the Patent Office now withdraws the charge of inoperativeness because as stated by the Commissioner " in the meantime dynamic flight, the age-long dream of man, had become an accomplished fact. Others had succeeded in actually flying in heavier than air machines, had obtained patents on their inventions and were reaping the just rewards of their efforts."

The unearthing of this application appears to be clue to the auspices of Dr. A. P. Zahm, of Washington, who claims to have worked in connection with Mr. Mattullath as stated by him in his article published in the June number of "Popular Mechanics," wherein a partial description of the invention is given, but how far the drawings illustrate those of the Mattullath application cannot be determined as this is not open for public inspection and the decision of the Court of Appeals of D. C. criticizes the Patent Office in permitting anyone without permission from the interested parties to inspect the application and drawings.

Dr. Zahm states in his article that he called with the inventor .Mattullath at the Patent Office to assist in the prosecution of the application since he was working with him as "scientific associate." A laboratory was erected where the principles of the Mattullath invention were worked out with a staff of men in conjunction with the inventor and Dr. Zahm.

According to Dr. Zahm, the construction includes a multiplicity of planes with a vertical rudder at the rear and auxiliary lifting planes which could be adjusted to any desired curvature and would seem to

July, 1912

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No. 59 JULY—19 12 Vol. 11, No. 1

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Defensa 127, Buenos Aires. 1. L. RAMSEY, Compania Terminal de Veracruz, Veracruz, Mexico.

quotations are copied from the decision of the Court of Appeals of D. C.

It is probable that Dr. Zahm's judgment of this invention in 1903 has been modified by the artificial results that have taken place since then, and especially now that this application is likely to result in a patent which will have fundamental claims. It is interesting to see what bearing it may have upon aeroplane construction. If the suit of the Wright Company against Curtiss is decided favorably for the Wrights, then the Mattullath invention will not have been considered by the Court as a good anticipation of the Wright patent, but if, on the other hand, the decree is in favor of Curtiss on the ground that his invention does not infringe the Wright patent because of the construction of Mattullath, then the patent when issued, if the claims are properly drawn (as they undoubtedly will be) will cover the fundamental features of construction of all Curtiss type biplanes and the many constructors and experimenters of that type will be infringing this patent.

What the attitude of the owners of the patent may be when issued, remains to be seen and of course the claims are what control the breadth of the patent and these will not be known until its issue. In any event, no infringement takes place until the date of issue and so there is no need for immediate worry but the possibilities are certainly interesting because this patent will prevail over equivalent constructions produced, or patents issued, since its orig: inal filing date, January Sth, 1900.

Good work is being done by the students of the Thomas Aviation School.

On May 26, students Charles Niles and D. C. Patmore ilew an aggregate of 1 hour 40 minutes, consisting of three 10 minute, two 20 minute and one .".0 minute llight.

On June 10 and II Patmore flew for an hour and Niles for an hour and one-half, the latter making a ten-mile cross-country flight to Savona, the home of the Kirkham engine, and returning the following day after installing larger gasohne tank. During the return flight Mr. Niles was up for 4'J minutes, and then descended only because of the oncoming darkness.

On June 16 Patmore started on an endurance flight but had to land after 15 minutes through a minor trouble. The school machine used has the 35 h.p , 4 cyl. Kirkham motor, which has flown this machine some 5 hours at odd times.

include the foundation of the Curtiss type biplane.

The one feature of Dr. Zahm's connection which does not appear to be clear is that in January, 1903, the widow was advised to write all the friends of her late husband to determine what property or invention of value he might have left behind him and among others she wrote Dr. Zahm who replied "that he did not know of Mattullath having any patent on flying machines and so far as he knew, there was nothing of value left by him." The

Mr. Harry Bingham Brown who qualified as a Farman pilot at the Blondeau School in Brook-lands, England, has disposed of his Farman and is enjoying his Wright, which he recently purchased from Leo Stevens. He has made several clever flights from his private grounds on the Hempstead Plains taking many friends into the air as his passengers. Wilbur K. Kimball has enjoyed many trips with Mr. Brown and considers him a clever operator. Brown is also known by the farmers of Hempstead Plains for frightening the poultry at daybreak while making flights over their chicken coops. He is the son of wealthy parents of Walpole, Mass., and has lived in Boston for some years prior to going abroad. He has the making of a clever aviator and enjoys the sport

July, 1912

The Concentration of Weight in a Flying Machine and its Effect on Stability



HE movement of a flying machine must be considered with respect to three axes: movement around the fore and aft axis producing tipping, around the vertical axis producing turning, and around the lateral axis producing rising or falling. Now the angular velocity of movement about any one of these axes will vary as the following

magnitude of disturbing force


moment of inertia about the axis The larger the moment of inertia the slower will the machine respond. The question is what should be the relation of the moments of inertia about these three axes to produce the most stable machine. To those who are not engineers I will explain that the ih/oment of inertia varies inversely as the concentration of the weight. That is, the more the weight is concentrated on an axis the less is the moment of inertia about that axis. It is customary in all foreign machines to concentrate the weight along the fore and aft axis and this produces a small moment of inertia about this axis which means that the machine responds quickly to its lateral control but it also means that it is upset quickly by a difference of pressure on its tips. With the Wright machine however the weights are not concentrated. As is well known the engine is at one side, the operator at the other side while there are two heavy propellers and gears away from the center, all of this means that the moment of inertia about the fore and aft axis is relatively large which partly accounts for the lateral steadiness of the Wright machine. On the otber hand with a large moment of inertia, very large surfaces have to be used to regain lateral stability and probably, for this reason, the Wright machine could not fly safely with small ailerons such as are sufficient for the Curtiss.

The question as to what should be the moment of inertia of a flying machine about the fore and aft axis is a difficult one to decide and depends somewhat upon the system of lateral control in use. I have shown in "Aeronautics" the inefficiency and danger of warping wings and shall now consider what should be the relation of the moments of inertia in a machine using the negative angle as a means of regaining lateral stability. Of course the ideal system of lateral stability is one which introduces no drift at all, because drift wastes power and if placed on the tip turns the machine out of

its course. It is however impossible to eliminate drift, hence it should be placed so that if it turns the machine at all, it turns it towards the high side. Now in order to reduce the angular velocity of turning we must reduce the drift to its lowest point, and we must increase as much as possible the moment of inertia about the vertical axis. The former is done by using a large aileron moved to a small angle, and the latter is done by concentrating the weights along the fore and aft axis as far from the e.g. as is possible, considering construction details. This we can do by having a tractor and setting the engine far out in front with the operator far behind the center as in the Antoinette. With this design, an aileron at a negative angle will regain stability with little if any turning, which turning however, whenever it exists, will always be in the proper direction.

To distribute the weights fore and aft increases the moment of inertia about the lateral axis also and this steadies the machine in a fore and aft direction as can be seen in the flying of the Antoinette.

Just what relation the three moments of inertia should bear to each other and what their value should be for each machine is a matter that needs investigation. I am of the opinion that of the three, the moment about the fore and aft axis should be the least. Without having made an accurate computation I should say that this condition exists with most foreign machines, but in the Wright I think the moment about the lateral axis is least. I believe this is dangerous as it allows the machine to respond too quickly to the movement of the elevator with the result that after a sharp dive, and unless the operator is very cautious, the machine will be brought level too quickly, too much strain will be put on the surfaces and they may give way. This is just what (according to reports) caused the death of Welsh and his passenger at College Park. If the moment of inertia about the lateral axis had been greater, the machine would have responded more slowly to the elevator and the accident might not have happened. This fact however does not relieve Welsh from the responsibility of having dived too sharply and turned up too quickly.

Nevertheless it is the business of designers to prevent the recurrence of just such accidents as killed Welsh, and one way to do it is to increase the moment of inertia about the lateral axis and another way is to limit the movement of the fore and aft control lever to safe flying angles and make it impossible for an operator to fly his machine at a dangerous angle.

The C. H. Paterson Biplane


LL -California -manufactured are the two excellent passenger-carrying biplanes newly built by the Paterson aeroplane company of San Francisco for the San Francisco Aviators, now flying under the management of J. T. McTarnahan.

In the design of these machines, Frank Bryant, a well known successful San Francisco Bleriot and Curtiss pilot, has drawn upon many types and incorporated many parts and ideas from varied machines.

The modern tendency toward tractor screws (which, by the way, is fast supplanting the old rear propeller drive) is the principal feature in the design of these machines.

A suggestion of the Gage biplane is noticeable in the tubing truss underneath center section and skid bracing, also in rib or plane section. A divergence from popular practice in headless tractor screw design is the use of Curtiss type of outriggers and empennage instead of attaching the latter at the end of a monoplane type of fuselage.

Weight 1100 pounds. Spread 38 feet by 6%. Speed (stated) 50 miles per hour. Paterson propellers of 8 feet 6 inches diameter, 10 feet pitch, are geared 1 to 2l/2 of engine. Ground thrust 480 pounds at 1200 R.P.M. This is claimed to increase to 1400 R.P.M. in flight, consequently the pitch speed is 5G00 feet, if the stated observed speed is correct we have 12 miles per hour slip or over 25%, which is interesting in the light of claimed efficiency for high pitch low revolution screws.

(Note: Aviation statistic sharks please grab dope sheets and figure if pitch too low

or revolutions too nigh; note also that machines have a good gliding angle, possibly 1 in 10. Witness: Aviator Francis when over the City of Oakland ran out of gasoline and "volplaned" back to held. Compare results with article on Parmelee's Wright, propeller drive, using same 60 H.P. engine.)

Planes are double covered, fabric on top and bottom tightened at rear of plane by lacing.

Double guying is a good feature arouna center section. Outriggers are of large

diameter. Single lever controls elevator and aileron flaps. Engine in eacli is a 60 H.P. Hall Scott, which is giving entire satisfaction, the combination of California-made engine and plane being hard to beat. 1915 in large letters is written on the underside of each, a good advertisement for the fair.

Hess-Bright radial bearings clamped in forgings take both side and end thrust. Attention is directed to the novel method of tightening chains without the use of center stay, strain being iai<.en by tubing encircling chains. (See sketch.) Machines (Continued on Page !2)

The Gressier "Canard"

HE tail-less biplane seen at the recent Show, built by p ■ ^ g£2 the Gressier Aviation Corn-I pany has had trials at Nas-

sau during the past week, It was a pleasure to go over this machine after seeing many of the awful constructions frequently perpetrated.

The planes are quickly demountable in five sections. The separation is 5' 2", chord 5' 6", camber 2*4", total spread 32 ft. The spars are spruce 21/4" by l1/^". The struts are also solid spruce, fish-shaped, 1" by 21/£" at greatest dimension. At the engine section are four oak struts, iys" by ?>y2". Double covered with muslin, treated. Rattan strips on top of ribs, which mortise in the spars.

The fixed surface at the forward end of the fuselage is 6' by 3'. A steel rod runs laterally through this and acts as pivot for elevators, each 3' by 3', at the lateral extremities of the fixed plane. These surfaces have a camber of %".

The rudder. 3' by 2' 5" high, turns on a steel tube. The rudder is placed on the upper side of the fixed surface. Double levers of aluminum, bolted to the tube, connected by duplicate sets of Roebling cable to the steering wheel. Cables from the aluminum masts on each elevator run to an aluminum lever on each end of a lateral horizontal steel tube, which is rotated in bearings by swinging fore ana aft a curved bar. Rudder and elevator cables run straight, without guides. Of course, the rudder cables cross each other. Turning wheel to the right turns machine to right. Another set of wires run from

steering wheel to steering rod of the pair of front wheels, which steer on the ground in connection with the rudder. This makes it possible to make turns on the ground at very slow speed and is a good feature in handling the machine in close quarters.

The ailerons are hinged to the rear beam in the usual manner and operate in both directions by cables to a shoulder brace.

The front wheels, 20" x 2*4", are flexibly mounted by coil springs, as shown in the sketch. One spring is vertical to take landing shocks and the other two take side thrusts.

The outriggers are 1" square ash, horizontal and vertical struts the same wood, l1/^" by r'^" oval. None of the woodwork is laminated.

The rear running gear is the usual Par-man type, with rubber shock absorbers.

A '50 Gnome drives a Normale thrust propeller 7' 6" diameter by 5' 6" pitch. The lo-gallon gas tank is located on the lower


plane, fed by pressure maintained by hand pump. A 6-gallon castor oil tank feeds by gravity, and pump to sights on the outrigger at the operator's right. Clock, pressure gauge, tachometer, inclinometer and duplicate spark cut-out switches are provided in the equipment. Spark advance and throttle levers on sectors.

The weight of the machine, with tanks filled, ready for operator, is 750 lbs.

The company also makes Farman, Bleriot and Morane types. The "Canard" sells at $4500 with 50-Gnome or $4000 with 60-Anzani.

The Ramsey "Composite" Monoplane


L. RAMSEY, of Veracruz, is an American enthusiast in old Mexico who has built under many handicaps what he calls a "composite" machine, using the Bleriot XI as a basis for his calculations.

The fuselage is of the well known Bleriot construction but tapering from at the front end, to a point at the rear. The main beams as well as the struts are of clear, well-seasoned selected white oak, and stayed with No. 25 soft steel music wire at the rear and No. 30 around the engine panels; the ferrules being of 3/16" brass tubing 5/16" long.

The wings have a chord of 6' 10", spread 29' 6", and are of the familiar Anzani-Bleriot type and have an area of 178 sq. ft. and built up of strips of oak x/±" x 1" wide, with the corresponding space blocks and so arranged that the rear edge is flexible. The camber is 5-3/16" at 22" from the front edge. There are two main supporting beams which carry the weight and run the whole length of the wing. These are perforated at intervals to reduce their weight. There are also four other oak battens, which only serve to tie the ribs together. The wings are covered over with varnished cloth, and are set at an angle of iy2° from the horizontal. The stays and the warping cables are of 3/32" stranded wire cables with Bleriot turnbuckles. In this connection will say that have adopted the fastening used on the Nieuport machine illustrated in January number of "Aeronautics" for securing the warping and stay wires to

the main beams, as this precludes the necessity of having to weaken them with bolt holes.

The landing gear is similar to that of the Nieuport with the exception that hickory is used instead of metal tubing for the skids and supports. The 3" by 20" wheels are joined to a laminated steel axle attached with an aluminum bronze casting to the middle inverted "A." The struts forming these supports are of stream line form ana are attached to fuselage with McAdamite metal straps and bolts and are stayed with Mi" steel wire to the end of the laminated steel spring axle.

The empennage or rear surface is composed of two triangular forms made of thin strips of oak dove-tailed covered with varnished cloth and attached to the sides of the fuselage with metal pins which fit into small holes bored into the bottom part of the vertical struts and are stayed with thin piano wire to make them rigid. The area of the two sections is 22.5 sq. ft.

The small vertical fin is similar in construction to the empennage and is likewise fastened in place by means of pins and stay wires, its area is 3.6 sq. ft.

The elevators are hinged with McAdamite straps to the rear part of the empennage and are actuated up and down by a McAdamite lever fastened with bolts to the center part of the frame. They have an area of 6 sq. ft. each.

The rudder is hung in place by three straps and also has a lever of the same material attached to its central part to which the wires of the control system which is of the Nieuport pattern, are attached. The area of the rudder is 4.7 sq. ft.

Hillery Beachy Biplane

ILLERY Beachy while overshadowed by the masterly ability of his brother Lincoln as a flyer, has shown ability as a designer, the machine he has piloted at Los Angeles and Oakland being of his own design and construction.

The striking feature of the machine incorporates a most interesting departure from conventional American design, to wit: construc-

tion of the planes in the form of a very broad and flattened "V," the center section of the machine being the blunt point of the "V." The angle toward the rear is very slight.

Allowing S feet for the center section, out of the total spread of 27 feet, we have an angle of a little over 1 in 8. While this is undoubtedly small, it is effective in bringing the center pressure back without causing structural changes about the engine section, which was Mr. Beachy's idea more than securing stabilizing results,

Hill' Beaehy Biplane

such as have been achieved with the sharp pointed "V" of Lieut. Dunne, in England.

By referring to the photo, one may note that the engine is placed well back and that there is no cut in the planes to clear propeller.

used in the running gear, a light skid supports the "empennage" framework.

A 4 cylinder 40 h.p. Hall Scott gave this machine remarkable speed. Exact figures would be interesting. That the machine would be speedy was a foregone conclusion, notwithstanding its comparatively low


The machine, a headless biplane, is of very light construction, a little too delicate for exhibition use. Total weight 450 lbs. The necessity for triple rudders (each 30" x 14") is doubtful as they have considerable leverage, and also present side wind disadvantages.

Planes have a chord of 4 feet, 6 inches, are double covered and have the bad feature of the Curtiss construction, namely, the inflexible rear edge.

Double ailerons working down only, like Farman's, are operated by the wheel control.

The elevator, a fragile affair, is warped in the Wright manner, the bend being in the wooden ribs.

A modification of the popular Wright is

horse power, due to small head resistance and light weight.

The machine was noticeably steady in flight in quite strong winds. Mr. Beachy claims, with reason, that this was in a measure due to the "V" of the dihedral construction. Cleve T. Shaffer.

Black Duplicate Control

(Continued from Page 23)

and overcoming the springs on student's control thus rectify the error.

The chief advantage of this control system is that as will be noted all controls are centered in practically one member, an upright surmounted by a hand wheel thus leaving free the shoulders and what is more important both feet of the operator.

The Twining Monoplane

N ATTEMPT has been made in the monoplane designed by Sidney J. Twining and built by him with the aid of his father, Professor H. La V. Twining, of the Polytechnic High School in Los Angeles, author of works on electricity and ex-president of the Aero Club of California, to so shape the planes as to realize a soaring wing and develop lift and forward drift instead of lift and rearward drift. Trials have just begun with the machine.

The spread of both wings is 38 feet and the over-all length is 21 feet, 2 inches. The curve measures 6 inches, 2 feet back. The angle of incidence on the ground is 10 degrees. The front lateral spar is of 1 beam construction, laminated. The rear spar is built-up, hollow, and spacing between is 3 feet. The ribs, consisting of two half-inch wide strips with blocks between, are nailed and glued to the spars. Each wing is 18 feet one way by 6 feet, 4 inches where it joins the body. From this point, the front edge slants backward to a point near the end where the chord is but 6 feet. From this point the wing tip spreads out fan-wise to a chord of 8 feet. A portion of this wing tip is made flexible, as shown in the drawings, and is warped up or down by cables running over pulleys at each end of a vertical stationary guyed mast. The cable from the lower side of the wing runs from the tip to the pulley on the mast and from there to the fuselage where it takes a turn around the steering wheel and on out in the same manner to the other tip. The cable from the upper side of the flexible tip runs to the pulley at the top of the mast, to a pulley at the apex of the skid struts over the fuselage, on out to the other wing tip. Turning the

wheel to the high side increases the angle on the low side, and vice versa.

The wings are double covered with English "long" cloth (muslin), treated. The camber decreases to a flat surface at the tip, which presents a slight negative angle. Roebling steel cable is used for guying. The wings are strongly guyed. Cables (3 to each wing) run from points on the front spar to the juncture of the steel-tube braces between the wheels. Three more cables from the rear spar attach to the rear of one skid. Three cables guy from the top of the front spar to the apex of the skid struts, and two from the rear spar to the same point. In addition, there is the warping cable from the flexible tips, and there are guys to the mast. The three rear guys are held by the same cottered "knockout" pin at the clamp on the skid (see sketch), as are other guy attachments, making it easy to mount and dismount the wings rapidly.

The two elevators work in combination and pivot at the rear of the fixed fiat tail. The leading edge of the elevator is made of heavy wood and the ribs fasten firmly to that piece, doing away with guys. The fixed, non-lifting tail has about So square feet of surface, measuring 12 feet by 9 feet.

The rudder, 4 feet by 4 feet, 6 inches, (12 square feet) is operated by a foot-yoke, the wires being direct connected.

An adaptation of the Farman running gear is used, 20 inch by 2 inch wheels—two 6 foot skids are provided. There are no guy wires in the running gear; all braced by 4 steel tubes.

A clamp device does away with holes through struts and fuselage spars; composed of 1 outer clamp and 2 inner clamps

(Continued on page 1$)

C. H. Paterson Biplane

(Continued from page Ji)

are steady in flight, carrying passengers with ease and their strong running gear makes landing easy.

Mr. Charles H. Paterson should certainly be congratulated on the excellently built machines which his firm have turned out. The machines being well and strongly built in every particular.

The California Aviation Company, of San Francisco, is building a unique type of monoplane-biplane which is reported to be for the Japanese Government, they having recently constructed several machines for Japanese individuals and report considerable business in parts, motors and supplies from Japanese. Upon completion of above machine our correspondent in San Francisco will be permitted to inspect and describe same for "Aeronautics." Ci.evk T. Shaiker.

Twining Monoplane

(Continued from page 20)

over main beam, and 2 others, one each over the cross beam and the vertical, held together by machine screws. Clamps are of thin cold rolled steel. (See sketch).

An altered Ford automobile motor of 25 rated h.p., weighing 150 lbs., bare, at a speed of 1S00 drives a tractor screw by chain, geared 3 to 1, making the propeller turn fiOO. The propeller is home-made, 8 feet diameter. The radiator is at the rear of the engine. Static thrust is 200 lbs. Oil is carried under the engine, gas under the seat, pressure feed. The compression of the engine has been increased, an oiling system added and large auxiliary ports provided.

The total weight of the aeroplane is between 750 and S00 lbs. Weight lifted per square foot, 3.4 lbs.; 30 lbs. lifted per h.p.

Page 23

July, 1912

A Duplicate Control System


HE accompanying- drawing gives a general idea of a control system devised by me, which the brother and myself had proposed to use in a machine of original design which we hope to be able to construct, and for which we are doing some experimental work at present. We do not expect to apply for patent on this detail and any who consider it of use are at liberty to make what use they wish of it.

motion without interfering with elevators.

The rudder wires are carried by means of Bowden tube mechanism into the insidt of upright through a hole near the universal bearing, up inside and out through an arm on top above hand wheel, to rim of wheel, to which they are attached in such manner that they may be wound off one side and on the other by turning wheel in either direction, thus operating rudder. A somewhat similar method is employed with the spark and throttle controls, the wires being brought out of upright through two holes placed below wheel, and being wound





learner's SEAT REAR VIEW SWTOOHt^dwg.j

archibald black donald r rlpck


DRAWN -5-7-l£ BY flRCH BUO^

Each control comprises an upright tube mounted near its center by a universal bearing "B" allowing for free movement in all directions in a horizontal plane and is provided with a hand wheel mounted to revolve freely on its upper end.

Aileron wires are connected to bottom plate "C" as shown in drawing, so that rocking upright from side to side operates ailerons. Elevator wires are connected to same plate but at right angles to aileron wires so that pushing or pulling the upright from or to the operator will move elevators without interfering with ailerons or vice versa, ailerons may be operated by side to side

around two drums which are rotated by means of two separate levers.

The springs shown on elevator and aileron wires of student's control are a suggestion which might be tried in order to demonstrate whether the idea is feasible or otherwise. These would of necessity be sufficiently stiff to give the student full control of machine through his wheel, but of suoh tension mat in event of his making a false move (which would bo observed immediately by the instructor, both wheels being coupled together, and moving In conjunction) the instructor, by applying more than usual force could operate his control (Continued on Page 1'.))

A Composite Hydroaeroplane

PUBLISHER'S NOTE: In the desire to aid progress in aviation through the hydroaeroplane, which seems at this time the more hopetul medium for the encouragement of general flying among men who spend money on other sports, the following article has been written and blueprints and drawings prepared for AERONAUTICS by Mr. Patterson, who is one of the very early men in aviation in this country, an engineer with university training and a man who has had practical experience on the draughting board, in the shop, on the road and in the machine.

More good can be done aviation by a large volume of flights all over the country than in any other way. The more flying, the greater interest, the more sales of complete machines and accessories.

Young men who have not "taken" to the land machine will, it is hoped, incline to the water type—hundreds of motorboat owners who are looking for speed, which they can get in a

hydroaeroplane at less expense than in the fast boat. These drawings, and the blueprints, may aid in arriving at this result.

A complete set of working drawings of an all. steel hydro may now be obtained from AERONAUTICS. Over one hundred scale drawings comprise the set of blueprints, the sma.lest sketches being 1 inch to the foot, many full size, covering every single part of the apparatus, including quick detachable strut sockets, connectors and fastenings of all sons. There is not a part of the machine, save the engine, propeller and fabric, which may not be made from these blueprints. No set of blueprints has ever before been on the market, wnich give complete measurements. The machine follows standard lines and all question of its flying is eliminated. The complete set will be sold at eight dollars.

The following article tells how to "set-up" the machine and contains first rate information of use to the experienced flyer as well as to the novice.


over 1300 lbs.

5HIS hydroaeroplane has features similar to two of the best standard machines built in this country. It will be noticed the front elevator and tail is of the Curtiss type while the remainder is Capt. Baldwin's. The Curtiss type* pontoon on which it rests is capable of sustaining a weight of The machine is figured to weigh complete with a 300-lb. engine, 20 gals, of gasoline and sufficient oil and water, but without the pilot, between 850 and 900 lbs. The lifting capacity of the planes will carry safely, 1200 lbs., giving leeway for a 300-lb. pilot. These figures are safely within the limit, as similarly constructed land machines, with only 32 feet spread, have carried passengers weighing half again this figure.

One great feature of this machine is the simplicity of construction and the manner in which it is "knocked down" for shipping and again reassembled. The designer has had three years' experience with aeroplanes on the road, and designed this machine with his knowledge of conditions met with in giving exhibitions or otherwise shipping.

It will be noted that the sliding sleeve socket does away with tightening or loosening wires in "tearing down," and in the plane sections, not a wire is changed. The sleeve, which is held in place with a cotter pin, or bolt as the flyer sees fit, is simply slid up the strut, and the posts are removed, allowing the top plane to lay flat on the lower, and both are ready for boxing. The ailerons never leave their sections, which saves time in "knocking down" and setting up. The tail irons (outriggers) are so arranged that the top one also folds down on the lower and are thereby kept in pairs and all together. By removing a bolt which holds a casting on top of the rudder

(see drawing No. 52 in the blue prints) all the wires on the tail come free, allowing the rudder to be free; this also keeps all wires to tail intact.

Steel construction is by far the best to handle, and according to many, in every way, but one, is best for aeroplane work. The only objection is the slightly greater weight. The strength is over twice that of wood or any other material used in the same places and manner. The head resistance is almost half of wood, and in case of an accident, steel tubing lined with spruce never breaks sharp, allowing pieces to pierce the aviator. Each piece that is bent (not buckled, which seldom happens) can always be straightened, and is as good as new.

CAUTIONARY ADVICE Caution, from one who has had experience—never look at a part that appears weakened, and say, "Oh, that's good enough." "Good enough" are not words to be used in aviation, though naturally hydroaeroplanes are, what one would call "absolutely safe" compared with land machines; for its always the sudden stopping that causes the trouble, and naturally water has but little resistance in comparison. At the same time, though it is still unheard of for one to get fatally hurt by such a fall, such could happen. Therefore, before flying, personally look over your entire machine, see that all locks on turnbuckles are fastened, all nuts have lock washers beneath them except at movable parts, where you must have a cotter pin inserted through bolt outside of nut. It is very essential to have all movable wires, which should be Roebling's galvanized steel cable, not less than 3/32" thick with wire core (not string core). Reinforce with a piece of loose hay wire. In case fastening breaks, the reinforcing wire will still allow a safe landing.

Hydroaeroplanes suffer greatly from rust, especially near salt water. All bolts, wires

A patent is pending on the Curt ixs float system.

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Rubberized Fabric for Aeroplanes

This fabric bore R. G. Fowler from the Pacific to Atlantie Coast without accident. Drenehed by rain storms lasting some of them eight days, exposed to the burning suns and with the temperature often as low as 10 above zero, this fabric eame through unaffected—unweakened—almost as good as new.

It is the only absolutely damp and weatherproof fabric in existence. Its unequaled durability is due to the way made. Instead of being eoated with varnish, paraffin or some other substance, this fabric is rubberized—impregnated so thoroughly with damp-resisting rubber that moisture can't affect it. The process also makes it impervious to heat.

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Aeroplane Accessories

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These tires are built like Goodyear No-Rini-Cuts—and like them they are the most serviceable tires you ean buy. They are built out of special fabric of unequaled resiliency and strength and bound to the wheel-rim in a vise-like grip. Such tires mean freedom from loss and injury due to the often terrific wrench and strain of landings. The most economical Aeroplane tires, as well as the most serviceable.

Springs and Shock Absorbers The Bleriot Type

We manufacture and carry a full line of Aeroplane springs and Shock Absorbers.

The Bleriot Type Rubber Shock Absorber is the only practical device for Alonojdanrs. Steel springs have been used but they are not successful. They snap in cold weather, catch in the tubes, are inrjh'cirnt, unsatisfactory. You can now get the Bleriot Type at home. We are the sole manufacturers in America. We can fill your order promptly and with a big saving. Ask us at once about our big line of springs.

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If you are equipping an aeroplane or starting to build them—or if you contemplate entering the big and profitable ballooning field, you owe it to yourself to investigate the saving opportunities offered you by the Goodyear line—the greatest and the Pioneer line in America. If you will tell us your wants we will tell you how we can supply them. Write to us at once.


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and metal should be oiled or vaselined and continually watched at important parts. Where stationary wires cross each other they should be tied with string or taped, and at the joints of all tubing braces, tail irons, and especially all braces around the engine, that, if broken will fly back to propeller, small holes drilled through the braces and a piece of hay wire inserted and twisted as a precaution.

— Coppertubing 1 fattens'in <? w$<?

T -------"٪ ws*^ /3}J

VrVV^/eV her? To sorj&t____

Before each and every flight, no matter how short, look on top of the planes, and in and around the engine, to see that no tools have been left to fly back into the propeller. Remember, the propeller travelling at 1000 r.p.m. is a solid block and nothing can pass it, and small nuts, etc., will break a blade. Make a practice of trying all movable parts before sitting in the seat, to see that there is no hitch in their working order.


After material is secured, begin with your plane sections first, get your beams the correct size front and rear, while your ribs are being dried after glueing up the laminations. It is best to take boards wide enough to allow cutting S or 10 ribs. Use the finest marine glue in the process of laminating.

The wood used inside of tubing for reinforcing does not necessarily have to be laminated, but must be a snug fit, driven in hard, using oil or vaseline to ease it. After the ribs are finished with sockets, etc., set up on some even floor 12 blocks of wood on end, one coming under each post, making the rear six blocks 6 inches

shorter than the six front ones; this allows the 6 inch drop in your front and rear beams. (Fig. 1.)

Lay your beams from block to block ■making ends butt up against each other. Lay off spacing of ribs and fasten same in place. After all frame work for top and

bottom planes is finished, sockets placed on, insert your posts and connect socket to socket with cross wires. Have all turn-buckles come from bottom plane sockets which makes it easier in future to get at them. True up this frame perfectly square with your guy wires, by stretching a string along front and rear beams and dropping a plum line down from top. This must be done before any iron braces are made, otherwise in future your 'plane will never line up. Remember, ys inch out in the center panel means several inches out on the end section. When this is all squared up and wires taut, place entire frame work upon several horses, giving them the same drop (6") as before. The iron braces can now be made. There are several ways of making these. The one generally used, being the simplest, is to make a chalk sketch (accurately) full size on the floor. For instance, the irons to pontoon under rear beam would look as in Fig. 2.

After laying out your diagram on the floor your tubing braces can be cut the proper length and bent accordingly. Any tubing (use Shelby seamless tubing) over 3 feet in length should be dowled with spruce after the one end is heated and bent. Never bend or flatten tubing cold. Shorter pieces should all be reinforced by drawing a piece of cold tubing into the heated one about 3%" long where the bend comes. (Fig. 3.)

With plane sections raised on the horses, it is simple to make braces accurately, making sure all holes are drilled according to your chalk sketch; for, again, one hole drilled ys inch out will never let your plane line true. When all braces to pontoon are made the planes can then be placed upon it and the seat and engine braces made. It is shown in drawings where plane is to rest upon pontoon, so, if the engine (figur-



Besides our regular Stock Product the J

50 H. P., 6 Cylinder, Self-Starting |


we are putting through a special order of jj)


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of the following specifications Albatross Star type water-cooled, 6 Cylinders, Bore 5 1-2", Stroke 5", R. P. M. 1350, Weight 275 lbs., Magneto and Carburettor equipped. Price $850.

We are prepared to accept a limited amount of orders for August deliveries and those anticipating entering the races with an ALL AMERICAN MACHINE should order at once.


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every $50.00 order for Aeronautical Supplies FLEECE-LINED AVIATOR CAP.

Curtiss Seats -5-Gallon Tanks Aviator Caps -Outrigger Fittings -Oval Post Sockets -

5.50 6.15 1.25 .29 .17

Aluminum pulleys with brass bushings:

2" 25c, 2i" 30c, 3" 40c. Wheels and Tires complete, Eclipse Hub:

20x2in $6.75 20x3" $9.50 E. J. WILLIS COMPANY, New York City 85 Chamber! Street (Telephone 3624 Worth) 67 Reade Street


For the Novice, ihe Amateur, Ihe Experimenter and the Student. riMlF. brightest and most interesting "plain English" electrical monthly magazine published, nearly five years old. 112 to 144 pages monthly. New department on aeronautics.

THE AUTHORITY ON WIRELESS rpHE magazine to read if you want to keep up-to-date on wireless and progress in electricity and aeronautics. With one year's subscription to Modern Electrics for a limited time only we are making the following:— THREE OFFERS

1 Bleriot Model Monoplane Guaranteed to fly. Free. O Marble's Pocket Screw" driver and Prest-o-lite Key. Three sizes of blades locked in nickel plated handle which closes up like a knife. Closed 3*2 in. Open5!4in. Just out and it's a dandy. Free. O Doable Magnetic J Reversible Engine With Speed Contact Lever 1000 to 250 0 revolutions per minute. Free. Send $1.50 to-day in cash, stamps or M. O. and get Modern Electric* for one year and jour choice of the above offers prepaid Abiolnttly Free. Money refunded Lmmediatelyif not pleased in every way. MODERN ELECTRICS, 298 Fulton St., New York


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Terms: Cash or Deposit. Balance C. O. D.

J. A. WEAVER, Jr., Manufacturer

Examination Allowed. Dept. A., 132 West 50th Street. New York








Page 28









oe.signld by r. f". prtte.r50n.

"re.ronrutics" 250 west -5 4- st. n.y c.


Information on setting-up and practical advice in Mr. Patterson's article in this issue. A complete set of blue prints, containing over one hundred scale and full size drawings of all parts of the machine may be had from A K RON A LIT IC S, 250 West 54th Street, New York, at Eight Dollars.



+ +



BenoistBiplanes I | NAIAD |

Are in a class by themselves and do not cost much m ore than poor planes.

3 Models to pick from.

We conduct the Benoist School of Aviation.

Benoist Aircraft Company


Aeronautical Cloth

Manufactured Especially for -— Aeroplanes-

Light, Strong Air-Tight and Moisture Proof

Sample Book A-6, Data and Prices on Request

The C. E. Conover Co.


101 Franklin St., New York





1. Lowest gasoline consumption (50 h.p., 3M | gal. per nr.; 75 lip., 5 gal.)

2. Oil sight-jacketed intake manifold.

3. Self-priming oil pump. / 4. Cylinder bolts ] 5. Connecting rod bolts \ 6. Crankshaft.

All of imported chrome nickel steel.

7. Semi-steel cylinders and pistons (30%


8. Hand holes in erankcase.

9. Gears enclosed.

10. Auxiliary exhaust.

11. Engine supports on bridge principle.

12. Pyramidal cylinder flange.

13. Very best radiators and propellers.

14. Double magneto.

15. Ball bearings.

The 15 combined and many of them individually cannot be had with any other engine in Europe or America.

50-140 H.P.; 4, 6 and 8 cyl.

Get illustrated catalog.


Dept. 6

Page 31

Juh, 1912

ing on any one of the standard engines) is placed so that the center of the engine comes about one foot back of the center of your plane, the rear foot lug of the engine will be almost in line with your rear beam and will allow about 4" clearance for your propeller to swing in the rear of your plane. Your machine will balance if all material and placing of your seat agrees with these drawings.

Hydroaeroplanes are very tail heavy when floating minus a weight equal to an average man upon the forward end of the pontoon, so don't imagine when you see yours sink tail first before you have tried her running upon the water that she will be tail heavy in flight.

Tail irons must be reinforced with spruce dowels and are shown in Fig. 4. In making center and smaller upright braces between the tail irons, drill the 3/16" hole a little to one side and file corner of brace to allow its folding (Fig. 5) for shipping.

Make tail irons the same as the braces to the float by drawing sketch on the floor, making one pair longer than the other pair to bring the tail 2 inches above the center of propeller thrust. Also, raise front of fixed tail on small upright about iy>" above center of tail irons. This point can be varied according to flight of machine, the straighter the tail the faster the machine flies; if she flies tail heavy, raise the front of the tail allowing the propeller draught to strike more beneath it. It's better to fly a little nose heavy than tail heavy.

After the machine is all assembled, remove all the controls and planes, in fact "knock it down" and begin covering with cloth. In buying cloth inquire from your dealer what stretch to allow. It averages about 2,y2 inches. Cut cloth correct size

and begin tacking on bottom of each frame work first, starting with front member. This allows the cloth to go around the rear member and up to the front member again and lapping over the lower surface. This prevents the air from getting under the join. Cement all joins and re-tack. The under surface is not put on quite as tight as the upper on account of allowing for the curve of the ribs which pulls it tighter when tacked to the top and bottom of each rib through a strip of "feather bone" cloth. (A strip of cloth doubled over can be used in place of feather bone). Wherever the cloth goes around a corner or sharp edge cement a strip beneath to prevent wearing at that point. Use large %" head tacks, y2" long.

It is recommended that the foreign piano (steel) wire is used in place of the cable, except for movable parts. In wiring controls like the rudder and ailerons, the galvanized steel cable is best. The diagram (Fig. 6) illustrates the aileron system.

The control wire from right aileron at "A" runs to the pulley "K" on the upper front beam, then to pulley "J" on post, then to wire "E" at shoulder brace. Wire at point "B" runs to pulley "L" on front lower beam, thence to wire "H" on shoulder brace. Left aileron wire at point "C" runs to pulley "M" on the upper beam, thence to pulley "I" on post and then to "G" on shoulder brace. Wire "D" runs to pulley "N" on bottom front beam and thence to wire "F" on shoulder brace. Note that wires "E" and "F" cross each other but not "G" and "H."

Wires running through steering column also cross each other to make rudder turn to right when wheel is turned to right, and vice versa. There's a short piece of wire put around the wheel and fastened to a small 3/16" bolt (securely) which is put through wheel to hold wire from slipping. The wire then runs through necessary holes and cross in tubing, the left wire running out on right pulley at bottom and right on left pulley. (Fig. 7.)

Page 32

After wires pass pulleys they run through "Bowden Cable" wherever there is a corner to be turned, on the way to the rudder helm at No. 53 in the blue prints. See that steering wires in passing near propeller are absolutely protected from jump-

aeroplane, and it is difficult to show some of them in drawings and to write of them would fill a book.

A good reliable engine between 50 and 80 h.p. should be used. I would recommend

ing across and getting caught by the propeller. Never allow wires to jam in pulleys or Bowden cable. Keep well oiled or greased. The Elevators—Front elevator is pushed and pulled to raise machine down or up by a push rod from bottom of steering post. The "flippers," or rear elevators, are governed by wires from steering post. (Fig. 8.)

1 have endeavored, by the use of these drawings and descriptive matter to make all as clear as possible, but one must remember there are hundreds of parts to an



about 60 or 75. Have propeller blades covered with tin on the ends about 2 feet back, as water will splinter wood quickly. Keep machine well painted and oiled to be free from rust. Keep pontoon drained and out of the sun as much as possible. Have all controls working freely, especially ailerons, to save tiring of shoulders. Always watch gasoline, oil and water supply, and never run close to your limit.


Arrangements have been made by Prof. David L. Gallup, of Worcester, Mass., Polytechnic Institute, with Herrick Aiken of Lawrence, Mass., to combine in further aeronautic experiments, and with the use of Mr. Aiken's biplane they contemplate duplicating the propeller experiments made with the rotating boom, described in a previous issue of AERONAUTICS. The apparatus will he so arranged that Prof.

Gallup ean obtain the h.p. delivered, thrust, speed of propeller, and speed of flight for different conditions of operation. They anticipate obtaining the best relation between the Maxi-motor engine and propeller and surfaces for a given machine. These experiments will be carried on, in all probability, at Lake Quinsiga-mond after equipping the aeroplane with pontoons.

July, 1912

I FRONTIER 1 Aero Motors I

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In casting about for the best there is in a high class motor— £ one that has withstood every test—the >! discriminating buyer will make no >; mistake in adopting the Frontier."



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COur exhibit at the recent Aero Show in New York created tremendous interest and a flood of requests have since come to us for detailed information regarding this superior power plant for aerial navigation—the final achievement of two years spent in designing and experiments.


Abundant power.

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Four-cycle, eight-cylinder, "V" type, water-cooled cvlinders.

Catalogue on request

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The Wittemann Biplane with a Reputation, not only sets the pace for Quality but for Service.

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for a little time and less effort than you think.

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The CYCLEMOBILE is a newly perfected machine not on the market for sale on account of our large exclusive contract with the inventors. It is built like a real Motor Car with two speeds, forward and reverse, besides a neutral coaster speed. The Body and Hood are Pressed Steel and second growth ash, supported on a Chassis frame of Rolled Steel angle iron, capable of carrying the weight of five full grown men. The Axles are also of Steel and Wheels Rubber Tired. The front wheels pivot on regulation Motor Car steering knuckles, eliminating all danger of upsetting on curves. We simply can not give you one hundredth part of the real Specifications in this limited" space, but send in the coupon and we will TELL IT ALL.


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DISHONEST ADVERTISING tfiSSfilfiSiifiVERY dishonest advertiser saps * "C> the effort of every honest one. yj -'-'a "Every honest advertiser Stfitfitfitfiai helps to make dishonest advertising possible.

"The success of honest and dishonest advertisers alike, depends on one element— the confidence of the public in advertising —but,

"While honest advertisers are creating this confidence, dishonest advertisers are destroying it.

"Shall dishonest advertising go on?"

The Advertising Men's League has formed a Vigilance Committee to spread the propaganda against dishonest or misleading advertising and make it difficult for the dishonest advertiser to place his offerings before the public; to further legislation which may be reeded to bring certain existing abuses within the law.

There is a law already on the statutes of the State of New York making it a misdemeanor for any person, firm, etc., to disseminate any statement intended to give the appearance of an offer which is advantageous to the purchaser which is untrue or calculated to mislead.

The Post Office Department has stated that $77,000,000 were lost through mail frauds in 1911. Some of this money may be charged to aviation. Honest advertisers are entitled to part of these millions. MORE ON FEDERAL LEGISLATION

Not a single word of protest has arisen, nor have the aero clubs of the country taken any notice, regarding the most foolhardy stunt yet tried. On June 11 Silas Christo-pherson flew from the roof of a tall hotel in Portland across two rivers to Vancouver, about 6 miles. He used an old front elevator Curtiss that Frank Bryant has been flying in California. The runway was 150 feet long, poorly made—so poorly that a wheel went through in rolling the machine in position—and the machine was none too good looking, with lots of wire, tape and string. The machine barely raised before reaching the end of the platform and after dropping over the edge, sank about four feet before it picked up. The reward for this was one hundred dollars.

Is this the sort of flying that is to help aviation ?

Is any attempt to be made to put a ban upon similar feats of daring?

Would a national law discourage this sort of thing? It is obvious that it would. Such flying is a serious matter. Will those who have the interests of flying really at heart use their resources towards regulation by federal enactment or will they submit continuously to present conditions where aviation is alleged to be under the control of a handful of individuals, when facts are otherwise.

SPRATT'S EXPERIMENTS PUBLISHED WKKKKjjjELIEVING that the work of George |jj D g A. Spratt, one of the pioneers in S y; aerodynamics, will benefit experi-

SfiSifitfitfitfi mentors and tend toward safety in aviation, there will be published simultaneously in "AERONAUTICS" and "Fly," beginning with the August issues, a series of articles introducing his theories on the center of pressure. Mr. Spratt is willing to give his knowledge to the world if it will assist in decreasing the fatalities that have so lately robbed America of some of its most expert flyers.

Mr. Spratt has been a student of air pressures for many years. He was a close friend of Octave Chanute, and was at Kitty Hawk with Mr. Chanute and the Wright brothers.

Since those early days Mr. Spratt has continued his work in seclusion among the Pennsylvania hills. He has studied pressures almost continuously and when the full extent of his work is known it will be seen that his scientific investigations are of a high order.

That this knowledge may be disseminated as widely as possible, Mr. Spratt has made a special arrangement with "AERONAUTICS" and "Fly," whereby the articles are to be published by them simultaneously.

The matter published in March, 1908, AERONAUTICS will be included in the present articles but more condensed, more complete in its significance, and in better form.

BEAUMONT AND PILOT LICENSES tfitfitfiStfitfiHE need for a common-sense law S rYy S to regulate general flying is being tfi S voiced here and there by SWKtfitfiK thoughtful ones. The New York-Tribune, on June 13th, commented editorially on the article in last month's Aeronautics and urged some legal precautionary measures.

The little value a pilot's license, as granted by clubs, has as a guide to an aviator's ability and reliability is strongly remarked by Andre Beaumont, in his book "My Three Big Flights." Beaumont, it will be remembered, won the Paris-Rome, European ana British Circuit races, covering 2,99f> miles in flying time of 67 hours 54 minutes.

"One may obtain a pilot's license in a few days," he says, "but this will not protect the debutant from the surprises of the air or the capricious tendencies of both monoplane and biplane." Beaumont urges theoretical study as a preparation, an investigation of the candidate's physical condition, etc.

Until there is Federal control, what aero club will undertake to issue certificates which real aviators will be proud to have and students work to obtain.

Practical Aids to Aviators


fiH'IS device has been worked out on the assumption that if the pilot could, as he swings the control lever from side to side, move the ailerons differentially in opposite directions so as to give any desired greater negative angle of incidence to the aileron on the side to be lowered than the positive angle given to the other aileron, or vice versa, the resistance to forward motion of either aileron or on either side of the aeroplane could be maintained at all times equal and the use of the rudder in balancing rendered unnecessary.

The control lever is shown at 2 in the drawings and it may be fulcrumed at the

Pivotally connected to respective blocks 6 and 7 are rigid links 14, 15 whose opposite ends are attached to suitable devices from which connection is made to the ailerons, indicated diagrammatically at 18 and 19.

By rotating the wheel 12, which can be very readily done simultaneously with the swinging of the lever, the blocks will be adjusted oppositely in the slot 5 and an increased movement given to either aileron as desired, due to the varying distances of the blocks from the fulcrum.

If desired to give the ailerons a greater upward throw without adjusting the blocks 6 and 7, so that in cases where the ailerons are hinged to the main plane the resistance to forward motion will be approximately the same on each side of the aeroplane when the ailerons are operated (the greater upward throw compensating for the angle of inci-


point 3 to any suitable part of the aeroplane, the present illustration of the device being largely diagrammatical.

This lever is slotted as at 5 to provide guides for a pair of blocks G and 7 slidable therein and adjustable by suitable means as the wires 8 looped over the drums 9 and 10 (to which they may be attached to prevent slipping) pivoted respectively in the upper and lower ends of the lever, the wires connecting to the blocks as at 11. The drum 9 is provided with a handwheel 12, or any other suitable form of handle which can be conveniently grasped by the operator, for rotating it.

dence presented by the main plane) the links 14 and 15 may be pivotally connected as at 20, 21, to spiral pulley device 22, 23, upon which the wires 24, 25 leading to the ailerons wind, the wires being attached at their ends to such pulleys.

To make the operation easier for the pilot, springs 2G and 27 are each fastened at one end to the pulleys 22, 23 and at opposite ends to any fixed part indicated at x, such springs being arranged with their axial lines in what is known as dead centre position with regard to the axes of the pulleys when the ailerons arc in similar (or neutral) positions so that the springs will then exert

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Some Manufacturers of Aero Motors who have adopted EL ARCO RADIATORS:

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Page 35

July, 1912


no turning moment upon the ailerons. As soon as the ailerons are moved such springs move off their dead centre positions and assist in swinging the ailerons against the air pressure. The strength of the springs will of course be such as will give the nearest approximation to counter-balancing the air pressure on the ailerons. It is not essential that these springs be connected to the particular part of the control device here shown. Similar springs might also be applied to the elevator and rudder.

This lever might also be applied to aeroplanes, such as the ordinary type of wing warping monoplane, in which there is a connection between opposite wings which gives an automatic compensation for variation in air pressure. By adjusting the blocks G and 7 a greater pressure on one side might be made to balance a smaller pressure on the opposite side because of the differential leverage and the aeroplane "banked" for a turn without interference by the pilot with the automatic reaction between the wings.

This device is covered by applications pending in the United States Patent Office, made by Alexander Currie, of 70S Merchant's Bank Building, Montreal, Canada, who would be glad to hear from parties who might be interested in acquiring the patent rights.


In this picture of the starting device employed by the Burgess Co. & Curtis on their hydroaeroplanes, the operator is seen grasping a handle, inserting it in a socket fastened

on a special ball ratchet on the large sprocket.

Pulling this up turns the motor over two, and sometimes three compressions, and always starts it without difficulty. The throttle is shut down so that while the hydro « moves slowly through the water the operator has an opportunity to resume his seat and take the levers without difficulty.


Ladis Lewkowicz, the well known Bleriot pilot, has invented a device of general use to students and experienced flyers, an angle indicator.

It is often too late to correct the angle at which the aeroplane is ascending, descending or banking, when the aviator finds that such angle is too large. Always in front of the pilot, the indicator shows him positively at what angle his aeroplane is flying at the exact moment he is looking at the instrument. Knowing at what angle his aeroplane should safely ascend, descend and bank, one will be careful not to go farther than the safety angle and less accidents will occur. Mr. Lewkowicz has developed this angle indicator, and gives herewith a full description, not only as to its working, but also full details how same could be made, in the hope that it may help to make aviation safer.

This angle indicator is designed to be placed in front of the aviator, attached to the aeroplane, so as to have the pendulum at dead center when the aeroplane is in flying position. It is composed of a cup, inside of which the degrees are marked by lines running all around. The first line shows 10 degrees, the second line 20, etc. The pendulum which is the only movable

part of the instrument, is mounted on an arm, which brings it to the center of the cup. The pendulum is mounted on a large ball, which rests on three small balls, adjusted in the holding arm. At the other end of the pendulum there is a weight. There is just enough friction in the bearings to prevent oscillation of the pendulum, and it takes always, immediately, the perpendicular position, no matter at what small angle the aeroplane flies.

When the aeroplane is ascending, the pendulum will move toward the aviator, and the point of the pendulum will indicate at what angle the aeroplane is ascending. In case the angle indicator is placed at a distance which prevents the aviator from seeing at what angle he is ascending, a looking glass has been affixed which shows the inside of the cup, and will permit the aviator to see at what angle he is flying by looking in the mirror when ascending, the pendulum should always be vertical. As soon as the pendulum deviates from that line, in either direction, it will be dangerous, as it will show that the aeroplane is climbing and banking at the same time. When the pendulum goes to the right or left, the aeroplane is banking in the same direction, and if it goes on one side and forward, it shows that the aeroplane is banking and descending at the same time.

To make a similar instrument as shown in the two pictures, spin a brass cup, fix it on a little stand of any description just to hold it on your aeroplane, have same made black by gun metal process, divide the cup in degrees from the bottom center of the cup. Take a piece of sheet metal, bend it to form an arm to support the pendulum, and set in it three small balls, secure this arm so that the pendulum will be hanging dead center. The part of the pendulum resting on the three balls, must

be a large perfect ball, and the bottom weight twice as heavy as the top ball. Be careful to place the arm at exactly a height of half the diameter of your circle, and you have a perfect angle indicator. Connection could be made inside of the cup at what may be called a dangerous angle, by fixing inside the cup a metal part, which will be in the way of the pendulum when same will reach the danger zone. Such part of the cup connected to a small electric bell, which will ring when the pendulum will come in contact with the metal part marking the danger zone. The danger zone should be 5 degrees inside the safe limit. Same arrangement could be used to light electric light to attract the aviator's attention to the danger zone.


A propeller making machine has been designed and built by the Curtiss Aeroplane Co.

This machine turns out propellers which are absolutely accurate and alike, and produces them much more rapidly than any other type of machine.

The block shown on the front side of the machine is the torm, and the partially finished propeller is shown just back of this. The cutter is carried on a balanced spindle head which also carries a ball bearing trailer of the same shape as the cutter, and which is automatically held against the form and duplicates it in the block opposite. The cutter feed and the carriage travel is entirely automatic, and the only attention required is to change the block when a blade is finished.

The propellers made in this way are said to be perfectly in balance both as to weight and the thrust of the two blades. This greatly increases the efficiency of the propeller and eliminates all vibration.

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Send sketch or model for FREE Search of Patent Office records. Write for our Guide Books j. and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our + special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes. £


MTlWe are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of ^Jl patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed.


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American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bid*. WASHINGTON, D. C.

Manufacturers are writing me for patents obtained through me. Send for three books with list of 200 inventions. A postal will bring them free. My clients' patents sold free. Personal services. Aeronautical expert.

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,JJ and our other book "Letters of Patent Success," sent on request to inventors. Wide experience. Personal service. Trade-marks registered. Write today.

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Page 37

July, 1912

News in


The Burgess Military


Aside from the regular work of training, which has gone ahead on the few days of favorable weather in the past month, activity at the Burgess Company headquarters has centered in the trials of the war aeroplane (described with scale drawings in the last issue) and the aeroplane ordered by Howard W. Gill for the Gould-Scientific American trophy.

The Burgess war 'plane was launched on temporary hydroplanes on June 7 after a thorough testing of its 70 h.p. Renault motor. Trials tor the first few days were for the most part on the water and showed that this new type of machine is more easily steered as a water craft than the standard machine.

During the second week in June, the first actual llight of the Burgess war 'plane was made by Mr. Burgess. For the week succeeding Mr Burgess flew the machine nearly every day in straightaway flights over Salem Bay and along the North Shore.

The turning qualities of the new machine were given their most important tests on June 21 when Mr. Burgess successfully negotiated both left and right hand turns. On this day, Mr. Burgess was in the air for something over forty-five minutes, maintaining an altitude of about 300 feet.

Although the speed qualities of the machine have not yet been tested, since the motor has never been flown with the throttle wide open,, the war aeroplane has reached a speed of 55 miles an hour over a measured course.

During the last month, Howard W. Gill ha9 been conducting exhaustive tests in the double tractor Burgess equipped with a Hall-Scott motor which has been designed for the Gould Scientific American prize. The tests have been made entirely over water.

This machine, like the Army Burgess, has proven of considerably greater speed and climbing efficiency than the standard Burgess.


Eleven entries were received by the closing date, June 1, for the Gould $15,000* prize offered more than two years ago through the Scientific American.

The competition itself is scheduled to take place on July 4th or the following days, on some aviation field in the vicinity of New York. A committee of three judges will pass upon the machines offered for trial. The following entries have been received:

Alleas Aeroplane Company, Boston, Mass.: Double biplane of the following-surface type. Howard Gill, Boston, Mass.: Biplane. 11. Curtis. Manchester, Mass.; Burgess biplane. The Boland Aeroplane and Motor Company, Railway, X. J.: Biplane. Edward J. Elsas, Kansas City, Mo.: Biplane. H. W. Mattoni, 217 West 120th Street, New York: Multiplane. Macleod Multi-

plane Company, Richmond, S. I.: Multiplane. Charles H. Burleigh, South Brunswick, Maine . Multiplane, George W. Beatty, Mineola, Long Island: Biplane. Grover Cleveland Loening, on behalf of the Queen Monoplane Company, Fort George, New York: Monoplane. John P. Conk-ling, 125 East 23rd Street, New York City; Biplane.

The principal conditions governing are as follows:

Prize offered for the "most perfect and practicable heavier-than-air flying machine," designed and demonstrated in this country, and equipped with two or more complete power plants (separate motors and propellers), so connected that any power plant may be operated independently, or together.

Competitors for the prize must file complete drawings and specifications of their machines.

Before making a flight each contestant or his agent must prove he is able to drive each" engine and propeller independently of the other or others, and able to couple up all engines and propellers and drive in unison. Competitor must demonstrate that he is able to drive his machine in a continuous llight over a designated course; and for a period of at least one hour he must run with one of his power plants disconnected; also he must drive his engines during said flight alternately and together.

In the judging of the performances the questions of stability, ease of control and safety will also be taken into consideration. The machine best fulfilling these conditions shall he awarded the prize.


A suit was decided by the Monmouth County (N. J.) Circuit Court on June 2(i, in favor of the Wright Company, Asbury Park Aero & Motor Club, and others, co-defendants, which is of utmost importance to aviators, clubs and exhibition pilomotors.

The complainant, Morris Gorsuch, a youth whose arm was broken by a Wright aeroplane piloted by Walter Brookins when the machine crashed into the grandstand the opening day of the Asburv Park exhibition, August 10, 1910, brought suit for $25,000 damages

Although there was conflicting testimony as to the extent of the injuries actually received and their results, the case was "non-suited," or thrown out of Court because the plaintiff failed to show that the accident was due to negligence of any kind on the part of any of the defendants, proof having been introduced that due care was ex ercised by all concerned and by expert witnesses that the accident was one which could not have been avoided under the circumstances under which it occurred. This is the first case of its kind in aviation in America to have come to trial.

July, 1912


On Staten Island, near Oakwood Heights, 45 minutes from the Battery, the Aeronautical Society has arranged to open early in July the finest aviation field in America. The field is a mile square and as flat as a billiard table. It is ideal for practice purposes. The aeroplane field is a half mile from the ocean shore where arrangements have been made to accommodate hydroaeroplanes. Hangars will be ready for occupancy early in July. The excursion rates to Oakwood Heights are 35 cents. Commutation rates, 15 cents per round trip. Trains run at frequent intervals. Most of the colony on the various Long Island fields and many flyers in New Jersey will locate on the field. Members who desire hangar space should notify the General Secretary at once.

Messrs. C. and A. and Harold Wittemann deserve special recognition for their work in aiding to secure this field.

The Mineola field is being given up. This club is the only one in the East to have its own fields under lease.


On account of the death of Mr. Wright, the trial at Buffalo of the merits of the Wright patent in the Curtiss action, has been postponed to the September term.


The Kemp Machine Works, of Muncie, Ind., are now selling their Grey Eagle motors direct from their own factory.

R. O. Rubel, Jr. & Co., of Louisville, Ky., recently made an assignment owing to their present financial conditions, it is said. They have been the exclusive agents for this motor in the past two years, in which a number of motors are now out with good results.

The Kemp Company reports a good business and are building to their plant and will double their capacity of motors in the near future


The French pilots are failing to come anywhere near the mark in their bomb-dronping trials for the Michelin prize for bomb-dropping, and the competition closes August 16th.

The first contest took place April 2). with four entries, but only two Frenchmen took part. Lieut Bosquet, on a Henry Farman, could carry but 9 bombs which fell all over the held. Lieut. Mailfert in a 100 h.p. Farman, carried 15 and put. 2 in the target; the others were well scattered. Later in the day Mailfert went up again and put 1 out of 15 in the target—a total of 3 in 3(J. Each of these men has a simple sighing arrang&ment which is fixed to the plane and which moves with it.

The American entrant for the prize, Lieut. Scott, has been able to put 40% of his bombs in the target. None of the French aviators use pointed bombs with tails, such as are covered by Scott's patent, the French bombs being round regulation O'Hairs supplied by the military authorities.


An aeroplane was put to most practical use at Hammondsport, on June 10, when Hugh Robinson, instructor in the Curtiss school, carried Dr. P. L. Aid en across Lake Keuka in answer to a hurry call from Hrbana, whei e Edwin Petrie's small son had fallen from a balcony in the vaults of the Urbana Wine Company, where his father is chief engineer, and was thought to be fatally injured.

Dr. Alden realized the urgency of the call and appealed to Mr. Robinson to take him over in a hydroaeroplane. The boy's injury was a compound fracture of the hip, and a delay meant serious results from hemorrhage. The distance by road is much greater than by aeroplane.


Our collaborator, M. Alex. Dumas, has established an information bureau at 3S, Boulevard Alexandre Martin, Orleans, France. From him may be obtained drawings, photos and detail* of French machines and he is prepared to execute commissions in that country.


Fowler-Mars Company is being formed by "Bud" Mars and Robert G. Fowler in Kansas City; capital stock $75,000.

The Montana Aeroplane and Exhibition Company, of Butte, capitalized at $25,000, of which $410 is actually subscribed for by Terah T. Maroney of Big Timber, George Nelson and Howard W. Pierce, both of Butte.

Aero Club of Temple, Tex.; $5,000. E. K. Williams, W. E Pozier, F. M. Grazier, and others.

Moisant Exhibition Co., XI. S. Rubber Bldg., New York; $10,000; A. F. Stafford, Jr., M E. John, Edward R. Holden.

Blondin "Safety" Aeroplane Company, Los Angeles. CapUal ,stock, $100,000; par value; of shares $1 each; incorporators, Joseph A. Blondin, G. W. Blondin, T. Traumann

Empire Exhibition Co., Binghamton, N. Y.; $5000. Dr. Chas. S Decker, Dr. Edgar H. Coombs, Harry Ferris, Charles Hammond.

Donald Aeroplane Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y.; $20,000. Bruce Donald, Frederick Myers and George C. Jones.

The Montana Aeroplane and Exhibition Company, Butte, Mont.; $25,000; by T. T. Maroney and others.

Perfection Aero-Navigation Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.; capital $200,000. Incorporators, D. Smith, W. L. Meeks, Pittsburgh, Pa.; J. Sinkobitz, Selienoble, Pa.

The Polish Aerial Navigation Company, Cleveland, aeroplanes and other aerial vehicles; $10.0uo; M. P. Kuiola, Bolesaw Filipiak, Joseph Selzak, Anthony Piotrowski, Julian Colond-zynier.

To those interested in floats for water machines, Joseph Pastorel, Box 422, Asbury Park, N. J., calls attention to his patent 1,010,309, covering an unsinkable hull of hard rubber, with rubber sheeting on the outside to inclose a number of air tight compartments.


Two aeroplanes were imported in March, valued at $3,409. for the 9 months ending March, 15 were imported at a valuation of $52,042. Domestic machines exported in the 9 months ending March totaled 19, valued at $71,195. One foreign machine ($3,'62S') was exported in February and 4 in March ($7,230). Exports of foreign machines totaled 11 for the 9 months above named, value $35,831. On March 31, 3 foreign machines remained in warehouses, valued at $8,274.


At the Curtiss aviation school at Hammonds-port, all records were broken on June 23, when 240 flights were made in one day. One hundred and twenty-six of these were with the practice machine called "Lizzie" and constituted straight flights for the length of the field and half circles. Sixty-four flights were made with the eight cylinder practice machine and consisted of half circles, circles and figure eights. The other sixty flights were made with the hydroaeroplane.

The twelve students who made these flights, some of whom were taking the course in both the hydro and land machine, expressed themselves as pretty thoroughly tired out at the end of this strenuous day's work. One hundred or more flights are made practically every day in the week, but Saturday being a particularly fine day this new record was made. The day's flying used up a barrel of gasoline and four gallon's of oil.


Albeit A. Merrill is giving a course of lectures at the Mass. Institute of Technology, open to all engineers of the senior class—the first series of aeronautical lectures to ha\e beer, given at M. I. T.

Now that the Automobile Club of America has closed its own rooms and has joined with the Aero Club of America, it is interesting to note in the last number of the Club Journal the statement that the Aero Club is "primarily a social club."

July, 1912




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Washington, D. C, June 11.—A. L. Welsh and his passenger, Lieut Hazelhurst, officer-aviator of the U. S. Signal Corps who had just completed a course of instruction under a fellow officer, were killed in testing out the new weight-carrying military biplane Just delivered for trial by the Wright company. All the conditions had been met, save the climbing test of 200 feet a minute for 10 minutes, and it was on this test that Welsh and the Lieutenant had just started, with ballast to make up a weight of 450 pounds in addition to fuel for four hours.

Mr. Welsh for the past year had been the only pilot in the employ of the Wright company. He was pne of the original team, which included Johnston, Hoxey, Brookins, La Chappell and Coffyn. He had an enviable reputation as flyer and had taken up hundreds of passengers and trained scores of pupils including many exhibi--tion flyers of the present day. George W. Beat-ty was one of his pupils who have made names for themselves. No one ever hesitated to fly with Welsh. Sort of a unique character, he had a charming personality and the news of his death came as an excruciating blow to hosts of admiring friends and acquaintances all over the country.

Mr. Welsh expected to gain momentum for his climb by swooping down with power on and suddenly flattening out. It is possible he waited until too late for the changing of his elevator for the machine smashed up on the ground. Mr. Orville Wright has stated that the machine hit tne ground, and that all wires were intact.The timing of the climbing test was to start at the bottom of the swoop. An investigation is being mad3 by a military board. The accident seems to be similar to those which ended fatally for Badger and Ely.

Lieutenant Hazelhurst was on detached duty at the Aviation School, College Park, Maryland.

He was born in Brunswick, Georgia, June 25, 1SS6. He was appointed to the United States Military Academy, from Mississippi, June 1G, 1904, and was graduated, February 14, 130S, and assigned to the 17th Infantry, as a Second Lieutenant. He joined the regiment in Camaguey, Cuba, April IS, 190S, and returned to Fort McPherson with the regiment.

He was on detached service preparing the Progressive Military Map of the United States, stationed at New Orleans, from Feb. IS1, l'Jl'i, to June 21, 1910. Volunteered and was detailed for duty in the Signal Corps Aviation School, March 1, 1912.

The regiment extends its warmest sympathy to the bereaved family. The regiment h.is lost an efficient officer, beloved by all who knew him.

All officers of the 17th Infantry will wear the usual badge of mourning for thirty days.


Springfield, 111.. June 17. Mrs. Julia Clark of Denver Colo., was killed in an exhibition flight when one wing of her Curtiss biplane struck a small limb of a tree. She, with Lansing Callan, Farnum Fish, Kearney and one or two other flyers, had recently started on an exhibition tour under the management of "Bill" Pickens, of Brighton Beach auto race notoriety, under the title "Curtiss-Wright Aviators."

Mrs. Clark graduated from the Curtiss school at San Diego, Cal., on May 19 and had pilot certificate number 133.


Hempstead, L. L, June 22.—Henry Turner, a mechanic formerly employed by Walden, was allowed by Peter McLaughlin to practice flight in one of his machines formerly flown by the late Shriver. Turner made one short straightaway, though he promised he would keep on the ground. On a second attempt he shot the machine up at a steep angle, stalled and the aeroplane came down on its back, resulting in the death of Turner.

Nice, Fr., May 4.—Count de Robillard Cosnac (monoplane)—"wings collapsed."

Riga, May 5.—Aviatrice Galanschkee.

Anvers, Fr., May 5.—Olbrechts.

Pordenone, Italy, May 10.—Lt. Depersis in a monoplane; bad landing.

Etampes, Fr., May 14.— Capt. Eicheman— military monoplane.

Berlin, Ger., May 25.— Lt. von Slighting, passenger with Fokker in latter's own design monoplane, was killed. Wing broke after a "vol plane." Fokker was injured.

Juvisy, Fr., June. .1.—Reby, mechanic, passenger, was killed; pilot Collardeau, sustained injuries; biplane.

Bremen, Ger., June 2.—Albert Buchstaetter and passenger Lieut Stille in a monoplane.

Mourmelon, Fr., June 9.—Albert Kimmerling, a veteran aviator, and his passenger Tonnel, were killed flying a Sommer monoplane

Paris, Fr., June 20.—Captain Dubois and Lieut. Albert Peignan, brother officers. Their biplanes met in midair in a head-on collision.

The total of deaths by pilots or passengers in power machines totals, with these, 169.


The body of a seagull tightly wedged between the tail and the rudder of his aeroplane, breaking the control wire when he tried to turn his sky craft out over the ocean, caused the death of Calbrailh P. Rodgers, the transcontinental aviator at Long Beach ten weeks ago, is the statement given out by his widow, Mrs. Rodgers. Verification is made by Frank Shafer the chief mechanician for Rodgers, who found the dead gull entangled in the mechanism.

The dead gull was wedged so tightly between the rudder and the tail framework of the machine that it was necessary to break the rudder to extract it. With the rudder made immovable by the gull's body, the control wire was snapped when Rodgers attempted to veer his machine after he had made his last long glide.

Raymond W. Garner, of Davenport, la., lost his life on June 8 fcvhile in a boat which was being towed by a hydroaeroplane.


The following have received pilot certificates, the names of the machines used and the date and place of the trials being given.

125 John G. Kloeckler (Wright), May 22, Dayton.

126 William Kabitzke (Wright), May 23, Dayton.

127 Beckwith Havens (Curtiss), June 1, Bridgeport.

128 Warren S. Eaton (Eaton hi.), April 21, Los Angeles.

129 D. C. DeHart (Eaton), April 21, Los Angeles.

130 Lt.-Col. Chas. B. Winder, (Curtiss), April 23, College Park.

131 Tom Gunn, (Curtiss), April 21, Los Angeles.

132 R. B. Russell, (Curtiss), May IS, San Diego.

133 Mrs. Julia Clark, (Curtiss), May 19, San Diego.

134 De Lloyd Thompson (Wright), June 2, Chicago. .

135 Otto W. Brodie (Farman), June 2, Chicago.

136 W. Starling Burgess (Burgess hydro), June 15, Marblehead, Mass.

137 Sidney F. Beckwith (Wright), June 15, Mineola. -,

On May 2Sth at the Valbuena Aviation field in the Citv of Mexico, the first successful aeroplane built by native labor, was tried out. The machine is a two-seater and an exact copy of the "Deperdussin" owned by the Mexican Ava-tor Mendia, and is equipped with an SO H.P. Anzani motor.

The woodwork, etc., of the machine was done bv the natives Carlos Leon and .1. G. Villasana under the supervision of Jacques Pobiedesjkey, the owner. The machine on its first trial Hew about 300 meters at about 60 feet.

' ■ h. L. Hanisey.


Bridgeport, June 1.—Beckwith Havens (Curtiss) flew with John Dibert, in his Curtiss hydro from Bridgeport, Ct., across L. 1. Sound to Fort Jefferson, L. I., and return.

Washington, June I. Lieut. Arnold (Burgess) made a new Army Altitude record, 6,540 ft.

Rochester, N. Y., June 25.—Fred. G. Bells in a hydro-aeroplane flight over Irondequoit Bay flew seventy-three miles in one hour and twenty-one minutes at an average speed of fifty-four miles an hour. In a 'plane equipped with a Welles & Adams motor. Elles' flight w as cut short when his supply of gasoline gave out, and he dropped his machine to the bay.

Princeton, N. J., June 9.—Marshall E. Reid, a graduate of Beatty's School flew with his mechanic from Staten Island, stopping once at Trenton.

New York, May 31.i—Oliver B. Sherwood flew his Kirkham-engined Curtiss copy from Nassau, over N. Y. City, across the Hudson to Hackensack, N J.

Hicksville, N. Y., June 26.—J. Rodman Law, the parachute jumper, who has made spectacular leaps from many New York skyscrapers, left the biplane of Harry B. Brown at a high altitude and came to earth safely about a half mile distant.


San Antonio, Texas, May 26. John Berry and Albert von Hoffman in the "Million Club" to Roseville, Ills., Dist.—915 miles; dur.—23 hrs. 35 min.; alt., 24,000 ft.

Holmesburg, Pa., June 1.—A. T. Atherholt and P. M. Sharpies in the "Penn. II" to Burlington, N. J.

Atlantic City, June I.—The Seibe.rling-Vani-man dirigible made an ascent of an hour, with six on board. An accident ended the experiment. (See note elsewhere this issue.)

Ft. Omaha, May 31.—Win. F. Assmann and four Army officers, to near Burlington Jet., Mo., 84 miles.



BUILDING AND FLYING AN AEROPLANE, by Chas. B. Hayward, Svo., cloth, 142 pp., illustrated. Published at $1.00 by American School of Correspondence, Chicago. Chapters include: Building Aeroplane Models, Building a Glider, Building a Curtiss Biplane, Building a Bleriot, Art of Flying, Accidents and Their Lessons, Amateur Aviators. This will be found an interesting little book by the amateur builder and novice flyer. The descriptions of the making of the Curtiss-type and the Bleriot copy are quite complete. The drawings of the Curtiss article, for instance, are accurate copies of Mr. Godlev's series of articles in AERONAUTICS and the wording has, no doubt, been adapted and shortened from Mr. Godley's original description.

THE AEROPLANE IN WAR, by C. G. White and Harry Harper. Illustrated, Svo., Cloth, 244 pp., published by J. B. Lippincott Co , Phila., Pa., at $3. Chapters: Review of Military Progress, First French Manoeuvers in 1910, Air Fleets of Foreign Nations, Importance of Organization in the use of War Aeroplanes, England's Position in Regard to Military Flying, War Machines at Paris 1911 Show, What Existing War Aeroplanes can Actually Accomplish, Wireless Telegraphy and Photography, Training of Army Air Men, Cost of War 'Planes, Problem of Artillery Fire, Destructive Potentiality of Weight-Carrying 'Planes, War in the Air, Aeroplanes in Naval Warfare, Work in French and German 1911 Manoeuvers. The book is very interesting.

MY THREE BIG FLIGHTS, by Andre Beaumont. Large Svo, cloth. Many illustrations, 156 pp., published at $2.50 by McBride, Nast & Co., New York. Beaumont tells in a way that's absorbing the tale of his winning of the Paris-Rome, European Circuit and British Circuit races, and ends with curious experiences in

meeting people, advice to would-be aviators and some valuable suggestions of which aero clubs might well take advantage.

LUFTSCHRALTBEN. Leitfaden fur den Bau und die Behandling von Propellern. Yon Paul Bejeuhr. Over 90 illustrations. S vo. cloth, 177 pp., puhlished by Franz B. Auffarth, Frankfurt a.M., Germany, 4 Mk.

BAU UND BETRIEB VON PRALL-LLTFT-SCHIFFEN, von Richard Basenach, Teil I. Svo., cloth, 100 pp., illustrated, published by Franz B. Auffarth, Frankfurt a.M., at 3 Mk.

THE MECHANICS OF THE AEROPLANE, by-Captain DeChene, translated by J. F. Ledeboer and T. O'B. Hubbard. Svo., cloth, 231 pp., $2.25, Longmans, Green & Co., 4th Ave. & 30th St., New York. This work explains in simple terms, with a minimum of formulae,the main principles of dynamic flight and gives the reader an insight into the \arious problems involved in the calculation of the aeroplane, knowledge so greatly needed by the hundreds who are spending money for ridiculous patents on impossible devices.

PRACTICAL AERONAUTICS, by Chas. B. Hayward. Large S vo, cloth, S00 pp., 310 illustrations $3.50 published by American School of correspondence, Drexel Ave., & 5S St., Chicago, Ills.

A valuable contribution to aviation lore has appeared in this new book.

In spite of the rapid growth of the science and the time required to get together and publish such a work it is brought up to date to a remarkable degree and covers almost every phase of experimental as well as practical Held work and operation of the aeroplane.

It should prove a complete compendium to the amateur and professional constructor and flyer.

JAHRBUCH DER LUFTFAHRT. II. Jahr-gang 1912. LTnter Mitwirkung vieler Fachleute herausgegeben von Ingenieur Ansbert Vorreiter in Berlin. Mit 775 Abbildungen, davon 120 auf Tafeln, 27 Tabellen und 1 farbigen Tafel: ,,Die Stander der Vereine des Deutschen Luftfahrer-Verbandes". L'mfang fiS6 Seiten gr. 8°. Miin-chen, J. F. Lehmanns Verlag. Preis in Origi-nal-Leinwandband M. 12.—

Die Anschaulichkeit wird gewahrleistet durch 775 Abbildungen, Plane unci Skizzen und eine grosse farbige Tafcl der Vereinsstander. Lehr-reiche Vergleiche werden ermoglicht durch zahlreiche besonders eingelegte Tabellen. Uni die Vielseitigkeit des Tnhalts zu veranschau-liche, sein im Nachstehenden die Ueberschriften der Hauptabschnitte genannt:

1. Luftschiffe. 2. Flugzeuge: a) Allgemeines, b) Eindecker, c) Zweidecker, d) Dreidecker. 3. Luftfahrzeug-Motoren; Propeller fur Luftschiffe und Flugzeuge. 4. Gleittlieger und Drachen. 5. Freiballone und Fessel-ballone. 6. Luft-schiffhiifen, Luf tschiffderf ten. 7. Fortschritte in der Erzeugung von Bailongas. S. Kampf- und fahrzeugen. 9. Flugplatze und Fliegerschulen.

10. Wissenschaftliche Forschung: a) Wissen-sc.haftliche Fortschritte der Flugtechnik; b) Die wissenschaftlichen luf ttechnischen Institute.

11. Orientierung und Navigation. 12. Die bedeutendsten deutschen Patente auf dem Ge-biete der Luftschiffahrt und Flugtechnik. 13. Zusammenstellung der flugsportlich bedeuten-deren Ergebnisse in der Zeit vom 1. November 1910 bis I. November 1911. 14. Die Entwick-S. Kampf- und Bekampfungswaffen von Luft-lung des Militrirflugwesens. 15. Vereinswesen. 16 Bezeugsquellenverzeichnis.

The aeroplane of the Detroit company of the Michigan Naval Reserves is now equipped with the model 1 Maximotor at the Hying grounds on Fox Creek. There are now from I to S Maxi-motors in each of 27 states of the Union besides others in a number of foreign countries.

The Military Maximotors are made in 3 models—G, a 4 cyl. of 70 h.p.; H, a 6 cyl. of 105 h.p. and J, an S cyl. of 140 h.p. These were intended chiefly for army use on government aeroplanes. They are equipped with clutch, flywheel, muffler and self-starter.


July, 191






In 1909:

The First Aerial Crossing of the


In 1910:

The First Circuit de l'Est

In 1911:

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Page 41

July, 1912



To the Editor:

I am pleased to note, in AERONAUTICS, for May-June, Mr. Horton's comments on my article in AERONAUTICS for April. The point that he raises shows that he has read the article fully.

As stated P. 122, par. 6, in the number referred to, "there are several ways in which this bob or weight can be placed so as to act in the same manner as the accelerator of Mr. Doutre and, at the same time, preserve the adjustment features of M, Eteve." And in par. 11, p. 112, "My purpose is to show how this arrangement (the Ellsworth) may be controlled by the modified speed indicator****and, as the design is probably susceptible of improvement, I will submit it****with a view to creating a wide interest in this subject at the earliest practicable date." Also, in Aero Club Bulletin for April, p. 33—■"This design is not complete but, as 1 have hastily prepared it, will soon be published for comment and criticism. I hope it will stimulate others in this important field to experiment with such a device at the earliest opportunity.

In most of the preliminary sketches that I made of this simple device the accelerating weight K was mounted above the axis O.

A simple expedient would be to abandon the weight K as a pendulum balance and to have the sphere S, as in Fig. 1, heavy enough to perform the accelerating function, as it is adjustable on the stem G and could be perfectly controlled by a tension spring. In this case, however, 1 would have the stem G pivot at the bottom of the box, its connection with a lever L on the axis O, being adjustable.








A satisfactory arrangement would be afforded, as in Fig. 2, by having the anemometer action directly in line with the spring, a cup, a plate or a disc being used for the pressure surface and connected with a rod passing through the spring, the main accelerator weight K would be attached to the middle of this rod and arranged to move the adjustable lever, 1, on the axis O. (The lesser weight, k, would be for adjustment only.)

Possibly the best way to accomplish this object and still keep the main accelerator weight below the axis O (both for acceleration and adjustment) is to have the stem G pivot on a separate axis, as in Fig. 3 (either above, below or at one side of O) and connected with O either by lever or by gear sectors 1 as shown.

But the arrangement illustrated in AERONAUTICS for April may be regarded as an intermediate step sufficiently novel to attract attention to the main point of change desired in the excellent instrument of Captain Eteve. It is probably not the best, but it seems evident that the torsional effect of the spring pendulum would be less than that of a rigid pendulum, at the instant of acceleration; in other words, it would act, indirectly but momentarily, as the Pout re" accelerator by not opposing at once the full effect of its inertia to the anemometer movement of the pressure sphere when both movements are together positive or negative.

Doubtless there are other points of this design open to improvement. 1 particularly wished to draw criticisms on the method suggested for transmitting the motion from the power plant to the elevating lever. There may be disadvantages, if sparking occurs at the removable contact-points, on breaking contact. As a warning signal, however, the latter would seem to be advantageous rather than objectionable.

Now that Mr. Ilorton has shown that somebody is taking notice, 1 am encouraged to believe that there are others.

I fear that one obstacle to the early settlement of the automatic stabilizing movement is that manufacturers are loath to use any device of which they do not control the patents. Much would be gained if this discussion could lead to something useful that is not patentable. \V. IRVING CHAMBERS, Captain, U. S. Navy.


To the Editor:

Our attention has again been called to the constant repetition of advertisements which offer "Elbridge Engines" and "Elbridge-type Engines" at prices which would not pay for the fittings.

In almost every case the advertiser is a bunco artist, pure and simple. One fellow in Kansas City requested those who answered his advertisements to send $50 as a guarantee of good faith, promising on receipt of same to forward the motor by express c. o. d., with privilege of examination. The police found he had caught nearly fifty victims for $50 each.

The same dodge was worked in New York City this Spring, and a number of people were caught for sums ranging from $25 to $100 each.

Another fellow advises prospective customers that he has an Elbridge-type, 4-cycle, air-cooled engine.

Of course, anyone who thinks a man will pay a Thousand Dollars for a motor to-day and then sell it "never out of the crate" for $300 is a pretty easy mark, but it also seems to us that the paper printing such an advertisement without investigation is open to some criticism. Very truly yours,

Elbridge Engine Company.

I got Aeronautics all O. K. and it was just a little late. When I have to wait two or three days for your paper, it is like waiting a long time without eating. Every evening for a week about the time your paper was din* the students came in from the field and said "Has Aeronautics come yet" and you can bet they never let up until they receive your paper, and then they seemed satisfied to wait another thirty days. _ „

J. N. S , East St. Louis.

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ENGINE FOR SALE—Airship engine, 2 eyl., 4 cycle, S h.p.; also frame, shafting, propellers and net of airship "Comet." Electric Pianos for sale. Geo. E. Yager, Omaha, Nebr. Aug.

Foil SALE at a sacrifice one Curtiss-type aeroplane with 6 cylinder 90 horsepower motor. Will sell motor separately or outfit complete. Write for particulars to B. A. Blenner, Richmond, Virginia. July.

WANTED—Dayton Public Library, Dayton, <>., will pay for a copy of AERONAUTICS for June 1909 and January 1910 to complete files. TF

FOR SALE—Burgess biplane, good condition, complete with Curtiss engine. Cost $5000.00. Price $3500.00. C. W. Parker, Leavenworth, Kans. Aug.

FOP SALE—Wm. R Gordon's 5 new types monoplanes, biplanes, combination hydro-monoplanes and biplanes, passenger ships; $1250 to $60,000.00. Scout, torpedo and war ships, 15-25 and $100,000.00. All sines, storm proof. 1-2-3 and 4 propellers, 1 or 2 motors, 3, 5 and 7 sections. Tuition, large craft $500, small $300. Motormen $250.00. Factory and 10V& acres. Aerial ship yard, Kinlock, Mo.

THREE second hand engine and fan propelleis, good as new. LeBron Adams Aeroplane Co., Omaha, Nebr.

FOR SALE—50 H. P. Bradley Aeroplane Motor, S cylinders, Bosch Magneto, Perkins carburetor. Guaranteed. Price $1,000. Address, J. O. Eberhard, Jr., Bulletin Building, Philadelphia., Pa.

FOR SALE—2 cyl. 30 h.p. Detroit motor, propeller, carburetor and coil. In perfect order $100. W. Beaton, 2709 Pratt St., Bridesburg, Phila., Pa July

FOR SALE—Bleriot type monoplane, fully equipped with 30 h.p. Anzani motor. In perfect condition. A. W. Davol, 107 Sycamore St., Winter Hill, Mass. July

WANTED— Aviation apprentices to operate latest type rsieinsr monoplanes. Instructions free.

Aerial Co.. c/c Aeronautics. 250 W. 54th St., New York.

WANTED—Position, with opportunity to fly. Have technical education and mechanical experience.

Box, 762, Farsro, N. Dak.

CURTISS—Present design genuine Curtiss, with 4 cyl. Curtiss motor, good condition, $700. Aeronautics, 250 West 54th Street, New York.


To the Editor:

From M Clementel's report to the French Chamber, translated by Col. George P. Scriven, IT. S. Signal Corps, H. R. Document No. 718, p. 24, 62nd Congress, 2nd Session.

"A machine most valuable in recon-noissance, the aeroplane may also render the greatest service in the transmission of orders and in joining together the larger units. The commander of the army may wish to send urgent instructions to one of his subordinates commanding a portion of the front or a large detachment on the flank whose support in the fight is expected. What messenger can be more rapid than the aeroplane when roads in rear of the front are encumbered by columns hastening toward the battlefield, by regimental trains, by packs, and convoys, when telephonic and telegraphic lines are momentarily cut, and WHEN COMMUNICATION BY WIRELESS IS CONTINUALLY INTERRUPTED?" The above extract is very suggestive. In the efforts which are being made to develop a rational method of aerial scouting is it well to concentrate all attention upon the wireless telegraph for signaling purposes?

Is it not possible that the military authorities here and abroad are making a great mistake in assuming that wireless aerial signaling will be dependable in time of war?

What will happen in the unfortunate event of war, when powerful disturbers, producing all wave lengths, are certain to be quickly constructed and brought into action?

It is said that in the German Navy the selective method is in successful operation. Very likely; we have had excellent demonstration-:, of the same here in the absence of all-wave-length disturbers.

The experiments and investigations concerning wireless telegraphy from aeroplanes are sure to go on; the defects are plainly visible; they may be overcome. Is it safe for the military authorities to take as a working hypothesis that they will be overcome? Should visual aerial signaling be ignored?

One thing has never been claimed for wireless; the possibility of relaying scout messages by passing them from one scouting machine to another.

For this kind of service, as well as for the services mentioned by M. Clementel in the above extract, there is a simple and reliable method, 1 refer to puff-signaling. By this method coloring matter is intermittently injected into the exhaust pipe of the flying-machine motor, from the pipe this is ejected in large and small puffs resembling very black smoke; these correspond to the dashes and dots of the Morse telegraphic code.


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Patents Gone to Issue

Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

Even in these enlightened days, the crop of patents on absolutely worthless, or even questionable, devices increases rather than decreases.

It would take an entire issue of the magazine to abstract in a full and clear manner the claims of the majority of the patents issued. In a great many cases it is even impossible to give in a few lines what sort of an apparatus the patent relates to. In most instances we have

used merely the word "aeroplane" or "helicopter" if such it is. Where it is impossible to indicate the class, even, in whch the patent re-longs, without printing the whole patent, we have used the word "flying machine."

The patents starred (*) are those which mav be found of particular interest; hut it must be understood we do not pretend to pass judgment upon merits or demerits.


John C. Doty, Mount Vernon, Onio, 1,023,927, April 23, 1912. Swinging vertical balancing planes.

John A. Jung, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1,023,937, April 23, 1912. AEROPLANE.

*Roy Louis Matteson, Santa Maria, Cal. 1,024,011, April 23, 1912. Differential gears and rotable sheaves, connecting means, lever system, pulleys, etc., designed to automatically warp or operate ailerons to balances unequal pressures and right the machine.

Alexis Rogestvensky, Moscow, Russia, 1,024,102, April 23, 1912. Flying machine which jumps itself off the ground in starting flight.

Eugene H. Sassil. St. Louis, Mo., 1,024,287, April 23, 1912. AEROPLANE—PARACHUTE combination.

*Hugh L. Willoughby, Philadelphia, Pa., 1,024.303, April 23, 1912. Foot pedal mechanism, throttle engine and short circuit magneto by one operation.

Pierre Octave Detable, Paris, France, 1,024,315, April 23, 1912. Special configuration of SURFACES.

*Dighton B'. Ellsworth, Portland, Ore., 1,024,398, April 23, 1912. Automatic STABILIZER, magnetically operated, with pendulum as the contact making agent. See December, 1911, issue of AERONAUTICS for illustration, details and record of trials.

Karl Voller, Dusseldorf, Germany, 1,024,429, April 23, 1912. STARTING DEVICE using gun powder explosion in a piston to give an aeroplane an initial forward movement.

Walter Lewis, Philadelphia, Pa., 1,024,407, April 23, 1912. PARACHUTE attachment for aviators.

Albert H. Blount, Detroit, Mich., 1,024,607, April 30, 1912. STABILITY device operated by swinging weight.

Charles Henry Burford, Meade, Kansas, 1,024,676, April 30, 1912. PARACHUTE for aviators.

John L. Rikhoff, Denver, Colo., 1,024,700, April 30, 1912. Folding flexible PROPELLER.

Oscar R. Cassell, New York, N. Y., 1,024,766, April 30, 1912. Combination of airship and aeroplane.

*Robert Esnault-Pelterie, Billancourt, France, 1.024.92S, April 30, 1912. AUTOMATIC DEFORMATION of wings; an aeroplane comprising oppositely extending supporting wings, front connecting means between said wings at the front, rear connecting means between said wings at the rear, each of said connecting means being mounted to yield laterally to permit the rising of part of a wing at one side and to cause the lowering of part of the corresponding wing at the other, and a reversing lever between the front connecting means and the rear connecting means and having its longer arm connected to the rear connecting means.

*Robert Esnault-Pelterie, Billancourt, France, 1,024.929, April 30, 1912. VARIATION of INCIDENCE: Means for varying the incidence of a supporting surface simultaneously on both sides of the longitudinal axis thereof or varying the incidence thereof on one side of said axis relative to that on the other side, said means comprising a rotatively mounted rod and a cross piece rotatively mounted on said rod, and connections between the ends of said cross piece and said supporting surface, movement of

said rod operating to vary the incidence of said supporting surface on one side of its longitudinal axis relatively to that on the other, and separate movement of said cross piece operating to vary the incidence of said supporting surface simultaneously on both sides of said axis, and an appendage in the form of intersecting horizontal and vertical planes; designed to avoid use of the vertical rudder to counteract turning movement.

Frederick C. Lambert, New York, N. Y., 1,024,941, April 30, 1912. AILERON system and controlling device.

Zachariah Tisher, Spokane, Washington, 1,025,033, April 30, 1912. AEROPLANE.

Jerry Hubschman, New York, N. Y., 1,025,063, April 30, 1912. MONOPLANE with wings pivotally mounted on vertical shaft.

Joseph A. Goodwin, Millville, N. J., 1,025,085, April 30, 1912. Pivoted wings capable of automatically yielding to air pressure in the same direction.

Herman Jordan, Detroit, Mich., 1,025,093, April 30, 1912. STABILITY system.

Rudolph Anders, Bridgeport, Conn., 1,025,106, April 30, 1912. AEROPLANE.

James E. Sheriff, Provo, Utah, 1,025,210, May 7, 1912. AEROPLANE designed to soar by special construction of wings.

Randolph R. Rawle and John Rawle, Chicago, 111., 1,025,306. May 7, 1912. FRYING MACHINE.

Adolph Ensslin, North Attleboro, Mass., 1.025.3S6, May 7, 1912. Parachute.

Hurt Reid, United States Navy, 1,025,482, May 7, 1912. STABILITY device; sliding panel in wing extremity.

Frank Rosborv, Chicago, Til., 1,025,539, May 7, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

John C. Ten Eyck, Yonkers, New York, 1,025,548, May 7, 1912. STABILITY device; supplementary surfaces operated by pendulum.

James Kenefick. Chicago, 111., 1,025,629, May 7, 1912. PARACHUTE and aeroplane combination.

Andre Julien Mahoudeau De Villethiou, Talis, France, 1,025,658, May 7, 1912. PROPELLER with open center or boss.

Abraham Mier Waxier. Philadelphia, Pa., 1,025,662, May 7, 1912. AIRSHIP.

Theodor Fischer, Wurzburg, Germany, 1,025,-7S7, May 7, 1912. SWING employing balloons.

James Walsh, Northfleld, Minn., 1,025,891, Mav 7, 1912. RUDDER, horizontal, swinging vertically and horizontally, extensible in area, changeable angle upon lateral swinging.

Robert H. Haag, Louisville, Ky., 1,025,912, May 7, 1912. MONOPLANE.

*Rene Arnoux, Paris, France, 1,025,941, May 7, 1912. Spring LANDING GEAR. 1,026,677, T. H. & 11. F. Keppel. St. Louis, Mo.,

and J. E. Keppel. Jr., Indianapolis, Ind., May

21. 1912. AEROPLANE. 1,026,959, John T. Long, Encanto, Cal., May 21,

1912. DIRIGIBLE. *1,027,252, Rupert John Isaacson, Leeds, England,


*1 027 25S, John Kubish, Indian Orchard, Mas^., 'May 21, 1912. PROPELLER MECHANISM for driving independent propellers from independent engines, independently or simultaneously, in either direction.

*I,027,242, Glenn H. Curtiss, Hammondsport, N. Y., May 21, 1912. Filed Sept. 1, 1911. Means for LAUNCHING FLYING MACHINES.

In an aeroplane launching apparatus, the combination of a suitable mount; aeroplane supporting arms or device pivotally mounted on said mount and operable to swing in parallel relation thereto; and means for imparting, at a variable speed, an angular throw to said supporting device; or means comprising plurality of independently pivoted spring controlled arms for supporting and imparting an increasing swinging movement; means for putting tension on springs; link connecting said arms; arms adapted to fit one within the other; movable platform. 1,027,322, Darrell V. Cole, Los Angeles, Cal., May 21, 1912. AEROPLANE with triangular surfaces, apex forward. 1,027,372, Menzo M. Benster, Gettysburg, S. D.,

May 21, 1912. BEATING WING MACHINE. 1,027,572, Jesse W. Silver, South Tacoma, Wash., May 28, 1912. AUTOMATIC STAB-IBILITY: ' Swinging "car" acts as pendulum to tilt planes. 1,027,590, Ernst Bucher, Heidelberg, Germany,

May 28, 1912. DIRIGIBLE. 1,027,764, Francois Rilleau, Los Angeles, Cal., May 28, 1912. AVIATOR-PROTECTOR. Hollow pneumatic shield inclosing body of aviator.

1,027,954, Joseph A. Williams, Cleveland, Ohio, May 28, 1912. SURFACE, formed in shape of open-topped wedge-shaped trough.

1,027,990, Barrett C. Cole, Marshall, Wyo., May 28, 1912 HELICOPTER.

1,028,071, Geo. Hipwood & Patrick Egan, New York, May 28, 1912. Weight suspended at a considerable distance below an aeroplane to arrive at action of a parachute in case "engine should break down."

1,028,093, August Ahlbrecht, Pittsburgh, Pa., June 4, 1912 Umbrella-like reciprocating PROPELLER.

1,028,120, Leopold A. Leech, Carnegie, Pa., June 4, 1912. HELICOPTER.

1,028,143, William B. Shepard, Belolt, Wise, June 4, 1912, STABILITY DEVICE (ailerons )


CHICAGO AERO WORKS, 164 N. Wabash Av., Chicago. A very complete 56-page book of aero supplies. It lists among its principal items materials for Bleriot, Farman, Nieuport, Bre-guet. Demoiselle, Deperdussin and Curtiss type machines Various landing gear are listed, as well as floats for hydros, ribs, struts, engines, fabrics, model supplies and many accessories.

E. J. WILLIS CO., 85 Chambers St., New York, lists complete parts for Curtiss-type biplanes, together with full lines of wheels, tires, radiators, Frontier and Eldridge engines and tools.

GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER CO., Akron, O.—Send for the new catalog of the Goodyear Company It contains some handy reference tables on strengths of fabrics, lifting capacity of various sized balloons and dirigibles, tables on balloon cloths, besides illustrated list of tires, tubes, Bleriot, Wright and Farman type shock absorbers and photos of the principal aviators.

ROBERTS MOTOR CO., Sandusky, O. This new catalog is certainly the finest yet produced in this country in the way of an aeronautical selling book. In addition to full details, drawings, illustrations and arguments on the Roberts motor, there are .many photographs of well-known users of this power plant, which has received praise even from the Four-cycle "crank." The book is well worth sending for. The last page is devoted to the 5 year guarantee against defects and the maker's warrant that every motor has developed its full rated power before shipment.


W. Irving Twombly, well known in New York social circles and an inventor of note, is being taught to fly the Sloane Deperdussin monoplane at Westbury, L. I. The Deperdussin is the wonderful French aeroplane that practically

*1,028,336, Wilhelm Duchting, Berlin, Germany, June 4, 1912. STABILITY DEVICE, employing rotating motor as a gyroscope.

1,028,409, Charles Beck Westerman, Columbia, Pa., June 4, 1912. ELASTIC GUYS to planes to premit hinged wing to give under pressure of gusts.

1,028,517, Carl L. Willard, Denver, Colo., June 14, 1912. PARACHUTE.

1.028.781, Wrm. J. Purvis and Chas. A. Wilson, Goodland, Kans., June 4, 1912. HELICOPTER.

1.028.782, Max Raabe, Cronberg in the Taunus, Germany, June 4, 1912 AUTOMATIC STABILIZING system.

1,028,865, Vito Ettore d'Urso, New York, N. Y., June 4, 1912. AEROPLANE.

1,028,887, Henry J. Kraft, Chicago, Ills., June 11, 1912. AEROPLANE.

1,028,891, Wm. David Le Fevre, Dover, Del., June II, 1912. AEROPLANE and HELICOPTER combination.

1,028,968, Lawrence R. Rooney, Hollidaysburg, Pa., June 11, 1912. Means for operating vertical rudder simultaneously with ailerons.

1,028,971, Marion L. Shackleford, Oatman, Ariz., June II, 1912. GAS BAG AEROPLANE.

1,028,981, John W. Wilson, Boston, Mass., June II, 1912. Balancing system in which planes may move from a horizontal position to an oblique position about vertical or horizontal axes.

1,029.010, Harry P. Giullo, Revere, Mass., June 11, 1912. KITE.

1,029,475, Louis W. Stolp, Washington, D. C, June II, 1912. SAFETY PARACHUTE APPLIANCE.

1,029,529, John F. W. Bradshaw, near Overton,

Texas, June 11, 1912. AIRSHIP, i,025,999, Rudolf Salmen, Chicago, Ills., May 14,

1912. TAIL-LESS BIPLANE. 1,126,079, Andrew F. Dierdorff, Los Angeles, Cal.,

May 14, 1912. STABILIZING DEVICE. 1,026,219, Marius Mathiesen, San Antonio, Texas,

May 14, 1912. STABILIZING SYSTEM; aviator and engine used as pendulum. 1,026,304, Einar P. Ekman, Chicago, 111., May 14,

1912. MONOPLANE. 1,026,490, Vladimir Breuer, New York, N. Y., May

14, 1912. AEROPLANE.

holds so many of the world's speed records. The type "Sloane-Deperdussin," is manufactured by the Deperdussin people especially for the Sloane Aeroplane Company of New York.

A school is now in operation under the direction of George M. Dyott who carried President Madero on a flight in Mexico. With Mr. Twombly is Mrs. Twombly, and they intend to use their craft for excursion purposes at their Long Island home. Another pupil at the Sloane School is Vermilylia Loving, a wealth Pittsburgh engineer. He is learning to fly in order to embark on the production of flying machines on a large scale in the West.


Boston, July 1. Miss Harriet Quimby and her passenger, W. A. P. Willard, father of the C. F. Willard the aviator, sustained fatal injuries when they struck the shallow water of the bay near Squantum, Mass., after being thrown from the aeroplane. Fracture of the skull and other injuries caused instant death when they struck the mud of the bay's bottom. Witnesses state that Willard either jumped, or was thrown forward out of the 'plane, when Miss Quimby headed it downward for a glide to the field against the 8-mile wind. An instant later Miss Quimby followed. Telegraph reports vary. Glenn Martin is quoted as saying the machine struck a "hole in the air" and it dropped from under the occupants.

Leo Stevens, Miss Quimby's manager, reports a broken elevator wire. Miss Quimby was returning from an over-water flight to Boston Light during the Boston meet, an unlicensed affair which was entered into by many well known certified pilots. Miss Quimby was flying a new 70 Gnome Bleriot which she ohtained shortly after her flight across the English Channel.

July, 1912

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