Aeronautics, June 1911

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Vol. VIII, No. 6.

JUNE, 1911

^Serial No. 47



250 West 54th St., New York

Subscriptions in the U. S. A. and possessions, $3.00 Canada, $3.25 ՠ Abroad, $3.50

single numbers. 25 cents

fridge Engines Have Proved Successful


Riders H. P.

Weight Stripped 150 Lbs.

Back view 4 cyl. Elbridge " Aero-Special-'

r[ge Engines have been put to the test roved their merit. Not in single iso-c:ases, but in all parts of the country, [ varying weather conditions and in standard type of aeroplane.

"American Amateur Aviation" gives a condensed history of amateur achievements during 1910, also proof positive that Elbridge Aero Engines made more successful novice flights during 1910 than all other makes combined.

Write to-day for 1911 catalog and copy of this booklet

(RIDGE ENGINE CO., 10 Culver Road, Rochester, N. Y.

IL Wait & Co. Chicago

mn & Bowes Kladelphia


Cal. Aero Mfg. & Supply Co. San Francisco

Marine Engine & Supply Co. Los Angeles

Arthur P. Homer Boston

Mathewson Auto Co. Denver

jj M 8^


ANTONY JANNUS and REX SMITH at Washington, D. C, without a single accident. <zA record unequalled b^r the best of flyers.

Be "Wise" and get our Information

The Emerson Engine Co., Inc.

ALEXANDRIA, VA., U.S.A. New York Office: 1737 Broadway

(Buick Building)

J. R. Westerfield Telephone 782 Columbus I

Don't Be Disappointed

but get enough power to fly and not "cut grass "

fTTi'Profit by the experiences of others. Til The Engine that stands up to the work and is the "last word" in engine building. :: :: :: :: :: ::

Propeller Perfection

locrican Propeller Company, Washington, D. C.


Beg to advise you that I received the t 9* .iropeller which you sent me and that the rasult3 obtain-Id with the same are most gratifying.

To anyone contemplating the purchase of a pro-beller you nay quote me as saying that I consider "Paragon" .n propellers the synonym of perfection in propeller con-itruction at this date. You may rest assured that I will i:ive you the order for the two propellers on the passongar (achine which I am now building.

Thanking you again for the courteous attention md promptness with whioh you have made deliveries, I beg ;o remain,

Sincerely wours,

Mr. Willard telegraphs— "Standing thrust 390 pounds at 1100 revolutions, hard wood screw on Gnome engine (7f feet diameter by 5.70 foot pitch)."

Mr. Curtiss telegraphs—"Propeller developed as follows: No. 2 (7 feet diameter by 5.75 pitch) 360 pounds thrust at 1200 R. P. M.; No. 3 (7 feet diameter by 6.20 pitch) 350 pounds at 1100 R. P. M. No. 2 very satisfactory in flight and probably nearest correct. Ship 7 foot 6 by 7 pitch to Belmont Park for Gordon-Bennett racer."

Roberts Motor Co. telegraphs—"The eight foot Paragon Propeller with five foot pitch gave a thrust of four hundred pounds on our forty horsepower motor when running at only nine hundred revolutions per minute. We consider this a remarkable showing."

Using a Paragon Propeller Mr. GLENN H. CURTISS won the great speed contest at Los Angeles in 1910, defeating Radley (Bleriot), Ely (Curtiss), Parmelee (Wright), and Latham (Antoinette).

We have sold thousands of dollars worth of propellers with the remarkable record of not a single dissatisfied customer, and only one exchange for a different size or pitch ever being required.

We will send price-list and printed form for information about your machine so we can I advise you just what propeller to use.

The most successful aviators in America use land recommend PARAGON PROPELLERS.

American Propeller Co. Washin8ton-D-c-

Wright Flyer

Built to Carry Two People Comfortably

C,Our aeroplanes are not experiments. Every part is tested, standardized and made under constant expert supervision in our own factory.

The Wright Flyer Holds All American Records

ALTITUDE 11,474 ft.

DURATION AND DISTANCE-3 hrs., 39 min., 48 sec. CROSS COUNTRY-106 miles (two passengers) SLOW FLYING 5'4 miles in 13 min., 48 sec.—22 miles per hr. ACCURACY OF LANDING 5 ft., 4 in.

C. These records together with the wonderful work of Model B for the army on the Mexican frontier proves beyond dispute that The Wright Flyer has established its position not only as the Pioneer but the Peerless machine. Manufactured under the Wright Brothers' patents and fully protected.

COrders should lie placed at once to secure June or July delivery. Training1 at Belmont Park, New York and Dayton, Ohio.






By George S. Bradt,


SO far as aeronautical motors are concerned, aviation owes much to the advent of the automobile, which lias pretty thoroughly sifted out the weak and impractical points in the construction of the internal combustion motor.

When we first began to run automobiles, the motors that were installed at that time were only supposed to give good service for, say, l,50i0 or 2,000 miles, when they must be discarded and termed worn out, while at the present date it is not uncommon to have an automobile motor run and give good service for 50,000 or 60,000 miles and still have quite some usefulness left in it. Thus it is safe to state Hi at had the rest of the component parts of an aeroplane had the benefit of as much experience as the motor, we would at this date no doubt be much further advanced than we are as to the stabilizing of planes, sustension aeras and propulsion through the air in heavier than air machines.

The manufacturers of aerial motors up and until the present time have seemingly had a craze to turn out a very light weight motor, so much so, that in fact in many instances it has been carried to extremes, and strength has been sacrificed to obtain a light weight motor, which in the end has been found to be entirely impractical. This is radically wrong, and that it is wrong is not only proven in theory but in actual practice. For instance, the Wright brothers, who probably have done more than any other individuals to further the art of human flight, have always used a motor of about the type of the ordinary automobile motor, which weighs nearly S pounds to the horse power.

As to the requirements of the aeronautical motor, the use and abuses it is subjected to are, in nearly every instance, many times more severe than that of the automobile motor. The motor of an aeroplane is usually run at its maximum capacity, or nearly so, and must continue to do so for long periods, while the automobile motor is rarely ever run at its highest efficiency unless in a contest, but for the ordinary and average use is run at about one-fourth of its maximum delivery of power.

As to the superiority of the 2 or 4-cycle type of motor, we have the same old wrangle. Both have their steadfast supporters, and both have their mechanical advantages as well as their disadvantages. Points claimed in favor of the 2-cycle type are such as "less vibration, due to the fact of a power impulse delivered to the driving shaft at every revolution of the crank; on this account the base, bearings and crank-case can be built lighter, as the continuous application of power impulses at each revolution does not throw so much stress and strain on them as a 4-cycle motor does. Also the fact that it has no valves, and thus requiring no cam-shaft, which does away with many moving parts in its operation."

Some points in disfavor of the 2-cycle type are as follows: "The crank-case is at all times filled with vaporized fuel, thus occasioning great care to have it air-tight. The lubrication of the bearings is effected by mixing lubricating oil with the fuel. In some instances manufacturers advise 1 pint of lubricating oil to each 5 gallons of fuel."

As to the intake and exhaust of the 2-cycle type, these two functions are effected by ports in the cylinder, which are opened and closed by the movement of the piston as it travels up and down, and our best experts do not ae;ree as to whether or not the cylinder or combustion chamber is thoroughly cleansed of the old burnt charge before it begins to perform its work upon the new one.

The foreign makers of 2-cycle motors have gone a step further and added some valuable features which seem very practical. It lias always been contended that while a 2-cycle

motor (delivering an impulse to the crank at every revolution) ought to produce twice the horse power as that of a 4-cycle type of the same dimensions, yet it does not, and it is claimed that one of the principal reasons is that a certain per cent, of its efficiency is lost by reason of the fact that when the port is opened for fuel to pass into the combustion chamber, the movement is so rapid, with the moving parts also performing other functions at the same time, the chamber is not filled with new and fresh fuel to its full capacity. The foreign makers have placed a pump at work on the fuel line, so that when the port is opened a full complement of fuel is forced into the chamber. One of the motors having this feature is the "Lamplough," which is manufactured expressly for aerial work. Another peculiar feature of this motor is the fact that it has two pistons to each cylinder. Another foreign 2-cycle aerial motor is a product of the New Engine Company, known as the X. E. C. Mort. Here the makers have so constructed their cylinders that when a charge of fuel lias been fired and the power stroke spent, a poppet valve lifts and a puff of air is forced through the cylinder, thus thoroughly cleansing the chamber before it starts upon its work of compressing and firing the new charge.

Among the favorable points of the 4-cycle type of motor is the claim of less fuel, due to the fact that it only delivers an impulse to the crank at every other revolution of the shaft, and experts agree that the 4-cycle type does secure a more perfect combustion because it takes four distinct actions and two revolutions of the crank to deliver one power stroke to the driving shaft, and therefore has twice the time in which to perform its work that the 2-cycle type has.

As to vibration, stresses and strains in the 4-cycle type, there is no doubt that in this there is more than in the 2-cycle, yet with the 4-cycle motor when four or more cylinders are used, the vibration is greatly diminished, and especially in the 6 and S-cylinder types where the power impulses overlap one another.

The 4-cycle type seems to afford better means of lubrication than the 2-cycle does.

Uuring the past, and even at the present time, the constructors of planes, in many instances, know very little about motors. They heedlessly rush into the matter without exercising due care in the selection of the motor, which is really the heart of an aeroplane, for no matter how carefully you may construct and work out the details of your plane, if your motor is faulty, then your plane is sure to be a failure. More failures and discouraged constructors of aeroplanes at this date can be attributed to motors that, which while sold for aerial work, were not adapted to it at all, than can be ascribed to faulty planes.

In the selection of a motor for our plane, what are the chief points to be considered? First, we are called upon to ascertain whether the manufacturers of the particular motor in question have been constructing aerial motors for some time, or whether they are still in the experimental field, as it is a well-known fact that some of the present-day motor manufacturers seem to prefer to make their experiments at the cost of the consumer. Another important point to discover is whether the bearing surfaces for all moving parts of the motor are ample or not. bearing in mind that while a heavier bearing is not necessarily needed, yet more bearing surface is needed in an aerial than in an automobile motor. Having satisfied yourself as to the type of motor in general, bearings, bore, stroke, aera of valves and their manner of operating, there are still three" very important points to be considered, as they pose to make your motor a success or a failure. These three points are lubrication, ignition and carburetion. And a

purchaser is caller! upon to scrutinize and examine most carefully these three points of a motor he contemplates purchasing, as all or any one of the three being faulty will make the motor a failure.

Let us touch briefly on these points, taking first lubrication. The best and least complicated system now in use is the one known as the dual system. In this type of oiling, the lower inch or ineh-ancl-a-half of the crank-case is a separate compartment, and is an oil reservoir with a small gear pump to force the oil from this reservoir direct to the bearings by leads. Thus it first lubricates the bearings, and then drips down into the crank chamber, and is contained there, producing the splash system, until it reaches a proper height, when, through overflow pipes, it trickles down and into the reservoir from whence it first started. This is indeed an excellent and reliable system, as it enables you to carry, as a part of your motor, 1 or 2 gallons of oil. and if for any reason the gear pump should fail (which is "not likely), you are still in possession of the splash system, which some motors rely upon solely, and which would carry you many miles before the motor would suffer for the want of lubrication. Sight feed is used to enable the operator to see if the pump is working properly. Another advantage of this system (and a very important one) is the fact, that no matter how much oil the pump may force up through the leads to the bearings, when it reaches its regulated height in the splash or crank chamber (that is, the top of the overflow pipes), it then flows back into the bottom compartment. Thus your splash system is kept at a constant level, and there is the danger of excess of oil fouling your spark plugs, causing your motor to miss fire and probably making you alight before you care to, and perhaps in a place where the plane would be wrecked and the aviator injured. An instance of this was shown in Hamilton's return trip in his New York-Philadelphia flight. This system can, of course, only be applied to the 4-eycle type of motor.


Most motor manufacturers construct their motors and supply magnetos with them, or so that they can be readily attached. There are some firms who are manufacturing magnetos who make in conjunction with them a small coil from which, owing to its peculiar construction, the user obtains two independent sets of ignition through one set of wires—the magneto and the battery ignition. The battery used in this system only requires 4 volts to operate it. and through the same wires to the spark plugs as the magneto ignition travels, the magneto distributer acting as the battery current distributer as well. The magneto used for this system costs little if any more than the ordinary one, and could not be distinguished from it except for an extra terminal or two. The coil and case used in conjunction with this particular magneto cost about the same as the ordinary vibrating coil, and the whole outfit is a great deal lighter than the old-fashioned way of separate magneto and battery ignition.


This subject is, and has been, a much discussed one. Probably no one part of the internal combustion motor has had as much experimenting, testing and trying-out as car-buretion or the vaporizing of fuel. We all know what its principles are. It is the bringing together of air and fuel in certain quantities and proportions, which, when properly proportioned, forms a vapor, which is sucked into the cylinder, compressed and fired. True enough, we may all know what earburetion is, but do we know what perfect combustion is? You can use different quantities of fuel and air, even raw fuel, and your motor will run. but have you the perfect combustion which is needed in order to get the efficiency from your motor that it is supposed to deliver? \Vhen we first began to run automobiles, in tuning up our motors preparatory to going out upon the road, we usually adjusted the carburetor—that

is, the flow of fuel and air—until we got the motor running fairly well, and if there was a 1 good cold coating upon the intake pipe between i the carburetor and the cylinders, similar to I beads of sweat or a frosty appearance, we thought we had a good mixture, or, in other words, a perfect combustion. But in these later days, when we are becoming more educated as to earburetion and its peculiar pranks, we find that this theory of a frost laden or cold intake pipe is not entirely the proper one, and better results are to be obtained by applying heat up to a certain point on the intake pipe rather than to keep it so cold.

We have heard of many instances of motors stopping in high altitudes, causing a glide to earth. The reason usually given is that the carburetor froze. It is safe to assume that if the carburetor did freeze it was not until after the intake pipe had become so cold that there was not sufficient heat to successfully vaporize the fuel, and that this was the starting point of the trouble, instead of the carburetor freezing as the plane traveled through the air, as many are led to believe.

("■boose the motor which has an iron manifold; better still if it is a part of the motor and cast integral with it, then get the carburetor as close to the manifold as possible. Great care should be exercised that a proper amount of heat be applied to the intake pipe between the point where the fuel and air come together, but no heat applied to the fuel line tit any point before it mixes with the air, as this would only serve to consume an excess of fuel and result, in a combustion that is far from perf ect.

A motor having a lengthy intake pipe can be greatly improved by tapping the exhaust with a three-eigh Ihs diameter copper tubing leading the heat from the exhaust and winding around the intake pipe closely from the manifold down to the point on the intake pipe where the air and fuel come together.

The object or point to be attained by the application of heat to the manifold is to thoroughly vaporize all particles of fuel passing through the intake before it finally goes into the cylinder to perform its actual work.

If the motor is made by a manufacturer of some considerable experience, it is always best to use the carburetor he quotes as standard equipment, as in most cases a manufacturer is sure to have thoroughly tried and tested this particular point. Thus the user of the motor is saved considerable time and expense in experimenting and ascertaining which carburetor is best adapted to the motor he may be using.

In conclusion, with reference to the selection of a motor, get the benefit of all the advice and experience possible, have a talk v/iih your propeller man. He is probably bubbling over with information. His vocation brings him in contact with all kinds of motors. If you are a member of an aeronautic organization, get the advice and experiences of your fellow members. None of us are too wise to learn. First be sure you are right, and then go ahead. American Motors. WAT ICR COOLED.

1 xVeriimotor—4-eyl., vert., 4-cycle.

2 Holbrook—4-eyl.. vert., 4-cycle.

:i Boulevard—4-cyl., vert., 4-cycle.

4 Harriman—4-cvl., vert., l-cvele. r> Goblin—t-cyl., vert.. 4-cycle.

f> .'vis—4-cyl., vert.. 4-cycle.

7 Kirkham—fi-cyl., vert., 4-cycle.

5 Chicago Aero—4-cyl., vert., 4-oycle. !> Wolverine—t-cvl., vert., 4-evcle.

10 Hall Scott s-cyl.. V. 4-cycle.

11 Hermann—S-cyl.. A', 4-cycle.

12 Curtiss—s-cyl., Y~, i-cyele. IH Christ ii—S-cvl.. V. 4-cvcle. It Birek—S-cyl.. V, 4-cycle.

1 r. Ito«senberg S-cyl.. V. 4-cycle. l(i Indian—S-cyl., V, 4-cycle. 17 II. Do K.—S-cyl., V, 4-cycle. IS .Aircraft — S-cyl., Y, 4-cycle. 1!) Call 2-eyl., horiz., 4-cycle. 20 Klbridge—I-cyl., vert., 2-cycle. 2t Kmerson—fi-cyl., vert., 2-cycle. 22 Box—1-cyi., vert., 2-cycle.

(Cont'nued on pax

■'with the aeroplane height record still steadily (liiiihinij into the chill, thin njgit r air, it is interesting to compare the present top-notch of mechanic flight—the ,S,7'.)i2 led achiered lip the l'ciuriau chare? in his llleriot mou'iidane near i'aris dull before ycslerdn y irith the most inspiring things the gas-liag men hare done. the acci pted record auiiiide reached hp anil man in a iriltoon appears) to he that of the hermans, 1'rof. ilerson and dr. 8 tiering, iiixm an ascent from llerlin on the last dap of july. KMI1. these aermiaitts. supplied irith oxpgeu to assist rcspira-iion. reached a point .'14.0011 feet ////. thus the lialloonists' highest is appniximatelij six and two-fifths miles, while the acroplanists' highest is a nieaj/re mile and tiro-lhirds. that is taking 110 account of (llaisher's famous ascent in the rrry infancy of aerostation. when he and his com-lianion. ciixtrcll. narrowly escaped asphyxiation at a height which he estimated at orer seren miles, hut irliieh modern scientist* suspect to hare ttccn well under six. in 1ST.", in france. crocc-kpiuelli and sirel irere net will p asph pxiatcd in spite of auxiliary oxygci taken aloft with them, at a height of about 12S (Mil) fret. it seems safe to assume, at any rate, that chare.: and morane and jlrookins and the others who especially seek distinction as aeroplane high flyers arc in no danger of sharing the fate of the two last mentioned lialloonists, since before the air prows too thin to lireathe it must liccouie far too tenuous to support the iceii/ht of creu a rent light monoplane. there is still, howerer, the chance of freezing to death, suggested by the experience, of ■i. armstroiki jhexel upon his ski/rocket flight in scotland."—X. Y. "Times."

AEROPLANES, at the present time, are mere copies of the first experimental ones, substantially the same in size and design. While the aviators have been getting more confident, and for this reason, along with improvements of the motors, have been making new records, there is very little of the higher records that are due to improvements in the aeroplanes. When the manufacturers get to the point where they can have more confidence in their product they will branch out and build much larger machines. Tliere is no reason why they cannot be made indefinitely bigger; there is nothing in the nature of machinery that contradicts this statement. Engines, cars, boats, dirigibles, motors, etc., etc., all follow out the general rule that if you double the material the capacity will be doubled, with no limit to size short of man's capacity to construct: and the same principle follows out in nature—the ant and the elephant are built upon substantially the same lines. For speed, however, the smaller object, of a given design, is always handicapped; this is especially noticeable with boats.

Aeroplanes of the future will probably compare with the present ones as the big ocean liners do with their steam launches, and when we get them of such dimensions we may be conservative in demanding a speed of 200 miles per hour at an elevation close to sea level. As we ascend, the air grows rarified and consequently offers less resistance to the forward progress of the machine. At a height of ?,V> miles the weight of the air is about one-half of that at sea level (Kent), the resistance then should be about one-half [witli the same angle and speed—Ed.l. with the consequent acceleration of the machine to double its sea level velocity with tb e same expenditure of power. True, as the Times stated in its above quoted editorial, the supporting power of the atmosphere has decreased; it has decreased one-half for the old 200-mile an hour speed, hut this loss has been neutralized by the increased speed, the net result being the same buoyancy as formerly, which answers that criticism.

Kent states: "It is calculated that at a height of about 3% miles above the sea level the weight of a cubic foot of air is only one-I.alf what it is at the surface of the earth, at 7 miles only one-fourth, at 14 miles only one-sixteenth, at 21 miles only one sixty-fourth, and at a height of over 45 miles it becomes so attenuated as to have no appreciable weight."

According to the above statement, at something like IS miles high the density, is one-fifth of that at sea level, so a machine should be aide to so five times as fast, or 1.000 miles per I)our, at this height.

To assume an extreme case, beyond realization, it would appear that the assumption of the speed increasing in an inverse ratio to the density of the air is very conservative, for if we go beyond the limits of the atmosphere it requires absolutely no power to maintain any constant speed. This indicates that as we ascend from the e;irth the power required to overcome air friction and displacement decreases at a greater rate than we have calculated.

Another point in our favor is the fact that at that height the specific gravity will decrease somewhere around 2 per cent, and centrifugal force will have a slight tendency to carry us from the earth.

Tt may be said that these theories have not been borne out by the experiences of Hoxsey, Johnstone and other high flyers: that at their highest altitudes they have had to fight hard to attain their maximum altitudes, and that it was difficult to maintain them when acquired. This, however, the writer claims is due to the motor and propeller not being designed to meet these conditions. The ordinary motors at those high elevations take in only a small fraction of their normal charge of mixture, which in turn causes them to give out a much smaller fraction even than that of their initial power. With Iloxsey's record height of about 11,000 feet, the barometer reading is about 19% inches, less than two-thirds the density at sea level. It is hard to state just what the loss in power would be at that height on account of so many different elements entering into the calculation. The scavenging would be improved in the light air, which, of course, would improve the power; then, again, the coldness of the charge would also improve the power until it got to the point of interfering with the proper gasifying of the charge, which it probably would reach long before attaining the maximum altitude. These troubles may be overcome in various ways: if the intake has a funnel-shaped opening which, when the higher altitudes are reached, can be pointed forward it will receive a considerable access in pressure due to the motion against the air, or a fan, pump or any other air compressing device may be used to keep the ingoing charge up to atmospheric pressure. Another method, which the writer considers preferable, is to design the engine with a very small compression space and a variable throw cam that can be adjusted at will; at the lower levels the cam would be so adjusted that the valve would close when only a fraction of the full charge had been admitted, while at the higher altitudes it would remain open during the whole of the suction stroke. This design of an engine has been more fully described by the writer in "Machinery" (April, 1910).

The speed of the engines of the present time are probably such as to furnish the greatest amount of horse power with sea level conditions, and consequently as they require more speed to meet the rarified conditions above, they lose additional power from that cause. This can be remedied by so designing the engine and propeller combination that the speed will be far below normal at the lower levels;



By Harry E. Dey.

this will give it an opportunity to speed up to the most efficient running point as the plane ascends, and from that point on the pitch of the propeller blades may be increased until it become a very steep angle; the limit of the latter being the point where the efficiency of the propeller will become too low to be practical. To prevent reaching this point before acquiring the desired speed, a very large diameter propeller will have to be designed. In proportion to the size of the planes of such a machine, however, it would probably not appear out of proportion. There are many different ways of varying the pitch of boat propellers that would be applicable to aeroplane work.

When talking upon this subject, the writer is invariably asked: How can one live at that height; won't they be asphyxiated? Won't they freeze? In reply the writer would state that a closed car would naturally be used upon all the large machines; this car could have a funnel opening in front that would cause the air to compress in the car, in the same manner as that proposed for the engine, or any of the other means for compressing the air mentioned there may also be used. If the engine is located inside the car it will not require any separate compression means, as it can take its air right from inside the car; there will be the added advantage then of the air being of a normal temperature. The engine will also provide means for heating the car.

At first thought a thousand miles per hour, or more, appears impossible for any person to withstand, but when one analyzes the situation any argument against it falls flat; the occupant of the car will feel less discomfort than a passenger riding in an automobile along an asphalt street at 15 miles per hour. For example: when we ride in a railroad train at a mile a minute speed on a good roadbed we do not realize how fast we are moving; with a rough road we appear to be going twice as fast at half the speed. As a matter of fact, the only thing that will give us any idea of motion is passing objects, and as the effect from them is inversely as the distance away, and our closest object is S miles beneath us and we are upon a perfect roadbed—the air—and at that height there will be no cross currents or eddies, the resistance will be absolutely uniform so we will hear Mr, Wall Street inquiring, "What's the matter with that engine?

We are going at a snail's pace," and the engineer will reply, "The engine is all right, the indicator reads IS miles per minute."

P. S.—The above article was drafted out by the author during a voyage to Central America last October. It was not completed at the time due to lack of the necessary technical data, and as the trip consumed several months, the opportunity of completing it did not arise until January, 1911, when it was rewritten and revised. Sunday, February 5, 1911, the New York Herald published a page article, by an unnamed writer (he is probably more careful of his reputation than the author of this article), along the same lines. The theories in both are analogous.

The nameless author states that small birds migrate at great heights, so high that they can only be seen by very powerful telescopes, and are known to make from 100 to 200 miles per hour, and that Gaetke, the German naturalist at Heligoland, has recorded the flight of plover and curlew at the rate of 22,000 feet (more than 4 miles) per minute. The plover has only a record of 76 miles per hour when flying near the earth. He thinks that the 4 miles per minute record may have been partly dim to favorable winds.

Our technical data does not appear to agree. He calculates at 7 miles to double his speed, and at 20.4 miles to go eight times as fast as at sea level, or, with his assumed sea level speed of 131 miles per hour, 1,0-48 miles an hour, "which in the latitude of Paris would enable one to go around the world in 17 hours." Evidently his barometer tables do not agree with those possessed by the present writer. In all other respects their theories exactly agree.

The unique aeroplane of W. S. Romme, which Harold F. McCormick is financing, called in New Y'ork the "Merry Widow" and in San Antonio, where it now is, the "Umbrella," came to grief on April 14.

After running over the field between the artillery and cavalry posts, but never rising from the ground, the aeroplane struck a depression. At the same time a gust of wind smashed the machine. The result was a badly wrecked aeroplane.

W. S. Romme, the operator, escaped unhurt.

Sopwith Flying the Howard Wright.

VKIJY gratifying were the tests with wireless telegraphy conducted by .1. A. I). McCurdy and the New York World during the Bridgeport. Conn., aviation meet. May 11, r_\ l.'i and 14. While no attempt was made to send long messages, decidedly successful results \\ ( r obtained in sending signals by wireless to the dome of the Pulitzer Building, n distance of 55 miles. Several private wireless stations in New Haven also had no difficulty in picking up the dots and dashes shot into the air when McCurdy rapped the key which was placed on his steering wheel.

The new apparatus for sending aerograms from aeroplanes was built by Oscar lioesen, a young llrookl.vn man who is an electrical engineer student at Stevens Institute. Ilohoken, X. .1. lie constructed the little set for the New York World in the short space of three days. It is properly equipped for both sending and receiving messages when installed on an aeroplane and every consideration was given to the question of lightness and efficiency.

That n decided step forward in aeroplane wireless sets lias been made as a result of the World's experiments was generally conceded by those who closely watched the workings of the new instrument both in the air and on the ground. Its total weight is between 4() and 50 pounds. The whole outfit is neatly packed in a light box about the sie of a dress suit ease. Lieut. Fickel, who was detailed by the War Department to attend the meet, was very much impressed with the set and sent a detailed report about the set to the Signal Corps.

Saturday, May 13. McCnrdy took the wireless set up for the first time: he rose to about 2,000 ft. and sailed in a two-mile circle around the grand stand of the aviation field. A temporary wireless station built on the grand stand received every signal, sent by McCurdy during the trials, with pronounced distinctness. Unfortunately, on the first day of the experiments. .May B!. the interference caused by numerous wireless stations operating at the same time that McCnrdy was trying

to reach the Pulitzer I'.uilding made it impossible for the operator who was listening in the dome of the Pulitzer Building to detect the signals from the aeroplane. On the following day. Sunday, when the atmosphere was undisturbed by the operation of other wireless stations, the spark sent out by McCurdy from the aeroplane was plainly heard on three different occasions. K. B. Hubinger, of New Haven. Conn., reported that the signals were also received at his station, located 17 miles from the aviation field, at Bridgeport.

The receiving qualities of the apparatus were not tried by McCurdy during the Bridgeport meet, but after a thorough test it was found that with the set. messages could be read from distances as far as 200 miles away. During experiments conducted from a dirigible balloon in England last February, aerograms were sent a distance of .*'>0 miles, which was considered a good feat. The World's tests establish a new distance mark for wireless from an aeroplane, which is made all the more important by the fact that the instrument reached the heart of New York City, generally considered to have many adverse elements for wireless work.


The transmitter consisted of four-inch heavy output induction coil with ordinary spring vibrator; 15 dry batteries e.m.f., 1.5 and extra high amperage, connected in series ; high tension condenser consisting of copper plates with special insulating compound as dielectric : helix consisting of wooden frame five inches in diameter, wound with 12 turus No. 0 I'.. & S. gauge, and ordinary telegraph key.

Receptor, two straight tuning coils wound with bare copper wire, Clapp-Kathahm detector and I'.randes telephone receiver of 2,000 ohms.

The wires were strung from the tail piece of the machine to a point directly above the ailerons and constituted the aerial. For a ground, or more strictly speaking, for balancing aerial, the metal parts of the biplane were employed.

Previous experiments with wireless were described by Harry M. Horton in the .January, Bill,



TWO bills are now before State legislatures, those of Connecticut and Pennsylvania. The Connecticut bill is about to be signed and will be'the first State law controlling aerial locomotion to be passed in the United States. The official title of the bill is "An Act Concerning the Registration, Numbering and Use of Air Ships (sic) and the Licensing of Such Air Ships." A. Holland Forbes, who lias worked in the drafting of the bill, at the suggestion of AERONAUTICS endeavored to obtain the use of one word in place of the two words "air ships" and a word which would be technically accurate. The governor of Connecticut, however, is averse to making the change. It was suggested that "aircraft" or "aerial vehicles" be used.

The use of the "airship" is much to be condemned. The international body has already settled upon the names of the different types of aerial vehicles. The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain and the Aeronautical Society in America have both published pamphlets dealing with aerial nomeclature. Publishers of dictionaries are using these pamphlets in preparing new editions. The "airship" is more and more being used in its correct sense—a common name for a dirigible balloon—by the public and by newspaper and magazine writers. It would be a most grievous mistake, AERONAUTICS believes, if the state of Connecticut should establish a precedent by adopting "air ship" or "airship" to cover any type of aerial craft. No less an error would it be to use "aeronaut" to cover the operator of any aerial apparatus. "Pilot" or "operator" would satisfactorily apply without objection.

Provisions of the Bill.

The term "air ship" (two words) in this act is defined as any kind of vehicle intended as a means for transportation of the air. The word "aeronaut" in this act includes the operator of such machine. The verb "fly" and the word "voyage," as used in this act, include every kind of locomotion by "airship."


Every owner shall file annually, in the office of the secretary of state, statement of his name, residence, post office address, description of machine owned or controlled by him, and the secretary of state shall register such vehicle, assign to it a number and issue to the owner a certificate of registration, which shall contain the name, place of residence, post office address of owner and the number or mark assigned to the vehicle, which certificate shall at all times be carried upon such vehicle and be subject to examination on demand by any proper officer.

Upon the transfer of ownership, registration shall expire and the person holding certificate must return it to the secretary witli a written notice containing the date of transfer and the name, residence, etc., of the new owner. Registration expires at midnight on the 31st of December of each year.

Every such vehicle must display in a conspicuous place, designated, duplicate numbers and characters, not less than three feet in height, so as to be visible to those who may be beneath it.

LICENSES FOR OPERATORS. "A person may fly over land or water owned or leased by him, or over land or water, the owner of whicli has given written permission to him to so fly, but no other person shall direct or operate an air ship, or act as aeronaut of any air ship, until he shall have obtained from the secretary a license for that purpose," and no license shall be issued until the applicant has been examined by one or more competent persons and the secretary is satisfied that the applicant is a proper person to receive it.

Nothing in the act shall prevent "the operating of an air ship by an unlicensed person over the age of twenty-one years or more, other than a person whose application has been refused, or where a license has been suspended or revoked, if accompanied by a licensed aeronaut, which said licensed aeronaut shall be personally liable for any violation of the provisions of this act." No license shall be issued to any person under the age of twenty-one.

Licenses are to be divided into three separate and distinct classes: License to operate spherical balloons dirigible balloons, and aeroplanes [or heavier than air machines]. "Applications for licenses shall be made upon blanks furnished by said secretary, and such application blanks shall be in such form and contain such provisions, not inconsistent with this act, as secretary may del ermine. A number shall be assigned to each license and a proper record of all applications for licenses and licenses issued shall be kept by secretary at his office and shall be open to public inspections. Eacli license shall state the name, place of residence and post office address of the licensee and the number assigned to him. Such licenses shall expire at midnight on the last day of February in each year. Such a license shall, at all times, be carried by the licensee when lie is directing or operating an air ship in this state and shall be subject to examination, upon demand, by any proper officer.

"The secretary shall collect fees as follows: For the registration of every airship, five dollars; for examination and tests of applicant for license to direct and operate air ships, as provided in this act, such sum as he may demand, in any instance not exceeding twenty-five dollars; for license to operate and direct airships, two dollars; for every additional copy of certificate of registration or license, fifty cents.

"The secretary may suspend or revoke any certificate of registration or any license issued to any person under the provisions of this act, after due liearing, for any cause lie may deem sufficient, and may suspend the license of the operator."

No airship shall be flown from any point in this state or to any point in this state, except the same is registered and except the air ship is under control and direction of a licensed operator.

"The air ship must carry throughout any trip a copy of the certificate of registry and of the certificate of competency of the aeronaut.

"Any non-resident of this state who has complied with the laws of the state within which he resides, relative to air ships and the direction and operation thereof, may fly said air ship in this state not exceeding ten days in any one year, without complying with the provisions of this act relative to the registration of the air ships and the licensing of directors and operators, subject, however, that the said non-resident must have been of a state requiring the registration of air ships and licenses to direct and operate the same and must have, been so licensed to operate and said air ship must have been so registered in that state.

"The secretary of state may issue, without examination, a license to any aeronaut holding a license from any association of individuals or societies, formed for the purpose of promoting the science of aviation, the standing and character of which is such that the secretary is satisfied the said license lias been issued on due examination and deliberation.

"Any person Hying an air ship in this state who fails to comply with any of the foregoing provisions of this act. shall be lined not more than one hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than six months, or both.

"Every aeronaut shall be responsible for all damages suffered in this state by any person or persons from injuries caused by any


voyage of an air ship directed by such aeronaut; and if he be the agent or employee of another, in making such voyage, his principal or employer shall be likewise resnonsible for the same.

"This act shall take effect on January 1, 1912."

Pennsylvania's Bill.

The Aero Club of Pennsylvania has been able to have introduced another bill providing for the licensing of aviators Hying in public in the state of Pennsylvania, with an additional license for aviators carrying passengers, and regulating the height which an aeroplane shall maintain when Hying over spectators within an aerodrome and providing penalties for violations of provisions of the Act.

Upon passage of this bill, it will be unlawful for an aviator to fly either for sport, exhibition or prizes until a license is obtained from the Secretary of State, nor can a passenger be carried without an additional license permitting him so to do.

A fee of $5 is charged for an aviator's license, and $25 for a license permitting the carrying of passengers. Xo license will be issued until the Secretary of State receives evidence that the applicant is competent to fly.

This puts into control of the Slate the licensing of aviators. Each State, in making similar laws will, no doubt, demand evidence of competency, and is likely to make its own rules. This will mean a loss by the Aero Club of America of a great share of its powers. An aviator's license granted by the club will be of no use to an aviator, and the Aero Club

of America will not be able, of course, to retaliate by refusing the aviators the privilege of flying in sanctioned meets.

The Pennsylvania bill requires that at exhibitions and meets the machine must fly at a height of not less than 200 feet if over the heads of spectators.

It also provides that it shall be unlawful at a public meet or exhibition for persons without proper credentials to trespass upon the grounds set apart for flying.

A fine of $50 or imprisonment of not more than a month, or both, for the first offense, and for the second offense $200, or imprisonment for not more than a year, or both; and forfeiture of license for the third offense, are the penalties for failing to comply with provisions of the act.

A non-resident aviator holding a license from some other State may fly in Pennsylvania not exceeding ten days in any one year without obtaining a license.

The State puts an official stamp upon the words "aviation," "aeroplane" and "aviator," as commonly used. An "aerodrome," heretofore the subject of great discussion, is defined as a "place set aside for aeronautical experiments or evolutions," which undoubtedly is the best application.

New York State Aviation Bill.

The Aeronautical Society of New York is having a bill introduced in the Xew York State Senate to cover the licensing of aviators and the control of flying within the State. The bill will have been in its linal shape, no doubt, by the time this issue is on the press.

AERIAL MOTORS OF TO-DAY (Continued from rage

23 Leigh ton—4-cyl.. vert.. 2-cycle.

24 Roberts—S-cyl., vert., 2-cycle.


25 Detroit Aero—2-cyl., horiz., 4-cycle.

26 Herrack 4-cyl., vert., 4-cycle.

27 Cowley—4-cyl., vert., 4-cycle. 2S Brott—4-cyl.. vert.. 4-cycle.

29 Metz—7-cyl., rev., 4-cycle.

30 Holmes—5-eyl., rev., 4-eyole.

31 Adams Uarwell—5-cyl., rev.. 4-cycle.

32 Rotation engine, 7-cyl., rev., 4-cycle.

33 Berger—7-cyl., rev., 4-cycle.

34 Hendee—7-cyl., rev., 4-cycle.

35 Berliner—7-cyl., rev., 4-cycle.

36 JIacomber—5-cyl., rev., 4-cycle.

roreign Motors.


1 Panhard—4-cyl., vert., 4-cycle.

2 Aster—4-cvl., vert.. 4-eyele.

3 Wright—4-cyl., vert., 4-cycle.

4 Green—4-cyl.. vert., 4-cycle.

5 N. G. A.—4-cyl., vert., 4-cycle.

6 Wolseley—4-cyl., vert., 4-cycle.

7 Clement-Bayard—4-cyl., vert., 1-cycle. S DeDion-Bouton—4-cyl., vert., 4-cycle.

9 Gyp—4-cyl., vert., 4-cycle.

10 Clerget—4-cyl., vert., 4-cycle.

11 Gregorie—4-cyl.. vert., 4-cycle.

12 Barriquand & Marre—4-cyl., vert., 4-cycle.

13 Daimler—4-cyl.. vert., 4-cycle.

14 Jap—4-cyl., vert., 4-cycle.

15 Boyd—4-cyl., vert., 4-cycle.

16 Eole—S-cyl., horiz., 4-cycle.

3 7 Darracq—2-cyl., horiz., 4-cycle.

IS Dutheil Chambers—2-cyl., horiz., l-cycle.

19 Crowley—2-cyl., horiz.. 4-cycle.

20 Ooudert—2-cyl.. horiz., 4-cycle.

21 Clement 2-cyl., horiz., 4-cycle.

22 Gobron Brille—S-cyl., ,radial, 4-cycle.

23 Anzani—3-cyl., radial. 4-cycle.

24 Esnault Peltrie—7-cvl., radial. 4-cvcle.

25 N. E. C. Mort—4-cyl.. vert.. 2-cycle.

26 Lucas—4-cyl.. vert.. 2-cycle.

27 Lamplough—4-cyl., Y, 2-cycle. 2S Antoinette—S-cyl., Y. 4-cycle.

29 E. X. Y.—S-cyl.. Y, 1-cycle.

30 Simms—6-cyl., Y, 4-cycle.


31 Gnome—7-cyl:. rev., 4-cycle.

32 Empress—7-cyl., rev., 4-cyl.

33 Salmson—7-cyl., rev., 4-cycle.

34 Farcot—2-cyl., rev., 2-cycle.

35 Pipe—S-cyl., Y, 4-cycle.

36 Renault—N-eyl., Y, 4-cycle.

37 Fiat—s-cyl., Y, 4-cycle.

3s Paradox—4-cvl., vert., 4-cycle.

39 Boyd—4-cyl., vert., 4-cycle.

SUMMARY OF AMERICAX MOTORS. 17 vertical type (11 water cooled, 3 air cooled).

2 horizontals (1 water cooled, 1 air cooled). 9 Y types (all water cooled).

5 revolving type (all air cooled).

Of above, of the 4-cycle type there are 31 and of the 2-cycle type there are 5.

The water-cooled total 24 and the air-cooled 12.

SUMMARY OF FOREIGN MOTORS. 19 vertical type (17 water cooled. 2 air cooled).

6 horizontals (all water cooled).

3 radials (2 water cooled. 1 air cooled).

7 A' types (4 water cooled. 3 air cooled).

4 revolving (all air cooled).

of above, of the 4-cycle type there are 35 and 4 of the 2-cyeIe type.

The water cooled total 29 and the air cooled 10.


Total American motors.................. 36

Total foreign motors.................... 39

Total ............................. 75

36 Yertieal type (31 water cooled. 5 air cooled).

s Horizontals (7 water cooled, 1 air cooled).

.'! Radials (2 water cooled, 1 air cooled), lfi \" types (13 water cooled, 3 air cooled). 12 Revolving type, all air cooled.

of these, 66 are 4-cycle typo and 9 2-cycle; 53 are water cooled and 22 air cooled.

THE following relates to the progress and instruction of officers of the Maneuver Division, at San Antonio, Texas, in operating the Wright and Curtiss machines and the method of instruction that is being pursued.

A total of eighteen officers have been detailed as candidates for instruction upon their own application. These officers are permitted to have access to the hangars, study the machines, under the supervision of the instructor, and are then permitted to select which type of machine they prefer to operate. They are next taken, for a (light in the machine, as a passenger, by the instructor.

None of these officers have been relieved from any of their regular duties with their regiments, but are required to show their interest and enthusiasm for this work by putting in their extra time in the manner described.

The only officers who have flown, in the machines as pilots are Lieutenants Beek, Eoulois, Kelly and Walker. They are not yet considered competent to act as instructors.

The United States Government will have, on .luly 1, three types of American-built aeroplanes, tlie third being one of the model "D" Burgess biplanes, built by the Burgess Co. & Curtis, Marblehead. Mass. The signal corps now has at San Antonio a Curtiss machine and two Wright machines.

This new Burgess machine is now at the Squan-tum field, near Boston, for trial.

Orders for aeroplanes and new pupils are coming in with satisfactory frequency. The model "]>" machine which William Hilllard used at Mineola is to be equipped with a Gnome engine, which is already on its way. More than half a dozen pupils have paid .$.">00 for a course of actual flying in Burgess machines.

Bids will be opened at the War Department May 20 for four sheds at College Park, 45 by 45 feet inside, 11 feet high at bottom of roof truss.

The Government has taken up thus far, through the War Department, only the subject of construction, maintenance and operation of aeroplanes, having regard mainly for their requirements in war. Carrying out this idea, as more fully explained by General Allen in the May number, aerodromes will be established at the various military tests throughout the country The two Wright aeroplanes and the Curtiss have two officers for each machine, which have been with the Manoeuvre Division at San Antonio, Texas, for

some time, have already done some practical and useful work in the way of carrying messages, have taken photographs and have made some experiments on the requirement of wireless telegraphy in the way of reporting information. Results are encouraging and the experiments will be continued.

"The aeroplane of the coming year," said General James Allen, at the banquet of the Aeronautical Society, "is supposed to carry at least 40(> pounds of useful load in addition to the aviator and the necessary supply of petrol for a considerable radius of action, so that five of them would carry one ton. In. estimating the strength of the Army, we generally deal in thousands of men. As a suggestion of what might be possible with five aeroplanes, it may be noted that a day's rations for one man, commonly called the haversack ration, weighs two pounds, or for each one thousand men, one ton. A thousand rounds of service rifle ammunition weigh one hundred pounds, so that one ton. would provide twenty rounds of ammunition each for one thousand men. When it is known that these loads are carried at the rate of forty miles per hour, you can realize that a thousand men who are twenty miles away would in one trip of five aeroplanes be supplied with a day's rations in thirty minutes or twenty rounds of ammunition per man for the one thousand men in the same time. This brings up the question of what is possible with the aeroplane in the way of transportation for supplies of food and ammunition for the army. Taking the same unit, five aeroplanes for a ton. twenty such units would be capable of carrying twenty tons of explosive of incendiary material and dropping it over a fortification or besieged fortress within fen minutes. These thoughts are simply presented with a view of showing what it is possible to accomplish with a comparatively small number of these machines. Their promise to be the poor nations' defense is emphasized by the fact that some of the less wealthy nationalities are spending the most money for aeronautics.

"It is the policy of the War Department to place at the disposal of practical men the use of such aviation fields as may be established.

"The Department is also ready to co-operate with aeronautical societies in the other divisions of the work; that is to say, the scientific study of the problems of flight and research and experiments in the laboratory. Aviation has now reached a point where we can no longer depend upon empirical formulae for progress, and we look to aeronautical societies to formulate for us the true theory of dynamic flight."


LOWELL, Mass., April 26.—Jay B. Benton, pilot, J. W. Elagg and Sumner Willis, aged 1 I, in the "Boston" to West Newburv, Mass., Time, 1 h. 45 m.; dist., 30 miles; alt.,* 4,600 ft.

KINGSTON, N. Y., May 15.—Chas. F.Walsh, pilot, A. Leo Stevens and Wm. F. Hoehn, secretary of the Kingston Chamber of Commerce, made an ascension in the "Stevens 27," landing at Krving-, Mass. The balloon passed over the Berkshire hills, and Pittsfield was sighted. Kingston supplied pure coal gas, with a lift of 48 pounds to the thousand cubic feet direct from the benches, after going the washer and dryer. Many fires were noted. It is expected that an aero club will shortly be formed In Kingston. Distance 100 miles.

ST. LOUIS, Mo., May 7.—Wm. F. Assmann, Lieut. .John P. Hart, Sergt. Joseph O'Reilly and Sergt. Emil Wunder, of the Signal Corps of the Missouri National Guard, in the "Miss Sofia" to Springfield, O., 357 miles. A wireless telegraph outfit was carried and the other record was established when communication was bad with Fort Leavenworth, Kan., Chicago, Kansas City, Milwaukee and other large

cities. This is the first time that wireless messages have been received by passengers in a spherical balloon.

PHILADELPHIA, May 9.—Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge, John H. Noggle and Mrs. Ada T. Kurtz in the "Phila. II." After being in the air from 9:30 a. m. to 3:20 p. m„ the balloon was taken in tow by a tugboat and the aeronauts hauled along by the drag rope to a final landing at Delaware City. The balloon was drifting down Delaware. Ray, ballast was low, and it was in danger of going out to sea, when Dr. Eldridge's signals were caught by the tug. When the tugboat reached its dock the balloon was hauled down and the passengers got out of the basket. Several times during the towed part of the trip the balloon dipped down into the water and finally Mr. Noggle got on board the boat.

HAMILTON, O., April 25.—Albert llolz and Charles Trout man in the "Drifter" to Princeton, 111., landing there the following evening. Hamilton was left at 7 p. m. Distance 2S0 miles.


THE Automobile Club of America has finally announced rules for its Thousand Dollar Prize to be awarded the competitor whose motor secures the highest number of points according to the scale drafted by the club. The prize will not be awarded in any case unless a motor runs continuously for at least three hours at what the committee considers a satisfactory load and speed.

AERONAUTICS for a long time was insistent upon the necessity for prizes and the Aero Club of America was urged to offer prizes without result. It was with much satisfaction that AERONAUTICS viewed the first announcement of the Automobile Club's competition.

This prize is the only one open in America, at least, which has for its object real advancement in the science of aeronautics. Other prizes could be offered for greatest weight lifted; for set or greatest weight lifted a certain height in the fastest time, or combinations of weight, time, and height; for speed in climbing, distance, stability, flight with least horsepower per pound weight, duration, slowness of flight, etc.

Prizes for Liberty flights and other dangerous "stunts" are not asked by those who have the real interests of the art and science at heart.

Entries for the competition will be closed at midnight, July 1, 1911.

The test will be conducted in the laboratory of The Automobile Club of America, 54th and 55th Sts., New York City.

The entrant shall provide, besides the motor, complete equipment for operating the same, including:

(a) Complete ignition equipment. (b) Lubricant and complete lubricating equipment (with tank, if necessary), (c) Complete cooling equipment (including radiator, pump and piping, if necessary), (d) A suitable flange or fitting for connecting motor to dynamometer, and sub-frame, if same is necessary for adapting motor to the club's adjustable motor support. (e) Suitable piping, etc., for connecting engine to cooling system, lubricating tank and fuel tank.

The club will provide: (a) All necessary apparatus for making required measurement, (b) Fuel, the same to be gasolene of about 0.72 specific gravity (64 degrees Beaume). (c) A blower capable of delivering from a 4 ft. x 4 ft. opening a blast of air (at room temperature) having a maximum velocity of approximately fifty miles per hour. This may be placed anywhere to suit the entrant.

THIS TRIAL SHALL INCLUDE: First.—A test of three hours' duration at constant speed as nearly as can be maintained. The speed may be selected by the entrant. At the start, the load will be set to bold the motor at this speed for the particular spark and throttle position selected by entrant, and this load shall not be varied during the three-hour test except as it may change automatically, as a result of the variation in the speed of motor.

Second.—A test to determine ease and certainty of starting: (a) From a standstill, and (b) Starting up again while engine is still turning over slowly.

Third.—Any other short test which the committee may require, in order to properly award the points under the headings given below.


(a) Weight. In these rules the "weight of the motor and all accessories" shall mean the weight of the motor and all its parts ready to run, together with the following: Complete ignition equipment, including all necessary wiring; complete carburetor equipment and all gasolene used during the three-hour test (but

not tank for latter, or piping from tank to carburetor); complete lubricating equipment, including tank, all piping and all oil used during three-hour test; water-pump, radiator, all piping and all water in system at time of starting three-hour test; and all other devices which form essential parts of the motor equipment. Tt does not include flywheel as none is necessary.

(b) No motor shall be eligible for this competition which weighs, with all its accessories, more than ten pounds per brake horsepower (which horsepower it can develop continuously for three hours.)


(c) The power shall be measured at the drive shaft, which shall be direct connected to the club's electrical cradle-type dynamometer, (d) During the three-hour test no adjustment of the motor, carburetor, or of the fuel apparatus or ignition system will be allowed, except adjustment of the throttle and the timing lever, and no replenishing of the supply of lubricant or of water in the cooling system will be permitted, (e) Four attempts to start motor in beginning the three-hour test will be permitted. If, in making these starts, the motor runs more than five minutes, the test will be considered as begun, and all readings of fuel consumption, speed and torque will start at the end of this five-minute period, and this shall be considered the official beginning of the three-hour test. In starting, if the motor runs more than one and less than five minutes, this shall constitute a false start. Only three such false starts will be allowed.


(f) For the purpose of cooling the motor or radiator, or both, any entrant may make use of the blower mentioned above.

No motor shall receive any points. (1) If it fails to complete the three-hour test. (2) If, during the three-hour test, it fall below a speed which is 85 per cent, of the declared speed. (3.) If, having made three false starts, it fails to start on the fourth attempt.


In scoring, the points awarded will be based principally on the three-hour test, but will depend to some extent on the other tests, and will be apportioned under the following heads:

Ttem A shall include: Ability to run steadily at the speed declared throughout the three-hour test. During this test the motor will be allowed to drop to that speed which is 95 per cent, of the declared speed, without penalty, and will receive 25 points. For each drop in speed of 1 per cent, of the declared speed below 9 5 per cent, of said speed. 2Vo points will be deducted under Item A. If, during the three-hour test, the motor falls below that speed which is S5 per cent, of the declared speed, no points will be awarded under any item.

Item B.—Each motor which can demonstrate the ability to start easily, to run slowly, and to accelerate quickly under load up to the declared speed, shall receive 5 points. Motors failing to demonstrate this ability will receive no points.

Item C.—That motor which consumes the least quantity of fuel per brake horsepower per hour during the three-hour test will receive 15 points, and other motors will receive a number of points inversely proportional to the amount of fuel they consume as compared to the amount of fuel consumed by that motor sliowing the greatest economy per brake horsepower per hour. The power considered will be the average power delivered throughout the three-hour test.

(Continued on page 21h)


Captain Baldwin in the Steel Machine.

Photo by Edwin Levick

Tar new biplane of ("apt. Thomas S. Baldwin. "Itpd Devil the Third." is a simplified and standardized repliea, in the main, of his two pn>vious machines, of which details have appeared in AERONAUTICS.

This latest machine is built entirely of steel, save for the cloth on the planes, the main lateral beams and ribs. it is very speedy, having been timed around <><> miles an hour As soon as the machine was ready for trial, Captain Baldwin sent it over the Mineoln held a couple of times at first attempt. No changes have been made in Iialance, and the genial captain has been making the last three weeks in May some good Mights over to llicksville and back and around the Hempstead Plains.

The parts were built for Captain Baldwin 1o his designs by 0. and A. Witteniann of Staten Island.

Main Planets.—A novelty has been introduced in plane construction. The ribs butt against both tile front and rear lateral beam, and are attached by square tube ferrules, as shown in the sketch. There is no trailing edge, considered as a structural part of the sections of the plane. The trailing edge, or surface to the rear of the rear beam, is built separately, with its own little beams and ribs and may be cither attached rigidly or hinged for use as ailerons. The main planes are divided u]) into five-foot sections (except the center one), which are quickly interchangeable. There are also short panels which can be fitted at either extremity of one or both Iho main planes, thus increasing Ihe area of the planes by 1(1% or LM square feet, as desired. These are shown attached in the drawings. The diagonal wire bracing of each section of panel runs over the top of the ribs under the Baldwin vulcanized fabric, which is lacked to both sides of the ribs and beams. The cloth is not laced to the panels, as formerly.

On Irii/ijcrn.—These are all of round si eel tubing filled with hickory. There are no .joints in these: they run out to tail and elevator in one full length.

Iiiinniiij/ (tear. The two Hartford tired wheels, which, with the tail skid bear the weight of the machine, are centered directly under the front beam of the lower plane. The front wheel is used only in landing. Two pieces of round tubing run from the huh of this front wheel back to the distance rod between the other two wheels. Rectangular hickory filled tubing runs from Ihe front wheel up to the rear of the eimhle bed. (Jreat care has been taken to avoid drilling holes and weakening 1 his member. The cross pieces for foot resl, steering pillar and seat frame are all attached hv clamps.

I'owe.r l'lmit.— Hall-Scott S cylinder (4 x 4) V-type (to h.p. motor, driving direct a 7-ft. diam. (:'-ft. 11itch Gibson propeller. Hall-Scott radiator. Mea magneto. Stromberg carburetor. Water circulation'is by a large capacity centrifugal pump. The oiling system is by gear driven pump which drives Hie oil through the hollow cam shaft into the oil compartments under each pair of cylinders.

Slabililir. Ailerons hinged 1o rear beams of both upper and lower planes. A light steel tube strut connects each pair. The ailerons are positively operated ill both directions by Roobling cables l willing through copper tidies with Bowden wire inside where bends occur. 1o the shoulder brace. The aviator's leaning to the high side causes the pair of ailerons on the low side to increase Ihe lift on Hint side and decrease the lift on the high side.

('milrats. The front elevator works in conjunction with the movable surface of the tail. Pushing forward on tin- steering wheel and pillar steers down, and vice versa. Turning tlie wheel right or left steers respectively. The rudder cables run once around the steering wheel (fastened al the topi, down through the hollow pillar or column through Bowden wire, cross ami run under Hie lower plane out along the out risers to ihe ends of Ihe horizontal mast mi each side of Ihe rudder. The right fool cuts out the magneto. There is also a snap switch on the steering wheel, as wejl as a knife switch under tin- left corner of the seat. The left foot works the throttle.




THE I'.Ul monoplane, the second one built of own design, of Walter E. Kairchild. Mine-ola. E. E. had its first trials on May 11, with Auguste Denis as pilot. Denis, who has a pilot license of the A. C. F.. has been en-traced by Mr. Fairchild to fly the machine. During succeeding days several short flights were made about the Held. The aviator was cautious and took no chances with this new machine.

Eike its predecessor, it is built entirely of steel tubing, with the exception of skids, ribs and cloth covering.

Xo change was made in balance or controls, and it flew the first time out. The big Emerson eneine turned np 520 pounds standing thrust at !i."»0 r. p. m., with a special new type Gibson propeller. In Hying, the engine speeds up to 1,150 r. p. m. The scales could show no greater pull, as the pointer went to the limit. Xo difference was found in leaving the grounds, whether 35 pounds or 215 pounds of gasoline were carried.

On May 4 a wheel was injured by landing in a hide, and through a misunderstanding the aviator started another flight. To avoid some bystanders while at a low elevation, he steered for the ground and the wheel gave way, breaking the skid and standing the machine on its nose. Outside of the running gear, but one rib was broken, the crankshaft bent and the propeller demolished. The strength of the steel construction lias been made very evident.

Main Planes.—The wings have steed tube lateral beams and bridge-construction main ribs, which are 2 ft. apart, with additional light ^-in. by \i-in. spruce ribs in between spaced 8 in. apart. Light spruce strips % in. by M in. run laterally with the wing about every S in., screwed to the main ribs. Wilson & Silsby untreated cloth is used to cover both sides, and is tacked on main ribs and edges and then bound with rattan around the edsre of the wings and on the first three main ribs out from the "fuselage" on each side. There is 7 in. of warp up and down on each wing.

Fiiselat/p.—All of steel. Xo aluminum or other metal used. The fuselage is in three sections. The forward section is 10 ft. long and the two rear sections It ft. each. The ends of the longitudinal members butt together at the joints and a (bin. sleeve is fitted over tight and pinned. Special sockets are used which fit over the 1 in. 22-gauge tubing of longitudinal members and into the horizontal and vertical struts. These special split tees can be easily removed for replacements. The stay wires are piano Xo. 12 English gauge. The manner of fastening and tightening is illustrated. Pieces of 1%-in. tubing Vs in. in length are used, with four holes drilled for the common spoke nipples. From the wire tightener in the center of each panel the wires go through copper tubes

inserted in holes drilled through the sockets and fi.bmg at joints. The three sets of wires which go through at each joint are wrapped with copper wire on either side of the copper tube and solderee? to prevent slipping either way. This peculiar form of turnbuckle adjustment accomplishes tin* object of its design, which was to allow a certain amount of flexibility to the fuselage. The first ii ft. of the fuselage is yet to be covered with aluminum sheet and the balance with cloth to reduce head resistance. The, construction allows walking all over it, suspended at either end, without visible deflection.

Slabilit.i/.—Warping of wings by turning hand wheel to the high side. A sprocket on the hand wheel engages chain to which is connected wires which go down to another chain and sprocket fastened to grooved pulleys, over which run the warping wires. The elevators work by pushing or pulling the steering column. The rudder works by a foot yoke, the wires not being crossed.

Punning Gear.—This to be changed to include a center skid with trucks similar to the Farman, using Goodyear Dunlops 24-in. by 3-in. tires. The tail is supported by a skid, with shock absorber.

Power Plant.— Emerson 100-horsepower, six-cylinder, two-cycle engine mounted inside the frame, with a special flat radiator on each side, weighing 20 pounds each. Eight hundred feet of tubing is used in the radiator. Each tube is flattened down to a cross section of .75 in. by .03 in. The circulation is by gear pump. Mea magneto, special Schebler carburetor. The gasoline is fed by gravity from a 30-gallou rectangular tank. The consumption of gas is about six and a half to seven gallons an hour. Oil at the rate of a quart to five gallons of gas is sufficient for lubrication. The propeller is a Gibson special, S ft. diameter by 0 ft. pitch, shaped like the well-known "Xor-male," with the cross sections of the Chauvierc. A Warner tachometer registers the revolutions per minute. The spark advance is controlled by a small wheel at the left hand. The gas and air control is at the right hand All control wires are double 1/10-in. Eoebling cable and Xo. 14 "aviator" wire. There are no pulleys for controls.

]\'ri</ht.—Four hundred and seventy-five pounds without the power plant, which adds 400 pounds, including radiator and water, ready for gas and operator.

'Itah for WiMard. lie is at last coming back to the East, the land of his nativity, to set up a new machine. Xo details have been given out, but it may be that it will be rudderless. "Charlie'' has been married and there's no telling. Congratulations on both events!

Ready to Start in the Tairchild II. Photo by Edwin Levick

The Hempstead Plains Aviation Co.




At Garden City, Long Island, N. Y.

under the personal direction of



Andrew Ilounert St. Croix Johnstone Rene Simon Edmond Audemnrs

Rene Barrier Roland G. Garros

The finest flying grounds in the United States, 1,200 acres without an obstruction, 18 miles from New York City Zk mile straightaway



Flying is a Fine Sport, a Splendid Science and a Rich Livelihood.


For full particulars address

ALFRED J. MOISANT, Pres. - Times Building, New York City



THE most important as well as the largest dinner ever held by an aeronautical organization in this country, was that of The Aeronautical Society, the first of a yearly series, in the Hotel Astor. New York. April 27. Eight hundred people were either diners or interested auditors.

The President of the United States, William II. Taft. the guest of honor, was the humorist of the evening. His presence was the climax-capping feature of an evening of events. He was presented with a gold membership card of the Aeronautical Society of Fort Worth and the Aeronautical Society of New Y'ork. Hunter E. Wilson, of the Fort Worth organization, traveled to New Y'ork for the sole purpose of presenting the President with this card. The President stated that he would consider the card good for one flight in the first aeroplane capable of carrying him, as he put it.

With Hudson Maxim, president of the Aeronautical Society, as toastmaster, the speakers of the evening included : Honorable Williain Randolph Hearst, who received a gold medal from the Aeronautical Society in acknowledgment of his coast-to-coast $r>0.000 prize : Brigadie/ General James Allen. Chief Signal Officer of tHe United States Army ; Gutzon L. M. Bor/lnm. the famous sculptor; Dr. Charles Hoolittle Wolcott, Secretary of Smithsonian Institution ; Rear Admiral Robert E. Peairt- : Professor Willis E. Moore, Chief United States Weather Bureau ; Thomas A. Hill, Director of the Aeronautical Stfciety ; W. R. Turnbull. of Canada, rcpri/senting the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain/and Captain Washington Irving" Chambers, of the United States Navy.

The speech of Mr. Hearst was as peaceful in tone as was President Maxim's warlike. "Every dog has its day, but the dogs of war have had their day. The conduct of war belongs to the black barbarity of the past." he said: "the naviga; tion of the air belongs to the bright civilization of the future, a civilization upon the hare threshold of which we reverently stand."

In urging the necessity for the United States Government to take up the study of aeronautics and telling of what has been done by the Signal Corps thus far in buying machines. General Allen pointed out the progress of military aeronautics in other nations as applied to research work.

"Realizing the importance of aeronautics. Great Britain has recently appointed an Advisory Committee for aeronautics, with the Right Honorable Lord Rayleigh as president, and nine other gentlemen prominent in military, naval and physical sciences, as associates. This committee has submitted an interim report, which has been printed for Parliament, and outlines a thorough and systematic programme for the theoretical and experimental investigations in aerostatics and aerodynamics as bearing on the important problems

constantly arising in aerial navigation. The National Physical Laboratory, which corresponds to the United States Bureau of Standards, has been provided with special buildings and apparatus suitable for undertaking various kinds of aeronautical experiments and tests under the direction of the Government to encourage in every possible way the advance of this new science in Great Britain.

"In Germany, the University of Gottingen has for a number of years given special attention to aerodynamical experiments in a specially constructed and well-endowed laboratory, and it is understood that in the latest designs of dirigible balloons for the German Government, valuable assistance has been received from the study of models in this laboratory.

"In France, the University of Paris has recently been richly endowed and provisions made for carrying forward similar experimental work for the citizens of the French Republic.

"In Russia, one of the best equipped aerodynamical laboratories in the world has been founded near Moscow. In addition, to this, aerial navigation has become the subject of special instructions at various universities in Europe."

Secretary Wolcott sketched out the work of the Smithsonian Institution, the only one in this country for many years to encourage aeronautical research, beginning with the experiments of Lang-ley, telling how they came to be financed, and promised the co-operation of Smithsonian Institution with any aerodynamic laboratory which might be established.

Rear Admiral Peary discussed the possibility of reaching the pole by aeroplane and prophesied its feasibility.

"Dinner in New York to-day and the day after to-morrow in London is not impossible." said Professor Moore, who applied meteorology to flying as a means of great speed.

Mr TT ill outlined the history of the Society to date, commented, with industrial data, upon the status of commercial aeronautics in Europe, and broached the Society's expectations of endowing an Aeronautical Chair.

With special credit for Eugene Ely's flight to a battleship, Captain Chambers spoke of the expectations of the Navy and the development of a special navy aeroplane of which the Curtiss "Triad" is the first of its type

The big ball room of the Astor was appropriately decorated with a great number of beautifully built models, some even almost half size, like the Wittemann glider. At each nlate was a toy balloon attached to a string. The menus were unique and and most attractive. In harmony with the color of the paper stock the covers were made of the latest Goodyear rubberized cloth. Everyone who attended had something complimentary to say about them.


WITH a national law covering the registration of aeroplanes and the licensing of operators, along the lines of the marine law, as urged by the Aeronautical Manufacturers' Association, or with state laws alrcadv before several legislatures and shortly to be introduced in others the Aero Club of America will find its licenses of no value.

Its foreign affiliation will be valuable only for international recognition of records and for the exchange of club privileges.

The club cannot adopt conditions differing from those laid down by the international body.

It is apparent that it cannot adopt the same conditions for the issuing of licenses as may be adopted by a state or the nation. If state laws are the outcome of present activity, it is probable each state will have laws more or less at vari-


a nee with those of another, as in the case of automobile laws.

No state can delegate powers to a club or accept Aero Club licenses as sufficient evidence for the issuance of state licenses.

The club will not be able to conduct meets or license meets, for by the terms of its foreign agreement such meets can admit only aviators holding club licenses; and besides, the state would not allow a meet unless contestants were duly qualified under state laws.

The club licenses would be merely an honor. An aviator could not fly with that alone : he cotdd fly with state licenses only : the former would be but a decoration- the two would amount to an absurdity.

First Annual Banquet, Aeronautical Society. Photo hy L. Leicis

ArthurdBHSbra°nne ^U^'Ttatt^"''?'''! Ir£.nff Cllaml3ers. Hiiam Percy Maxim, Colonel J. J. Astor. Pierre Dupont, Nathan Strauss, D? cuaries Dooiitti? Wni^J? iٰ„VX w-٦deg;-druff'» Tll0mas HiU. Professor W. R. Turnbull, Lee S. Burridg-e, Professor Willis L. Moore Lay HoioX Joh^w r«(f r-rWllUamii How,aTr* Taft- Hudson Maxim, Honorable William Randolph Hearst, Rear-Admiral Robert E B^nry McCrackSS ' General James AUen' United states Senator J. S. Martine, Congressman John J. Pitzg-erald and Chancellor John

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Judge the Goodyear by the fact that these aviators have equipped their own machines with it: Glenn Curtiss, Brookins, Parmelee. Ely. Garros, Milliard, Grahame-White, Charles K. Hamilton, Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin, .1. A. D. McCurdy. Harkness and scores of other famous American and foreign aviatois.

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The Wright Company tried for months to get a fabric that would not shrink and stretch. They bought yards and yards of material in America and Europe, but none of it was satisfactory. Now they use (ioodyear Rubberized Aeroplane Fabric exclusively. That just about tells the story, doesn't it?

Goodyear fabrics are now being adopted also by the Burgess Company \ Curtis, Curtiss Aeroplane Co., The Metz Co.. the Detroit Aeroplane Co.. and practically all the American manufacturers as well as the foremost aviators in the world.

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THE National Council of the Aero Clubs of America, fondly planned to be the citadel of aeronautics in this country, is now but an outermost entrenchment which may or may not—according to the percentage of backbone owned by those sincerely interested in advancement—prove to be the scant burial place of national affairs. Let it be hoped otherwise !

In the beginning, some of the Aero Club of America's affiliated clubs seceded, and, with others, formed a so-called national body, primarily intended to control all national affairs in' this country on a democratic basis. The delegates to the first meeting came armed with a firm determination to deprive the Aero Club of America of its alleged arbitrarily assumed powers, which the delegates thought it should not wield. With the club's foreign affiliation as an unduly inflated billy, a majority of the delegates were made to imagine the leadership of the club imperative, and an agreement of organization was framed and adopted.

This proved a leaky vessel and a new one was thought desirable. Committees from the National Council and the Aero Club met and considered and framed a new agreement—or, rather, a new agreement was written out by W. W. Miller, one of the members who represented the Aero Club on this conference committee. It was not changed one iota from that time until it was presented to the National Council at the April 4 meeting and ratified by the Council.

The president of the club and two other representatives of the club were present at this ratification meeting, and at the moment each clause was read over and voted upon ; and not a word of objection was made.


At a meeting of the Aero Club of America, held May 4, this agreement of organization and by-laws of the Council were brought up for adoption and signature. An adverse vote was obtained and the document was not ratified on the grounds that a clause to the effect that no club shall he a member of the National Council unless it he affiliated with the Aero Club of America was not incorporated therein ; the A. C. A. claiming that it was agreed upon by the conference committees. Members of the conference committees state they never heard of any such clause. W. W. Miller and Major Samuel Iteber, representing the Aero Club on this committee, were not present on May 4.

In answering a question of a delegate at the April 4 meeting of the Council, Mr. Miller stated that with the ratification of the agreement he saw no further reason for the Aero Club's having affiliated clubs, and that he understood membership in the Council was tantamount to affiliation with the A. C. A.

The president of the A. C. A. has even himself said that the Council must be paramount in

national affairs. This is evidenced by his signature to the report of the conference committee, of which he was chairman. He has apparently changed his mind recently—perhaps just about the time the club discovered it had overlooked a card.


A few days after the Aero Club's dishonoring its offspring, the Automobile Club of America advised the Aero Club of America that the latter was not in a position to make contracts or agreements with other bodies as the Aero Club already had an agreement with the Automobile Club by which the latter recognized the former as its "Aviation Section."

Instead of the Aero Club's being in a position to dictate to the Council, it is not even free to make an agreement with the Council. It may even be found that clubs at present holding affiliation agreements with the Aero Club may find themselves not affiliated at all.

While the National Council has worked all along in good faith, it is apparent that the Aero Club allowed the Council to ratify the agreement, with delegates of the A. C. A. taking part in the action, during all which time the Aero Club was not even a free agent to make such a contract. To save its face it must then charge bad faith on the part of the Council, despite the fact that members of the conference committee are authority for the statement that no such clause as the one sought to be inserted by the Aero Club was ever a part of the agreement.

As has been clearly set forth in past issues of AERONAUTICS, the Aero Club of America never intended that the Council should amount to much more than a name. What little powers it had were allowed it by the Aero Club. Then, the Aero Club demanded even the right to say who might and might not be members of the Council. And now, through stupidity, the Aero Club finds that it has no rights itself, so far as concerns the delegation of rights to other bodies.

The National Council has undoubtedly done it* duty as it saw it, hindered, and perhaps half blinded, by the dust in the trail of the Aero Club as it has been, only to be deserted at the moment the Council thought it saw a successful outcome of its endeavors.

The only feasible plan for progress from now on seems * to be for the Council to again reorganize, eliminate the jellyfish, obtain the cooperation of all the live clubs in the country, draft a set of rules for its future conduct along absolutely independent lines, work diligently with efforts directed towards more rapid progress in the sport and industry, and forget that the Aero Club of America ever existed.

If the Aero Club of America cannot delegate powers, then the National Council must assume its own, or go out of business.


THE sketch gives the general dimensions of the Howard-Wright machine as flown by Sopwith. The photograph shows him starting on the flight in which he won the De Forest prize.

The span of this machine has been increased from 30 ft. to 4S ft. by the addition of panels on the upper plane. The planes are single surfaces, and both are fitted with hinged flaps for maintaining lateral stability. They are placed C ft. 0 in. apart by means of eight pairs of struts fitting into lugs on the main spars. The front spar forms the leading edge of the plane, the other being about 5 ft. to the rear. They are rectangular in section and are strengthened bv a system of wire bracing similar to that which is a feature of the Sommer machine. The ribs of the main planes are spaced equidistant and are inclosed in pockets on the upper side of the fabric. Throughout the machine lugs are used for connect-

ing up the various parts of the framework, and wire bracing is freely used.

The engine and seat accommodation form one unit, being mounted on a couple of stout beams, which arc clipped to the main spars of the lower plane. The two radiators are each fastened to the center pair of struts. The gas tank is suspended from the top spars, the lubricating oil tank being mounted above the engine.

As it was necessary for machines competing for the P.aron De Forest prize to be entirely I'.ritish built, the engine is of the latest 10. N. V. type of 60-80 horsepower, the bore and stroke being 105 mm. by 110 mm. The special feature of the construction is the use of electrol.vtically deposited copper water jackets. The complete power plant, including radiators, water, etc., weighs just over 400 pounds. The machine is fitted witli a Howard-Wright propeller of S ft. .'1 in. diameter and 5 ft. 0 in. pitch.



The Howard Wright Biplane

The spherical balloon pilots of the Aero Club of America total 40, and are as follows, in the order in which the licenses were granted:

,). O. McCoy, A. Leo Stevens, Frank S. Lahm, Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, Carl E. Myers, Henry B. Mersey, Alan II. llawley, Capt. ('has. 1 >e F. Chandler, Thomas S. Raldwin, Albert C. Triacn, A. Midland Forbes, Charles J. Glidden, X. 11. Arnold, .J. II. Wade, ,lr., A. II. Morean, Charles Walsh, A. I?. Lambert, Charles Levee, II. 10. Honeywell, G. L. Bumbaugb, Dr. Tt. M. Randall, Carl G. Fisher, John Berry, Wm. F. Whitehouse, Edgar W. Mix, S. Louis Von l-'hul, OlilTord B. Harmon, .lames Bemis, H. II. Clayton, Uoy A.

Knabcnsbue, George B. Harrison, Jay B. Benton. J. Walter Flagg, Win. T. Assmann, A. T. Atherholt, William Van Sleet, Dr. L. E. Custer, K. S. Cole, Horace B. Wild.

Dirigible pilots total but three: Thomas S. Baldwin, Frank I'. Lahm and Horace B. Wild. This list could be added to considerably. Glenn IT. Curtiss, Carl E. Myers, Uoy iCnabenshue are all experienced in dirigible balloon work. Outside of the club, there are Frank W. Good ale, Lincoln Beachey, Chas. K. Hamilton and a half dozen others who have operated small airships for years.

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Catalogue Regular N Number P"ce, each گyf 106 Turnbuckle (bent end)...........12cts. $.08

105 Turnbuckle (straight end).......12

100a Turnbuckle (Samson Lock).. 25

101 Turnbuckle (Bleriot).............35

102 Turnbuckle (Bleriot).............45

103 Turnbuckle (Bleriot lock nut) ..4.5 104. Turnbuckle (Bleriot lock nut) ..55

108 Turnbuckle Wrench..............10

109 One in Post Socket 5/16 Bolt 30

110 Oval Post Socket 1" by 15/8 ..50

123 One inch Brass Ferrule.........10

125 Baby Snap Hooks.................

128 Combination Outrigger...... 1.75

130 Bed Rail Clamps, 2 inch........35

4 " ........50

" 6 " ........50

134 One-way Terminal................05

135 2, 3 and 4-way Terminals......10

177 Struts (Light) 44, 5 and 6 ft. Formerly $.70, $\90, and $1.15 Now 43, 51 and 57 cts. each.

177 Struts (Heavy) 44, 5 and 6 ft. Formerly $1.50, $1.95 and $2.25 Now 50, 57 and 73 cts. each.

171 Laminated Ribs (Light) 44, 5, and 6 ft., formerly $.70, $.85 and $1.10. Now 37, 43 and 50 cents each.

174 Laminated Ribs (Heavy) 4£, 5 and 6 ft., formerly $1.50, $1.85 and $2.30. Now 72,86 and 93 cts. each.

178 Main Spars, (1 by If) .10 cents per running foot.

.08 .11 .16 .19 .20 .25 .05 .16 .30 .05 .05 .90 .15 .20 .25 .031 .05


8.75 2.65


4.25 .25

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Catalogue Regular m„„.

Number Price, each r<iow

137 WireorLockFerruleperlO0$3.85 " $3.50

141 Music Wire, No. 22, 26 and

30 Tinned..............per lb. .77

142 Stranded Steel Wire Cable

1/16 (500 ft. only)........12.50

119 Same (100 ft. lengths) 3/32 3.75 112a Steering Cable 1/16 (100 ft.

lots) .............................5.00

142a Steering Cable 3/32 (100 ft.

lots) .............................6.00

143 Control Wire Guides......... .

144 U Bolts, i, 3/16 and | 5, 8, and 12 cts. ea. 148 Aeroplane Covering, per yard, .60 and .80

158 Gibson Propellers 158 " " practice

160 New York "

Aeroplane Wheels 20 by 2 $10.00 $9.00 163 " " 20 by 2j 11.00 10.00

20 by 3 15.00 12.50

183 Laminated Steering Wheel, (Curtiss Type). Now $4.00.

181 Farman Type Landing Gear complete with wheels and tires, 20" x 2", 20nx2i" and 20nx3\ formerly $75.00, 85.00 & 105.00 Now $57.00, $60.00 & $67.00.

186 Curtiss-Type Running Gear, Complete, all fittings without wheels, formerly $27.50. Now $19.00.

187 Aviator Flexible Seat, formerly $12.00. Now $10.00.

We also carry and supply the fall line for Air work, all parts and accessories, everything from a Turnbuckle to a Plane for all makes.

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(Dept. 2) New York, N. Y.

THE death of Lieutenant George M. E. Kelly, United States Army aviator, at San Antonio, Tex., on May 10, records the second time an army officer's life has been taken by the Grim Spectre, who now rides the hurricane in more modern style. The other was Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge, who lost his life in 1908.

Lieutenant Kelly took up duties at San Antonio on April IS, after completing a course of instruction at the Curtiss camp in California. A number of flights had been made after that date by Lieutenants Walker, Beck and Kelly, all Curtiss pupils. Lieutenant Beck had had a mishap a few days before and landed in a mesquite tree. The machine was fixed up and Lieutenant Kelly had concluded the first flight made with it since Lieutenant Beck's accident. The grounds at San Antonio are not suitable for practice work, as there are some 20,000 troops camped, and there is no place to start or alight except in the street of the camp. Humidity is low and the winds are bad. In three weeks while Parmalee was flying there, the lowest wind velocity was 23 miles. It is not the velocity, however, but the unsteadiness that makes it bad.


A Board of Officers, consisting of First Lieutenant Paul W. Beck, Infantry; First Lieutenant B. D. Foulois, Signal Corps, and Second Lieutenant John C. Walker, Jr., Sth Infantry, was detailed to investigate the causes of the fatality.

From the evidence given the Board finds that Lieutenant Kelly had made a flight of approximately 5 minutes' duration, in a Curtiss biplane, at about 7 a. m. May 10, 1911, under good atmospheric conditions. As a result of this flight he met his death.

He had made a not abnormally hard landing. Upon landing, at least one and possibly both sides of seat fork were broken at a point between pilot seat and foot rest. At the same time it appears that one diagonal bamboo brace from front wheel to front elevator was broken, and its mate was bent.

After striking the ground the first time, the machine bounded to a height approximating 10 feet, gradually rising to about 30 feet until, within about 75 yards of the camp of the 11th Infantry, it made a sharp turn to the left, banked up the turning wing, and made an abrupt dive to the ground. Lieutenant Kelly was thrown clear of the machine to a distance of about 20 feet.

As a result of the first impact with the earth, it is apparent that the pilot lost control of the front elevator and therefore had only partial control of the machine.

It is the unanimous opinion of the Board that the front wheel must have struck an abrupt depression in the ground or some obstacle, causing the strain which resulted in the break.

From all of the preceding facts the Board is of the unanimous opinion that the accident was due to the efforts of Lieutenant Kelly to avoid endangering the occupants of the 11th Infantry camp, in which endeavor it became necessary for him to make a sharp left turn, which, in the crippled condition of the machine, put more strain on the controls than would have been required in a straight away landing. Such straight away landing was impracticable, owing to the proximity of the tents.

James Henning, the Curtiss mechanic for the machine that was wrecked, has sent Glenn Curtiss a report at variance with the findings of the investigating board of officers, saying Lieutenant Kelly was at fault in bringing his machine to earth at full speed, and maintaining that speed at a low altitude, so that the end of the low plane struck the ground when he attempted to bank in turning away from tents, whereas if he had flown at an altitude

of 100 feet he could probably have landed without accident.


About a fortnight before his accident Lieutenant Kelly wrote a brief sketch of his career for the use of the service. It follows:

Born in London, England, December 14, 1878. Educated at private schools and at Bedford. Had always wished to go into the army, but was unable to afford it, owing to the necessities of a British officer requiring a private income, the pay being too small. Came to the United States in August, 1896. Went to Great Falls, Mont., where two uncles were in business. Engaged in several occupations with little success, except to acquire some mechanical training. At the outbreak of the Boer war tried to join the Canadian Mounted Rifles, but was rejected on account of light weight. Became a naturalized citizen in 1902.

In summer of 1903 went to New York city. While there, hearing that commissions could be obtained through the ranks, enlisted on January 14 in S4th Co., Coast Artillery Corps. Made application to be examined for a commission after two years' service, December, 1905. Passed preliminary examination at New Y'ork city in March, 1906, and the final examination at Fort Leavenworth, Kan., January, 1907. Was commissioned in the infantry to date from January, 1907, and assigned to the 30th Infantry. Went to the Philippine Islands with the regiment in July, 1907. Was on detached service for a year on the topographical survey of the Island of Luzon.

Left the Philippines July, 1909, on leave and traveled in China, thence to England by way of Suez. Observed privately the British army maneuvers in the fall of 1909 and returned to the United States December, 1909, and joined the 30th again at San Francisco, and have been there ever since. Was attached to the battalion under J. P. O'Neil at the aviation meet at Selfridge Field. Made an ascent with Walter Brookins and took photographs-Was detailed by the War Department to proceed to San Diego and take instruction in aviation under Glenn H. Curtiss, February, 1911.

All about myself. G. E. M. Kelly, Second Lieutenant, 30th Infantry.

Death of California Aviator.

Addison V. Hartle, of Marseilles, Ohio, was fatally injured by a fall in his biplane on the aviation field near Dominguez, Cal., at 8.10 on the morning of May 17, 1911, and died fifteen minutes later without regaining consciousness.

Hartle was not a member of the Aero Club of California, but was planning to join in order to obtain bis aviator's pilot license. The machine was recently taken to the field and on the morning of the 16th, for the first time, he started down the course and made a flight of 3 miles, making two circles and attaining an altitude at one time of nearly 150 feet. A hard landing was made, and the rear strut to the left of the motor was broken. This was replaced by a new one, but the rest of the machine was not properly gone over by him.

The aeroplane is similar in many ways to the one used by Chas. F. Willard in his flight over the cities of Los Angeles and Pasadena in December, 1910, and the ninges on the ailerons are of the same pattern. Half of the hinge is fastened to the plane, while the other half is fastened to the aileron. A small pin is used which locks the two together. The pin is then soldered or else a cotter pin is used, the ends being spread after it is in place. Hartle in his rush to try out the machine evidently did not take the precaution of soldering these pins.

Shortly before eight on the morning of the 17th he started down the course and succeeded in making a circle of 1 miles. After making: a safe landing he stated to several of the


spectators that he would try and make a figure eight. The aviator started up, and soon after it was noticed that the upper left aileron had become detached from the main plane and was hanging by the control wire. The aileron was being twisted and pulled by the strong rush of air, and finally becoming entirely detached dropped to the ground. Several signaled and shouted to him to come down, and he headed toward the ground after flying nearly 3.000 feet without the upper left aileron.

He was but two feet from the ground when he started up again, evidently thinking that everything was O. K. Before many seconds he was at a height of about 40 feet, when the machine suddenly swerved to the left. The control being useless on that side, the operator was unable to right it, and the huge plane dashed to the ground. Hartle passed away without regaining his senses.

Among those present who witnessed the accident were C. Crosson, J. Gage, Wm. Stevens and J. Waite.

Bournique and Companion Killed.

RHEIMS, France, May IS.—A monoplane (Ft. E. P.) carrying Lieut. Paul Dupuls and Pierre Marie Bournique, speed record holder, fell from a height of about 250 feet to-day. Dupuis was killed and his companion, mortally injured, died shortly after.

The machine was capsized by a squall and burst into flames the instant it struck the ground.

The body of the Lieutenant was burned beyond recognition. Bournique's arms were fractured and his legs badly burned.

Two Russian Aviators Killed.

SEVASTOPOL, May 1.—The Russian military aviator Matieviteh and his brother were killed to-dav while making an aeroplane flight.

German Aviation Pupil Dies.

JOHANNISTHAL. May TI.—Hans Bockemul-ler, an aviation pupil, was killed when his aeroplane crashed against a building that had been hidden from the view of the pilot by a heavy early morning mist. The aviator had

been maneuvering in the military field at Johannistbal, Ger., and unconsciously flew over the inclosing fence, and had no time to save himself when the building suddenly loomed ahead. The Poulain monoplane was wrecked.

Frenchmen Killed in China.

SHANGHAI, May G.—Rene Vallon, 31 years old, a French aviator, fell from a great height to-day and was instantly killed.

Vallon belonged in Paris, and had been giving exhibitions in this country for six weeks in the hope of interesting the Chinese Government in military aviation. He made the first extended Hight by an aviator in China, using a Sommer biplane.

Aviation Learner Killed.

CHALONS, France, April 20.—Louis Liete, an aviation pupil died to-day from injuries received in a fall from a height of about 15 feet a few days ago.

Chicago Aviator is Dead.

BATON ROUGE. La., April 22.—William A. Purvis, of Chicago, who fell with a Gates biplane March 5 last, is dead at a hospital of his injuries. Purvis fell beneath his engine, the weight of which drove a wooden stave through his hip. The body was taken to Chicago for burial. Mrs. Purvis was at the bedside.

Aviation Pupil Killed.

LONDON, May 25.—An aviation pupil named Benson was killed at Hendon to-day.

An aeroplane, which he was piloting, capsized while he was imprudently attempting to glide to the ground.

German Plyer Palls.

I MULHAUSEN, Germany, May 2.—Lieutenant Raser of the German army, who recently obtained an aviation pilot's license, fell with his aeroplane from a height of 150 feet to-day and was so seriously injured that there is no hope of bis recovery. His machine was smashed to pieces.


(continued from page 2<)3)

Item P.—That motor which shows the greatest horsepower output at the drive shaft (average throughout Ihree-hour test) per pound weight (of motor and all accessories) shall receive 25 points. Oilier motors shall receive under this item points in proportion as they develop horsepower per unit weight as compared to the horsepower developed by that motor which develops the greatest horsepower per pound weight (of motor and all accessories).

Item E.—That motor which develops the greatest brake horsepower per pound weight, per 100 revolutions per minute, of the drive shaft (average throughout three-hour test) shall receive TO points. Other motors shall receive under Ibis item points in proportion as they develop horsepower per pound weight, per 100 revolutions per minute, as compared to the horsepower developed by that motor which develops the greatest horsepower per pound weight, per i()() revolutions per minute.

Item F.—That motor which vibrates least shall receive 15 points, other motors shall receive points under this item in inverse proportion to the amount of vibration which they develop, as compared lo that motor which vibrates least. The vibration shall be measured while, the motor is running at the declared speed, under load < i. e., at that speed at which the entrant elects to make the three-hour test), and shall be determined during a short test following the three-hour test.

Item G.—That motor which consumes the

least lubricant per brake horsepower hour (average throughout three-hour test) shall receive 5 points. Other motors shall receive points under Item G in proportion as they show economy in lubrication per brake horsepower hour as compared to that motor which shows greatest economy in lubricant.

A casli prize of one thousand dollars ($1,000) in gold will be awarded to the competitor whose motor secures the highest number of points according to the scale given above. The prize shall not be awarded if no motor runs continuously for at least three hours, at what the committee considers a satisfactory load and speed.


Listing- in this column is free. State qualifications, kind of machine, permanent address and experience at flying", giving" places where flights were made.

('APT. THOMAS S. BALDWIN. Box TS. Madison Sip P. ().. New York, Baldwin biplane. Pilot A. C. America.

OFKTISS A KltOPLANF CO.. 1 TP.7 Broadway, New York. Curtiss biplanes.

WM. EVANS. 2024 Agnes Ave.. Kansas City, Mo.. (Jreene biplane and Lovelace monoplane.

VYALTLU JOHNSON, care Thomas Brothers, Balli. N. Y.. Thomas biplane.

LABIS LKYVKOW'P'Z. HI West S4th St.. New York. Bleriot monoplane. Pilot A. C. Franco.

S PA K LI NO AVIATOliS. Washington Park, Fast SI. Louis. Mo., biplanes.

T11K WPTOIIT CO.. Bavton. O.. Wright biplanes.

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flies with two-cylinder motor.

RALPH L. BP AY, of Long Branch, New Jersey, has built a very interesting machine of a modified Curtiss type with a great many original details of construction. Instead of using solid sections for the main beams and outrigger spars, he has built up spars from two pieces of Ms by 1%-in. spruce, held apart by blocks every 12 in. The spread of the machine is 30 ft., the end panels of the lower plane being left off, making the lower plane 20-ft. spread. The depth of the planes is 5Vi ft-, curvature being 4^4 in., situated one-third back from the front edge. The ribs are of the double type, running under and over the beams, each strip being V' by % in. These strips are held apart by blocks, glued and riveted every 12 in. The main planes are made in three sections, joining with a steel sleeve, making a very quick way of setting up. The uprights are also of novel construction, being made of two pieces of Vo by 1 Mi in., separated in the middle by a distance piece 2V-2 in. long, the ends being glued and riveted together and fitting into an ordinary socket.

The rear wheels are set about 4 in. in front of the rear beam, instead of directly under, the track being 5 ft. The tires are Hartfords.

The elevating planes, which are double and 7 by 2Vn ft., with a curvature of 1 in., are pivoted lL'i'2 ft. in front of the main planes. The rear surface, which is fixed, is situated 15 ft. behind the rear spar. The vertical rudder is 30 by 36 in.—of ordinary Curtiss construction and operation. The ailerons are 10 ft, by 30 in., of double rib and cover construction, operated by the nsual Curtiss shoulder brace. The outer end of the aileron is supported by a triangle from the top plane, and a slanting rod from the lower.

Tower plant is the 2-cylinder 20-30 h.p. Detroit Aero, which turns a 7-ft. propeller, developing a thrust of ISO pounds. The engine is set low enough to obviate the necessity of cutting a notch in the upper plane.

Mr. Bray states that while out one day cutting grass, he opened the throttle a little too far and got off the ground before he was aware, and in trying to dodge a flock of crows he turned too short and caught the end of his wing, causing a little damage, which was, however, easily fixed.

baby 12-h.p. biplane flies.

Otto Hermann, of Providence, R. I. has built and nown a machine which is of particular interest in that it is a considerable departure from the usual practice of building Curtiss copies. Light weight and small power are the principal features, the machine with everything on board, including the aviator, weighs 290 pounds. The machine without the motor weighs but 160 pounds.

main planes.—The main planes have a spread of 24 feet, and a chord of 3 feet 10 inches. The separation is 4 feet 1 inch. The depth of curvature of the planes is greater than the usual practice, being 5 inches maximum. This is situated 14% inches from the leading edge. The angle in flight is stated to be 7 degrees. The front beam, which is of elliptical section, is 1 by V2 inches. The rear beam is also of elliptical section, 1 % by % inches, and is situated 3 feet to the rear of the front one. The ribs are y2 by % inch, spaced IS incnes on centers; they pass over the rear spar and are attached to it by sheet steel couplings. The cloth for the surfaces, which was prepared by Mr. Herrman, is tacked on the top of the ribs, a heavy tape being used to keep the cloth from tearing. A wire is run in a pocket along the rear ends of the ribs.

running- g.ar.—Three Premier 29-inch wheels are used, two being situated under the front of the planes, the third being under the tail. A skid was used at first under the tail, but as this gave considerable braking effect the wheel was substituted.

power plant.—A two-cylinder 12-11.P. Indian engine, equipped with an Indian magneto and a Hedstrom carburetter, is used.

The propeller, which is direct connected, was made by Mr. Herrman, and is 5 feet diameter, with a 3>,i-foot pitch. The engine turns it 1,100 revolutions per minute.

controls.—The elevator and tail plane work in conjunction. The method of operation being similar to that used by Farman. The front elevator, ti feet 5 inches by 2 feet 2 inches, is S feet in front of the main planes, The

ralph ii. bray in his novel machine. note the peculiar struts and outriggers.

rear surface, 6 feet 1 inch by 2 feet S inches, is 12 feet to the rear of the front of the main plane. The elevators are double, covered with the same cloth used on the main surfaces.

The rudder, which is 4 feet by 2 feet 2 inches, is 7 feet to the rear of the main planes.

Lateral stability is secured by the use of ailerons, 6 feet by 2 feet 2 inches, hinged on the rear struts midway between the planes. These are operated by a sideways movement of the elevating lever.

J. J. LONG. new machine flies in baltimore.

Edward B. Brown, president of the Brown Aeroplane Co. of Baltimare, which has recently been formed to build machines, finished his second machine and gave it its trial flight on May 17. Antony Jannus, although new to this machine, was familiar with the Emerson engine, with which the aeroplane was equipped, and was induced to try it out. Two

successful flights were made, one out over Patapsco basin. The new four-cylinder two-cycle engien was used in this, rated at 65 h. p. The machine spread 32 feet and weighs around S00 pounds. ^

new american record.

Frank Coffyn and Lieut. B. D. Foulois flew the Wright machine on its official army test, April 27, for©Qminutes, creating a new American two-mart endurance record. The old record was /made by Orville "Wright, 1 hr. 12 min., July/27, 1909. V> ( s »

new queen monoplane plies.

Arthur Stone, monoplane pilot of the Aero Club of America and the Aero Club of France, has been doing some fine flying with the new Queen monoplane, which has quite suddenly and/quietly appeared on the American market. The first two machines have been out but a we'ek and alreadv aviation "fans" are com-

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AVIATION is a predominant topic in the mind of the public, and is rapidly becoming one of the greatest goals of development of the progressive engineering and scientific world. In the many books that have already been written on aviation, this fascinating-subject has been handled largely, either in a very "popular" and more or less incomplete manner, or in an atmosphere of mathematical theory that puzzles beginners, and is often of little value to aviators themselves.

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meriting on the fine construction and the good flights that have been made at Belmont. The machines are being manufactured by the Queen Aeroplane Company, located at Fort George Park, 197th street and Amsterdam avenue, New York City, which has equipped and is operating a most thoroughly modern and up-to-date aeroplane factory.

The company is building monoplanes which in detail of construction, in use of metal materials, and in careful workmanship are not surpassed either in this country or abroad.

The factory and the assembly rooms are in the old amusement palace of the Fort George Park and the extensive buildings connected thereto are crowded with monoplanes in various stages of completion.

The company states it has just taken a contract to construct for the American representatives of M. Nieuport 10 Nieuport aeroplanes. These will be turned out at the rate of one a week, in addition to the factory's usual output of Queen monoplanes. The Queen machines can be obtained with either Gnome or Anzani motors. An aviation school has been established where instruction may be had at a reasonable figure under Mr. Stone's supervision. Pilot licenses are guaranteed to students. Exhibition dates will be accepted.

23-minute plight with smith machine.

An ram Raygorodsky (nicknamed "Rather-risky"), an imported licensed aviator, did not succeed in doing any very sensational flying with the Rex Smith machine in Washington, so Antony .1 annus, who has been doing most of the flying with this machine, took it out for a real airing for 23 minutes on May 14.

The Smith company is now building a new machine in which the ribs varv, decreasing in depth of curve from the center panel toward the extremities of the planes. In the center it is about 4 feet deep, and at the extremities almost flat. A Hall-Scott engine has been ordered for it, and the new Berliner rotary, of which a description has already appeared in AERONAUTICS, will also be tried.

novice is big surprise.

The Shneider school biplane which has been at Belmont for the past month making short flights was fitted with a new Roberts motor and on May 24 Joseph Richter. who had never before been more than 50 feet from the ground, circled Belmont track on first attempt with the new engine and flew for just over a quarter of an hour at an altitude of 700 to 800 feet. Shneider was on his way to the

track when the machine was recognized by him as his own, passing high over his head.

Another flight was made later in the day over to Mineola. Not being acquainted with the grounds and unable to find the magneto switch when lie wanted to land, a couple of ribs were broken, and a wheel.

Hadley and Blood, agents for the motor, took this particular one out of their own machine for use until they could get a new one from the factory.

Frank Fitzsimmons, instructor of the Aeronautic School of Engineers, has been out 'grass cutting" with one of the machines made by students of the school. It is a Curtiss type, of the older style, and is fitted with an Elbridge "Featherweight" engine. On May 21 he made a number of flights for the edification of the young ladies who were specially invited to make the function a ladies' day.

Louis Rosenbaum has been doing some flying with his Curtiss-type machine.

Geo. L. Schmitt, a high school boy of Rutland. Yt., has been doing good novice work at the Mineola field during the past month with his Curtiss-type machine equipped with an Elbridge 40 h. p. "Featherweight" and Gibson propeller. He has been making circles and figure eights and has enjoyed freedom from the accidents which have been met with by the other amateurs. The machine was built by Wittemann. He was scheduled for an exhibition flight in his home town last fall and the machine arrivea only the day before. He had to make good on his exhibition with his first flight.

Hadley and Blood, after having made some short flights with the new Roberts motor over which they are most enthusiastic, are reducing their big and heavily built Farman type to lessen head resistance and weight. The machine is a very large size and the Roberts motor looks extremely small. It seems to be asking a great deal of the engine to fly such a big machine. But it does it, and the motor has received favorable comment.

F. Raiche has been teaching some pupils how to cut grass with his Curtiss-type fitted with a 4-cylinder Fox engine. Mrs. Raiche has made some short "jumps."

"Willie" Haupt, the automobile racing driver, has been making some good flights with his Bleriot XI which was imported by John YYanamaker.

Joe Downey in a Bleriot-type and Joseph Stevenson in a Curtiss-type have been making short flights.

The Brauner machine, now at Mineola, lias made some very fine flights, and on one occasion had Capt. Baldwin as its pilot.

An exact duplicate of the above has been shipped to Messrs. Avcue & Estrade, of Cuba, who intend to tour Cuba, Porto Rico, Santa Domingo, Panama, Mexico and Central America, giving exhibition flights in each place.


St. Croix Johnstone, of the Moisant Aviators, flying a Bleriot, on May 22, won the silver trophy offered by J. J. Lannin, proprietor of the Garden City Hotel, for the first aviator who should fly three times around the Mineola aviation field and then encircle the Garden City Hotel and the cathedral.


Earle L. Ovington, former head of the Federation of American Motorcyclists, Boston "Tech" graduate, electrical engineer, and motor expert, is one real flier.

On April 29 he flew for 45 minutes, starting from Belmont Park, where he has his shed, out over Mineola and Garden City, back over Nassau Boulevard, where a large number of members and friends of the new Aero Club of New York were gathered to witness the previously announced flight. A very strong wind was blowing. A sheet had been spread out for the guidance of the aviator, as he was to make a landing at Nassau, but he was too high to distinguish it and finally landed back at Belmont.

On May 17 three flights were made, two of which were cross country to Mineola and around the Cathedral at Garden City, totalling in all 94 minutes.

On May 21 Ovington flew 32 minutes, visiting Hempstead and Mineola, while Beachey flew the Baldwin machine and Houpert the Moisant school Bleriot for 25 minutes each.


An interesting test of the "Autoloading Rifle," of the Remington Arms Co., was made

at the Bridgeport meet on May 13. Lieut. Fickel, U. S. A., who was detailed by Washington for the purpose, went up with Beachy in a Curtiss biplane for a short flight. Army officers have been anything but satisfied, it is said, with the results obtained with the service rifle, and the flight was planned as a test of a repeating arm other than Government make.

A six by twelve target was spread on Hie field, and after a short preliminary run Beachy signalled Lieut. Fickel to get in. The extra planes usual in passenger carrying were lacking, and the strong wind made extended flying difficult.

Lieut. Fickel was able to throw three shots into the target, which is a remarkable record considering the speed at which he had to work. In an interview after the demonstration, Lieut. Fickel said that he found the speed and accuracy of the new Remington UMC .25 autoloading rifle a distinct advantage over the Springflelds he had previously used in tests, and that he considered the "Autoloader" the only practical gun for use under such conditions.

The rifle is designed to allow five shots, deliberately or rapid Are. As in the majority of self-loading rifles, part of the recoil, ordinarily absorbed by the shooter's shoulders, is utilized to operate the mechanism. The rifle used is, however, nearer the military model than the average self-loader, the cartridge being locked in the firing chamber by a locking bolt until after the bullet has left the muzzle.


A Wright machine will he delivered at Mineola within a few days for Alex. Smith Cochran, of 10 East 41st St., New York, a well-known New York clubman and sportsman, especially In the yachting; world. He is the owner of the yacht "Westward." which last year cleaned up all competitors in European waters, including the Kaiser's "Meteor." Mr. Cochran is a very wealthy man. being the principal owner of a large carpet mill at Yonkers, N. Y.


The Havana Citv Council has formally awarded the prize of $.".000 for the fastest flight from Camp Columbia to and around El Morro to Rene Harrier, of the Moisant aviators. Barrier beat McCurdy's time by 1 minute ?»1 seconds, despite the fact that McCurdv did not follow the course hut cut off about a mile each way. because he flew over the bench and not across the city. It was for this violation of the rules of the contest, the Moisant aviators are officially informed from Havana, that McCurdy's protest was disallowed and the prize awarded to Barrier.


If the new bill before the New York State Legislature, providing for relieving of directors, officers, etc., of jockey clubs of liability where gambHng is discovered' on the premises," passes, as is confidently expected by devotees of horse racing, the Aero Club of America will find itself with Belmont Park unavailable fo" aviation'. Since the meet last Fall, the Westcli.-ter Pacing Association has allowed members oi tte Aero Club and others to occupy the sheds and use the grounds for flying at a nominal rental. The fences, which were taken down for the meet, have been put up some, time since and living restricted to only certain hours. The Belmont track will probably see the first of horse racing when revived and it will be impossible to permit flying.


The "Earman Company of America" is the corporation, organized In New York State, capitalization .$50o,oou, with directors Henry Earman, Al-

fred W. Lawson, editor of "Aircraft," and Baron Ladislas D'Orcy, by which Farman biplanes will be produced in the United States.

Both the Farman brothers, Henry and Maurice, are represented as stockholders. Suitable grounds are now being looked up and it is promised shortly that Farman's chief engineer will be over to superintend the erection of buildings and stay for six months to train American mechanics into French methods.


Br. Sidney Mathews, alias Harry Bretton and several other names, who succeeded in interesting people with money to develop an aeroplane, the model for which he built while a prisoner in the Queens county jail, has disappeared. He was released from the jail October. 1010. on $5,000 bail, supplied by Mrs. Van Burcn Holmes, of Edgemere, L. I., pending an appeal from life sentence.

When Mr. Bretton once got outside the jail gate he and his friends organized the American Aero Safety Car Company, with headquarters in Richmond Hill. L. I. He soon disguised his iden-itty by taking the name of Dr. Mathews, general manager of the concern.

Dr. Mathews represented to prospective customers that his machine was a wonder, but hesitated repeatedly to show his machine to people. In very flowery language he would explain that his was an all metal biplane, weighing 1.000 pounds, and could be bought for $12,000. It was to have been propelled by two motors with what lie called a "complex" propeller. Both the Bretton aeroplane and Dr. Mathews arc now missing.

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Dual system of control; absolutely independent and operated by separate levers, cables and connections.

Dual method of guying; each cable and guy being reinforced by one of equal strength, automatically ready to take up the strain in case the first becomes inactive.

Construction; in accordance with the most advanced principles of to-day.

Material; absolutely the best obtainable and subjected to rigid inspection and tests before using.

Workmanship; only the most skilled labor employed.

Every part being carried in stock can be duplicated immediately.

These features should be taken into consideration before purchasing, prices being equal.

Completed Monoplanes Ready for Flight

(Equipped with 30 to 50 H. P. aero motor)

Complete Monoplanes Without Power Plant

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Complete Material Shaped and Fitted

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Complete Working Drawings and Instructions

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Immediate Delivery Guaranteed


Charles B. Kirkham ! brooks aeroplane co.




4006 Rust Ave., - Saginaw, Mich.


* t

* C'l'lie first practical flying school, conducted entirely on French +

* Lines, where pupils are taught flying on a Genuine Bleriot Mon- *

* oplane. Bleriot's personal Methods employed. Under Personal * J Instruction of a Licensed Pilot Aviator. Bleriot's Contract given. *

* c.Complete course $500. *

* - _ _ _ _ . £

J Special Inducement: Complete Course to First Twelve Pupils $250. *

* i

CL Investigation invited. +c


Licensed Pilot Aero Club of France ^

jf Sole Owner and Manager Garden City Estates, Long Island, N. Y. £

J Take L. I. H. R. to Nassau Boulevard Station -fc


I Sparling Aviation Training School f


J Using Sparling Biplanes *

J built for bumps and equip- * jj^F ^ J

ped with the Sparling ..^^ J

landing gear—



LUR course is practical and complete. We are turning out real fliers. Mr. +

Harry Park, of Portland, Oregon, after fourteen lessons on the Sparling +

Biplane, circles the field at will; on the 13th he flew before a committee from J

Poplar Bluff, Mo., and at once was engaged to fly at Poplar Bluff 2 days for +

$1,500.00. You might do as well. Now is the time to enroll, and St. Louis has the £

best flying weather in the United States. We fly every day, which means rapid J

J progress. Special price this month $300.00 and we furnish machines to our best +

J students for exhibition work. +


Several newspapers, individuals and magazines, interested in cleaning the "game" of fakes and misrepresentations, have for some time been gathering information as to such concerns, and the above was recently exposed by the New York World.

An exclusive dispatch from San Francisco states that Director Cleve T. Shatter, of the Pacific Aero Club, is raising-a moustache. Go to it, Cleve, and put one over on Glen II.

aeroplane makers organize.

The Aeronautical Manufacturers, Association was incorporated under the laws of Connecticut on April 21 and membership corporation and papers filed with the Secretary of State, Ernest L. Jones, Frederick D. Wood, Alfred W. Lawson, Stanley Y. Beach of New York and S. B. White of Bloomfield, N. J., were named as incorporators. The headquarters of the association are at 1737 Broadway, New York.

new companies.

Lundgren Aeroplane Co., Youngstown, Ohio. Robert Wilson and others, $10,000.

National Aerial Navigation and Equipment Co., Cullman, Ala. Fred J. Buckmann, president. Recently reported incorporated with $125,000 capital stock.

Dillon Aviation Co., $25,000, Dillon, S. C. W. Murchison, F. M. Rowe and J. E. Man-nine', incorporators.

St robe 1 Aviation Co., Toledo, O.

L. K. Schlotterback Manufacturing Co. Capital, $500,000. The registered office is at 26 liuiin avenue, East Orange, N. J., and the incorporators are L. E. Schlotterback, East Orange, and Charles F. Landmesser and William A. Waehenfeld, both of Newark.

The Arbogast Aero Co., Anderson, Ind. Capital stock, $10,000, to manufacture air craft. Directors. Ernest W. Daniel and John R. Arbogast.

The Chickasha (okla.) Aeroplane Co. Capital stock of $15,000. C. C. Kirkpatrick, secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, is secretary and treasurer.

The Aviation Field, at Clason Point, N. Y., capital of $10,000, to manufacture and deal in aeroplanes, monoplanes and other paraphernalia relative to air craft generally. Directors, Thomas E. Coffey, Joseph A. Oakes, William J. Dailey. Brooklyn, N. Y.

Kuhnert Aerial Construction Co., Ilacken-sack, N. J. To manufacture flying machines. Capital, $100,000. Incorporators, Frederick Kuhnert, Matthew Andronico, Lester Gilbert, Hackensack, N. J.

Dyeoplane Co., Newport, R. I. Capital of $50,000, divided into 1,000 shares of $50 each. The incorporators are Cleveland H. Dye, with 514 shares, and J. Frank Dye and E. P. Tyler, each three shares. The machines will be built under patents secured by the Dye brothers.

Iowa Aeroplane Co., Fort Madison, la. M. H. Schwarzenburg, manager, and J. F. Coul-son. secretary.

Mattery Aviation Co. Capital. $2,400. Manufacturing and selling aeroplanes and biplanes. Incorporators, William A. Mattery, N. C. Collins and Frank H. Holmes.

The Clark Airship Co., Cleveland, Ohio. The company will develop the ideas of William II. Clark, 4009 Woburn avenue, S. W., an inventor who has patented a screw propeller that lie believes will revolutionize the airship field. The incorporators are William If. Clark, Jacob H. Levy, J. A. Bommhardt, W. G. Fording and E. J. Hobday.

Hamilton Aviation Co., New Britain, Conn. Capital, $75,000. The company is composed of Chas. K. Hamilton and his wife, Mr. and Mrs. J. B. Beadette, Mr. Hamilton's stepfather and his mother, and Thomas W. O'Con-ner. The company is for the purpose of manufacturing, exhibiting, selling and buying aeroplanes.

The Sumner & Dreyfuss Co., of New York City, incorporated to manufacture and deal in aeroplanes, balloons and airships. Its capital

is $5,000, and has the following directors: George Sumner, Nathan A. Dreyfus, Donald B. Abbott.

Jowa Aeroplane Co., Keokuk, la.

International Aeroplane Manufacturing Company, Chicago. Capital stock, $2,500. Manufacturing and dealing in aeroplanes and conduct school of aviation. Incorporators—Samuel D. Dixon, Arthur Sanderson, William E. Johnson.

new books.

MONOPLANES AND BIPLANES, by Grover Cleveland Loening, B.Sc, A.M. Cloth, Svo, :J4t> pp., illustrated. Published by Munn & Company, Inc., :;<U Broadway, New York, at .$2.50 net.

The book is divided into three parts. Part 1. THE DESIGN OF AEROPLANES. This includes : Historical Introduction, The Resistance of the Air and the Pressure on Normal Planes, Flat Inclined Planes, The Pressure on Curved Planes, The Frictional Resistance of Air, The Center of Pressure on Flat and Curved Planes. The Effect of Depth of Curvature and Aspect Ratio Upon the Lift and Drift of Curved Planes. Numerical Example of the Design of an Aeroplane. Part 2. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE NOTABLE AEROPLANES. This includes: Definition, of Terms, Important Types of Monoplanes, Prominent Types of Biplanes. Part 8. COMPARISON OF THE TYPES. Comparison of the Prominent Types, Controlling Apparatus, Accidents, The Variable Surface Aeroplane.

This book deals with theory only in its direct relation to the design of an aeroplane. It is all set forth in a very clear and concise manner and is very well arranged. The drawings and the diagrammatic representations of the various control systems are excellent. It is a book that will be appreciated by the experimenter and student as well as those who have less technical knowledge. It is. as far as we know, the first time that the results of various investigators have been gathered together and compared. These comparisons will do a great deal toward clearing up points that have bothered the experimenter. The tables of the loadings and the weights per horse power of the various machines are instructive. THE NEW ART OP FLYING, by Waldemar Kaempffert. Cloth. Svo, 2!»1 pp., illustrated. Published bv Dodd, Mead & Co., 4th Ave. and MOth St., New York, at $

The contents include: Why Plying Machines Fly, Flying Machine Types, The Plane in the Air, Starting and Alighting, How an Aeroplane is Balanced. Making a Turn. The Propeller. Aeroplane Motors, The New Science of the Air, The Perils of Flying. The Flying Machine in War, Some Typical Biplanes and Monoplanes, The Flying Machine of the Future. The Law of the Air.

This book should appeal to the "man on the street." just touched with an interest in the new art, who wants to know why aeroplanes fly, the history of aviation, accomplishments and application, without wading through scientific treatises. It will be of little value to the experimenter and student of the art and science.

DICTIONARY OF AVIATION', by Robert Morris Pierce. 10 mo, cloth. 2S7 pp. Published by the Baker & Tavlor Co., ?,."! E. 17th St.. New York, at $1.4.". The subjects covered by this dictionary include aerostation and aviation, bird flight, ornithology, astronomy, geography, etc. To those constantly using aeronautical terms, the book will be found of considerable interest, particularly as there are words and expressions therein which certainly have never before been seen in print or heard used.

There is a necessity for a proper dictionary of aviation, but certainly this one might better have been left in manuscript form. After various national and international bodies have adopted eei-tain words and definitions, it seems rather unnecessary that an author should <:o oul of his way to print' definitions according to his own liking lather than according to the accepted rule. There are enough alleged works on aeronautics published, and about (o be published, for infliction on a long-suffering public to make it unnecessary that those interested in aeronautics be asked to purchase another book of as little value as this one.

Pupils Plying- at the "Wright School.

THE exhibition business will probably begin to die out by the end of 1911. This seems to be realized by nearly everyone who is conversant with this branch of commercial aeronautics and it is expected that another year will see flying on almost wholly a sporting basis, with meets and races purely competitive. There is little in the way of exhibitions abroad and there is much in the way of race meets and long distance contests.

Schools of flying are doing well abroad and this year schools have been started in America. The Wright and Curtiss companies have trained a number of pupils, army officers, sportsmen and professional aviators. A. J. Moisant has had a school in operation for a month past and the Burgess Company & Curtis have more than half a dozen pupils to teach. Still more schools are springing into activity and it is very likely that the list of competent aviators will be increased by fifty or more this summer.

At the Wrig-ht School.

Two machines are continually flying at the Dayton field of the Wright company. Two hundred and ninety-two flights have been made between March 11 and May 15. and tlie following men have been trained: Lieut. John Rodgers, 2nd Lieut. W. De Milling and 2nd Lieut. Henry H. Arnold, of the U. S. Navy, as well as three aviators for the company's work, Howard W. Gill, of Baltimore, who built and flew a Curtiss-type at the first Los Angeles meet a year and a half ago and then removed to the St. Louis fields; L. W. Bonney, of Wellington, O., and Oscar A. Brindley, of Columbus, O.

Orders have been received which will tax the. capacity of the plant for the next three months. During the three months one machine was at Augusta in charge of Frank Coffyn; 135 flights were made, with a total duration of 32 hours. Three or four of them were cross country. The total repair bill was but five dollars. During this time three men

learned to fly and gave frequent exhibitions. This should go a long way to prove that flying, with good judgment, can be carried on at small expense.

At Hammondsport.

The Curtiss Aeroplane Co has a number of pupils at Hammondsport, N. Y., and a slow-flying practice machine is being used. This, however, has increased lifting power and carries two people with the four-cylinder engine.

Iiadis Iiewkowicz Opens School.

The "French School of Aviation" is the title of the school inaugurated by Ladis Lew-kowicz, pilot aviator of the Aero Club of France, at Nassau Boulevard, L. I., N. Y., the new grounds being put in shape by the Garden City Estates Co., of which the Hon. Timothy Woodruff is head.

The school is to follow closely the line of the Bleriot schools as to regulations, etc. A genuine Bleriot type XI is being used, the same with which Mr. Lewkowicz flew in France last year while he was abroad studying and investigating European methods. Tuition fee is $500, the standard price adopted here. Three hundred dollars is deposited to cover possible damages. A special offer is being made for the first twelve pupils at a price of but $250.

The Baldwin School.

Captain Thomas S. Balwin is now in a position to accept students of flying at $500' a course, using his new all-steel biplane with Hall-Scott engine. This new machine has proved too speedy for pupils and it is being slowed ui) for school work. For the present the grounds at Mineola are being used but it is likely that a change will have to be made in the near future to other but nearby fields on account of arrangements that have been made by the owners of the present fields for leasing to A. J. Moisant.

curtiss aeroplanes

WINNER of the first Gordon-Bennett International Race. WINNER for three years of the Scientific-American Trophy.

FAMOUS FOR Fli^ht from Albany to New York by

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Delivery Hammondsport, N. Y. Particulars

Curtiss Hydro-aeroplanes. Start from and alight on the water.

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THE notable achievements of Mrs. Raiche at Mineola have proven the power and endurance of Fox Aero Motors in actual flight. The First Woman Aviator in America.

C Fox Aero Motors are the simplest, most reliable and most powerful Aeronautic Motors yet produced. They are two-cycle water cooled, and are guaranteed against overheating under all conditions. They are equipped with the Fox Fourth Port Accelerator, the greatest improvement ever made for increasing the speed, power and flexibility of two-cycle motors. C Remember Fox Marine Motors hold the world's endurance record for motor boats, and even our first aero motors have commanded instantaneous attention by their remarkable and consistent performances.

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Manufacturer and Exhibitor of Biplanes and Monoplanes

MEETS ARRANGED flying taught, fee $250

School and Flying Grounds at Belmont Park Knocked Down Frames for Curtiss and Bleriot Type Aeroplanes

New York

t 1020 East 178th Street :: :: ::

Pupils at the principal schools now must indemnify the schools by bond or insurance policy against possible accidents to third parties and the pupil must also take out an insurance policy covering his own life. Arrangements are being made so that policies may be secured at the office of AERONAUTICS. Up to the present there is no surety company in this country which will write this kind of business. It is possible that surety companies will refuse to execute bonds of this nature.

Sparling1 School in Illinois.

J. N. Sparling, of East St. Louis, has opened a training school at "Washington Park. He has three pupils enrolled, one of whom, Harry Park, of Portland, Ore., made a straightaway flight of two miles at a height of 25 ft. the fifth time out with the machine, and made circles the tenth time out. Henry Moier, of Denver, Col., another pupil, has been out a few times making short jumps. Mr. Sparling is also putting his standard machine, equipped with an Elbridge aero special or a six-cylinder Kirkhani, on the market at $4500.

Five machines are being built for the school and for exhibition work.

The running gear is very good, as will be noticed from the photo. For the last three weeks the school machine has had many hard landings but the running gear saved it from any damage.

J. N. Sparling has been known in aviation for the past two years and was one of tlie first purchasers of aero engines just about the time the Elbridge Company started building light motors.

J. N. Sparling of East St. Louis, 111., has a very promising pupil in Harry Park of Portland. After five lessons Park was given control of the machine and made a good straightaway flight of two miles. A day or two later he made three circuits of the two-mile track, and on another day he did a cross-country stunt of IS miles.

A Chicago School.

Residents of Chicago can see aeroplane flights almost any day by students of the Chicago School of Aviation at Hawthorne racetrack. The school has two biplanes oil the field, one a standard 2S ft. Curtiss, the other a combination of both the Curtiss and Farman type, having a wing space of 460 sq. ft. The large machine has been reinforced in the principal members, notably those of the chassis, and has been made extra heavy. The pupils are allowed to roll over the ground, "cut grass," as it is termed, in the big tutor, and when able to make short hops in it and to

maintain its equilibrium, they are put into one of the real flyers and take the air in earnest. The Moisant School. The Moisant Bleriot has been busy teaching under the piloting of Andre Houpert. Miss Harriet Quimby, a magazine writer for "Leslie's," was the first pupil, getting up at four in the morning and donning her flying trousers (it would not be nice to say "pants") for her grass-cutting work. She is writing her experiences in a series of articles in "Leslie's."

It is expected that five concrete hangars, a concrete grandstand, and concrete clubhouse will be ready by June 15 on the new Moisant grounds, near AVestbury, L. I., and the new field is being prepared very rapidly for school work. A number of applications have been received for hangars, but so far no action has been taken on these applications. It has already been decided that no pupil will be allowed to graduate from the Moisant School unless he shall have spent at least four weeks under the theoretical and practical instruction of the various department heads. All the pupils receive instruction daily practically and theoretically in the operation, construction and repair of aeroplane motors as well as the construction and repair of the various parts of an aeroplane. No Moisant pupil will be allowed to try for his pilot's license until he shall have fulfilled all of the requirements of the course in the Moisant School.

The Aeronautic School of Engineers announces the following changes in prices of tuition : Construction course. $100, payable $25 in advance, $10 per week thereafter; flight course, $200 for a scries of instructions in. which straight-away flights are guaranteed. Motor knowledge included in both courses.

The practice of building flying models has assumed much greater proportions in England than in America. Meets and contests are conducted all over Great Britain everv day. Among the large concerns which make supplies of all kinds for models is A. Melcombe, Castle ltoad, Bedford, England. Everything that conld possibly be thought of for use in models is listed in a wealth of sizes. Wonderful little 1 and 2-cylinder engines are made, running from 1/3 to la+ h. p., at prices' as low as $20. If desired, the parts for these can be had and "Young Enthusiast" can build his own engine. There are supplies for the models as complete as for a full-sized machine. It does not seem possible for machinery to turn out tnrn-buckles, screws, sockets, etc.. of such small size.

Helmut Hirth who on May 8 made a new Two-Man World Altitude Record of 800 Meters (2,625 ft.) at Stuttgart, Germany, in an Etrich Monoplane. On May 26 he completed the 360-Mile Reliability Contest, Winning- the Prize. He used a 4-cyl. Water Cooled Vertical Lohner Motor, Overhead Valves, with Bosch Equipment.


THE greatest air race ever flown was won by Vedrines when lie landed at Madrid, Spain, on May 26, after covering approximately 842 statute miles from Paris, from which city he started on May 22, at a speed averaging in the neighborhood of 69 miles per hour, taking cabled reports as a basis. The actual flying time is given as 12 hrs. 18 min.

After winning this, he started immediately from Paris in the Paris-Rome-Turin contest, a distance total via the planned route of 1,300 miles.

The Paris-Madrid race, organized by the journal "Be Petit Parisien," was divided into three parts; Paris to Angouleme (24S miles), Angouleme to St. Sebastian (20S miles), and from then to Madrid (380 miles).

The Pyrenees had to be crossed between St. Sebastian and Madrid, and altitudes of 4.7SS ft. had to be attained.

Owing to the unfortunate accident in which M. Berteaux, the minister of war, was killed by the fall of Aviator Train's machine, several of the competitors retired from the race.

Garros (Moisant Bleriot), Gilbert (Bleriot), Be Lasseur (Bleriot) and Beaumont (Bleriot) had started before the accident, Garros being the first to arrive at Angouleme with Gilbert following. Be Basseur landed near Oosne, having become, lost in a fog. Beaumont" smashed a wing at Asay-Sur-lmhro and was out of the contest. No one else started Sunday, but on Monday Vedrines (Morano) started at 4:11 o'clock and reached Angouleme at 7:50 o'clock,

having made the 248 miles in 3 hrs. 39 min. This time is the more remarKfcUle in that a' stop was made at Etamps to regulate the motor.

Frey (Morane) started at 2:06 p. m., but was overturned at Etamps by a squall. He was not injured but the machine was smashed and he was out of the contest.

The Second Stag"e.

Garros left at 5:13 o'clock, Gibert following six minutes later. Vedrines postponed his start till 7:05 on account of the haze.

Garros arrived at St. Sebastian at 11:40, he having to stop two hours to take on oil. Gibert was lost in the fog and landed at Biarritz at 9:00 o'clock to take on oil.

Vedrines made no stops and arrived at 10:59 o'clock.

Last Stage.

All the airmen had troubles on this stage of the race. Gibert who left at 6:2S o'clock' was reported to have been attacked by an eagle, which he had to shoot in order to defend himself. He landed abruptly about 40 miles from St. Sebastian, damaging his machine slightly. Vedrine, who started at 7:17. landed near Burgos about 140 miles north of Madrid. Garros started at 7:12, his motor failing forced him to descend near Usurbil. The next day Vedrines made the flight from Burgos to Madrid in 2 hrs. 4 5 mins., landing at the aerodrome at 8:06. He crossed the Somosierra Pass at an elevation of 6.500 ft. It is reported that he also was attacked by eagles and had trouble in avoiding them.


The total number of living aviators licensed by the Aero Club of America is 21.

Following is a list of their names and the number of their licenses, together with the names of the machines used at the time of 'ssuance of license:

1 Glenn H. Curtiss (Curtiss).

2 Frank P. Lahm (Wright).

3 Louis Paulhan (Farman, now flying Paul-


4 Orville Wright (Wright).

5 Wilbur Wright (Wright).

6 Clifford B. Harmon (Farman).

7 Capt. Thomas S. Baldwin (Baldwin). S J. Armstrong Drexel (Bleriot).

9 Tod Shriver (Curtiss type).

10 Charles F. Willard (Curtiss).

11 J. C. Mars (Curtiss).

12 Charles K. Hamilton (Curtiss).

13 John B. Moisant (Bleriot).

14 Charles Weymann (Farman).

15 Arthur Stone ( ? ).

16 Harry S. Harkness (Antoinette).

17 Eugene Ely (Curtiss).

IS J. A. D. McCurdy (Curtiss).

19 Walter R. Brookins (Wright).

20 Ralph Johnstone (Wright).

21 Arch Hoxsey (Wright).

22 J. C. Turpin (Wright).

23 A. L. Welch (Wright).

24 .1. J. Frisbie (Curtiss type).

25 P. O. Parmalee (Wright).

26 Frank C. Coffyn (Wright).

Of the above, John B. Moisant, Ralph Johnstone and Arch Hoxsey are deceased .

Some of the above received their licenses from the Aero Club of America on the strength of performances observed by other clubs. Curtiss, Orville and Wilbur Wright have all foreign licenses in addition.

Other American aviators who hold foreign licenses are:

James V. Martin (Burgess Baby Farman).

St. Croix Johnstone (Bleriot).

Samuel Pierce (Bleriot).

A. J. Houpert (Bleriot).

J. A. Cummings (Bleriot).

Duval La Chapelle (French Wright).

Earle L. Ovington (Bleriot).

There are, therefore, but 2S living Americans holding aviation pilot licenses, Messrs. McCurdy and Paulhan not being citizens. There are a number of good aviators who have not bothered with any license, as there has been no need for a pilot's license as yet.

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Aeroplanes Gliders—Supplies

C.The Wittemann Biplane built for safety and reliability, equipped with double controls, strongest spring landing chassis. Construction embodies the besl design, and a desirable faclor of safety allowed for all material used in our machine.

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C.The~name "Aeromotor" or "Detroit Aeromotor" led to con-fusion'of of_our engine with certain others in a way that did not add to its reputation. CThe new name is in honor of the designer. The workmanship and materials are as select as ever—the kind that has brought repeat orders from every district in which our motors were sold the last twelve months. C.The strong, simple, compact MAXIMOTOR appeals to the practical aviator.

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Los Angeles, May 11, 1911. "Motor arrived O. K. and far beyond expectations. Best aeronautical motor on the market at present."—Eaton Bros., the big builders who have used practically every make of

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806 Eleventh Ave.

New York City

My dear Gibson :—

You will no doubt be interested in the results given by your special 8 foot diameter, (i foot pitch Tractor propeller on W. L. Fairchild's machine,driven by one of our 100 II. V. engines.

At !)50 r. p. m. it developed a pull of upwards of 520 lbs. This is not very definite, but as the stop on the scale does not permit it to register above 530 it cannot be stated how much more actual pull was developed. However, even at 520 lbs., 1 think the results very interesting.

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These are not broad statements. They are facts. When I claim success, it is so. Send for my Red Book. It tells you more.

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806 Eleventh Ave.

New York

Dear Mr. Gibson :—

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806 Eleventh Avenue, New York

Designer and Consulting Engineer

HUGO C. GIBSON,a.m.i.e.e.

Phone, 3672 Columbus


June, 1011 IT—1


Naturally Banked in Turning'—Willard, in Provo, Utah.

ASHEY1LLE, X. C, April 17-1S. Beachey flew.

BOISE, IDAHO. April 10-21.—Charles F. Willard and Walter Brookins. of the Wright Company. Good crowds and lots of niee flying. The feature of the meet was passenger carrying by Brookins. who took as passenger the Lieutenant-Governor of the State of Idaho and was given a commission as Lieutenant-Colonel on the Governor's staff at Boise.

IDAHO PALLS, Idaho. April 2.°.. Charles F. Willard flew one afternoon. One of the most remarkable things about the place was that out of a town of about 5,000 people there were 0.000 at the meet.

DEN VEIL Colo.. April 21-2.°.. The exhibition given here by the Moisant International Aviators was spoiled by the high winds prevalent. On one day even Rene Simon refused to fly, and a large crowd went home disappointed.

NEWTON, Kan., April 20-27. Moisant Aviators. Barrier went to more than 0.000 ft. Sevmour broke his machine.

'WALLA WALLA. Wash.. April 27-2!). Walter Brookins and Charles F. Willard did the flying. The feature of the meet was a complimentary flight by both men to the penitentiary for the benefit of the inmates. Of 1.000 men there. 43 were men having a life sentence. This was the only opportunity they would have of ever seeing a flight. The warden allowed the men to go out in the stoekade at 3.30 in the afternoon, and Mrs. Willard and Mr. Young and the warden sat on the wall and "told them what they were out for." Willard and Brookins flew about 15 minutes, over and around the institution. Willard went up about 1.000 feet, and did a spiral around the penitentiary. The men applauded and wen- most enthusiastic.

NASHVILLE, Tenn.. April 27-2!). Ward, Beachv and McCurdy flew.

ST. JOSEPH. Mo., May 1-7. Moisant Aviators Hew.

WICHITA, Kan.. May 4-7. Curtiss aviators Kly. Ward and C. C. Wittnier. Ely did spectacular living in a heavy wind.

WASHINGTON. D. C. May 4 McCurdy,

Beaehey and Robinson, all Curtiss aviators. Here Reachev obtained his pilot license.

Beac'hev added to his record of being the first man to *flv around the dome of the National Capitol in a dirigible balloon by taking his Curtiss racer out and flying from the Penning*-race track across the oily, circling the cnpitol dome twiee and reluming to the track in one of the prettiest flights that has ever been made

in Washington and made Beaehey quite a popular hero. The meet was very poorly attended.

BRIDGEPORT, Conn., May 0-7. Earle L. Ovington flew his new 70 h.p. Bleriot in an exhibition from Steeplechase Island in Bridgeport harbor. Some beautiful flights were made. In one he dropped suddenly a great distance as he was caught in a "hole" and caused spectators to gaze in dread, but he skilfully kept the machine in balance and landed safely.

OMAHA. Nebr.. May 8-10. Moisant International Aviators. The attendance was poor and there was plenty of wind. Simon did about all the flying. Charles Boyersdorfer joined the Moisant flyers here with his Curtiss-type and a Gnome engine was out in it.

HOT SPRINGS, Ark.. May 10-11. Jimmie Ward flew. P.ad wind on first day. Good attendance second dav.

FORT SMITH, Ark., May 12-13. Ward and Wittnier flew. Good attendance. Ward flew over the city on both days.

Beachey is Reckless Flier.

BRIDGEPORT, Ct., May 11-14.—J. A. D. McCurdy and Lincoln Beachey opened the new Connecticut flying park of Christopher J. Lake, called "Bridgeport Aerodrome," with fine flying. Beachey, owing to his sensational and, perhaps, reckless flying, caught the fancy of the crowds. His flight from the grounds over the center of the city and around the big new Hotel Stratfield was the sensation. A local newspaper conducted a contest and a young man and woman, winners, were each given a flight of about five miles out over Long Island Sound and back.

Mr. Lake has an exceptional flying held and it will, no doubt, become Connecticut's aviation center, particularly as Bridgeport is the home of the Aero Club of Connecticut.

Beachey's Hying is most sensational. He shoots down at fust speed toward a scampering crowd, then slants up at a lfj-degree angle and straightens out. Some day he may not level in time and then -

Beachey flew from Bridgeport to New Haven, landing on Yale Field at close of meet.

KANSAS CITY. May 12-11.—Willard and Ely flew. Perkins Hew his kites. Not enough people to "wad a gun."

ATLANTIC. Ia.. May I5-IC—Moisant aviators gave exhibition.

PADUCAH, May 18-lb. -H. A. Robinson, Curtiss flier, flew under the auspices of the զ#9632;News-Democrat." Heavy wind demolished Ihe fence on the 19th, but Robinson filled the contract.

DALLAS, Tex., May 17-20.—It was very windy the first two days of the meet, but notwithstanding this Ely and Ward made several flights. The weather was much better the last two days and Ely, Ward and Witt-mer all flew.

Sopwith riies in America.

PHILA., Pa., May 17-20.—Thomas Sopwith, the English aviator now visiting this country, had several days of flying in Philadelphia recently. With automobile races as a counter attraction, Sopwith gave exhibition flights at the Point Breeze race track. Previous to the advertised dates Sopwith made a number of practice flights with his Howard Wright biplane, and on the 15th crashed into a fence, smashing the right wins? of the machine. The day before this he had collided with a fence, but without damage to the biplane. The machine was quickly patched up, in time for the exhibition flights.

Sopwith announced that be had sent to England for the Martin-Handasyde monoplane, which he purchased before leaving his own country, and which was exhibited at the recent aero show at Olympia.

The Baron de Forest $20,000 prize for the longest flight across the English channel made by an Englishman in an all-British machine was won by Sopwith, who arrived in America the first part of May with the intention of giving exhibitions. In trying to use a new Bleriot 70 at Mineola on May 13th, after a flight of 35 minutes he had a bad smash, injuring the engine as well as breaking up the machine. The machine was shipped back to the Bleriot .factory. He had taken up two mechanics one after the other and then took up Philip W. Wilcox for a passenger flight at an altitude of about 10(1 feet and on a turn was caught by a gust of wind which threw the machine over at an angle of more than 45 degrees. By clever manipulation he was able to get it practically righted but in doing so he used all of his elevation and one of the wheels struck the ground, the machine hitting on its nose and throwing the men out.

Sopwith Flies over Philadelphia.

On May 17 Sopwith Hew over the center of Philadelphia, circling the high tower of the City Hall. He left the Point Breeze track without announcing his intention and as he disappeared there was much speculat'on as to what had happened to him. After being gone about 17 minutes he was seen returning and landed safely at the field. The over-city flight created great excitement in town and the drug stores did a rushing business in liniments supposed to be good for stiff necks.

NEW HAVEN, Ct., May 19-20.—Another successful show was given by the Yale Aero Club, in which McCurdy and Beachey took part. Beachey flew over from Bridgeport the last day of the exhibition there, a distance of 15 miles in 15 minutes.

SIOUX CITY, Iowa, May 19-23.—In a 20-minute aerial spin on the first day Rene Simon, the little Freneh aviator whose recklessness has caused him to be called "The Fool Flyer," opened the meet, crossed two rivers and three states. Leaving the Tri-State fail- grounds, Simon made one big circle, 11 miles in circumference and following it by one more circle just a little smaller, completed his unique flight. A gale bad the day before shattered hopes of opening the meet on schedule time.

Within a few miles of the field the corners of three states were divided by the Missouri

and the Sioux rivers. At 5 o'clock Simon went aloft and followed the course that had already been mapped out. The wind was still blowing a gale and the plucky birdman was buffeted about in an astonishing manner. He found that his \machine did not respond to his rudder as quickly as it should. When he landed mechanicians discovered along slit in the rubberized silk covering, which, becoming inflated, was more unwieldy than usual.

Wiseman Starts Exhibitions

Fred J. Wiseman, one of San Francisco's first flyers, has started show flying in real earnest. Wiseman used one of the first Hall-Scott engines put out and complete details y/ere given in the September 1910 number.

SNOHOMISH and EVERETT, Wash., May h—Fred J. Wiseman flew an exhibition in his 'Curtiss-Farman-Wright" biplane.

NO. YAKIMA, Wash., May 13-14.—Fred J. (Wiseman at State Fair grounds. Flew over city.

ELLENSBURG, May 16.—Wiseman flew exhibition date here and at Olympia, May, IS. Route from here covers Tacoma, Seattle, Vancouver and Victoria.

LINCOLN, Neb., May 24-26.—H. A. Robinson and J. J. Ward, Curtiss flyers, filled three days' engagement here; going thence to Jop-in, Mo., for three days.


May 24-26—Lincoln, Neb., Curtiss exhibition.

May 27-30—Boston, glider contests of Harvard A. C.

May 2S-30—Fort Wayne, Ind., Curtiss exhibition.

May 28-30—Joplin, Mo., Curtiss exhibition. Mav 29-31—Saginaw, Mich., Wright exhibition.

Mav 29-31—Hartford, Conn., Wright exhibition.

May 29-June 3—Wilkesbarre, Pa. Curtiss exhibition.

May 29-June 3—Columbus, O., Wright exhibition.

June 1-3—Little Rock, Ark., Curtiss exhibition.

June 2—Philippi, W. Va„ Curtiss exhibition.

June 3—North Adams, Mass., Intercollegiate )alloon race.

June 7—Fort Erie Beach, Buffalo, N. Y. Walter Johnson in Thomas biplane.

June 7-10—Wilmington, Del., Wright exhibition.

June 9-10—Evansville, Ind., Curtiss exhibi-ion.

June 9-10—Springfield, Mass., Curtiss exhibition.

June 9-10—Joliet, 111., Wright exhibition. June 13—Lafayette, Ind., Curtiss exhibi-' ion.

June 13-14—Peoria, 111., Wright exhibition. June 15-17—Dayton, O., Wright exhibition. June 16-17—Quincy, 111., Wright exhibition. June 20-23—Buffalo, N. Y. Curtiss exhibi-ion.

June 29-July 4—Detroit, Moisant aviators. July 1—Gordon Bennett aviation race, Eng-and.

July 10—Gordon Bennett balloon elimination, Kansas City.

July 20-22—Saratoga Springs, N. Y., Wright exhibition.

.August 2-4—Colorado Springs, Col., Wright exh ibition.

August 12-20—Grant Park. Chicago, International Meet.

August 26-September 4—Boston, meet of Harvard A. S.

September 29-October 7 Springfield, 111., Wright exhibition.

October 5—Gordon Bennett balloon race, Kansas City.

January 10-20, 1912—Los Angeles, aviation and arrangements not certain.

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New Harvard Glider, Wright Type, with Warping1 Wing's, of R. M. Allen, and Launching Tower for Meet.


Eleven college aero club entries have been received for Harvard's Intercollegiate Glider Meet, at Atlantic, Mass.. May 27-30.

The events will be classified for body and mechanical control machines, and cups offered in each division. An admission of 50 cents will he charged to the field, which will admit to the best seats. No reserved seats. The gliding will probably mainly be done late in the afternoon when the winds are the lightest.

There are on the field now three machines of the Burgess Co., of Marblehead, one of which is Chas. K. Hamilton's. It is very probable that exhibition flights will be made during the days of the meet in these Burgess-made Wright 'planes. The Harvard Aeronautical Society is going to try to get its Roe triplane in shape and make flights with that machine also. Its new Wright-type glider is being practiced with, and the slope given a testing out in preparation for the meet. There are two large permanent hangars and one large tent, and another tent is to be erected soon for storage of the visiting gliders.

George A. Richardson, president of the Intercollegiate Aeronautical Association, is to attend the meet and fly the U. of Penn. machine. He will give an illustrated lecture on the evening of May 31, whieh ought to add to the interest in college aeronautics at this time.

The entries to date are: Dartmouth. Cornell. Tufts, TJ. of Penn., M. I. T., Williams, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Swarthmore. Haverford, Waitham Aeronautical Society and Harvard. The meet will be conducted under the management of the Society, with the co-operation of the Inter-collesiate Aero Association.


The Aero Club of Illinois has worked hard in organizing a big meet schedules for August 12-20, at Grant Park . A large committee, with James B. Plew, president of the club, as chairman, has been working for a guarantee fund of $100,000, which has practically all heen subscribed. Committees have been appointed and work has now actually commenced. This is expected to be the biggest event of the season. Grant Park is in the heart of the City of Chicago, and is so located that water events can he run as well as flights from the land. This city park has been made available by the Park Commissioners of Chicago. If any profit should accrue, it will be given to the charities of Chicago.


Five balloons are scheduled to take part in the first intercollegiate balloon race ever held, starting from North Adams, Mass., on June 3d. The contest is open to any aero club or college aero club, and the pilot of the competing balloons need not be a member of the competing club. The balloons are handicapped: a 35,000 cubic foot balloon, to carry

2 passengers; a 56,000 cubic foot balloon, to carry 3 passengers, and balloons of larger size are to be filled according to the ruling of the referee, A. Leo Stevens.

The race is being conducted under the auspices of the Williams Aeronautical Society. Two cups have been offered, one for distance and one for direction, by Clifford Black and .Howard Scholle, both Williams men. Dartmouth, Williams and Massachusetts Institute of Technology are all entered. W. P. Shearman, of Williams, will pilot the "Stevens 27." Other balloons that are certain to be in the race are the "North Adams No. 1," the "Boston" and the "Pennsylvania."


The Bennett International Aviation Race, which is flown over the Royal Aero Club's grounds at Eastchurch, England, on July 1, will not be a walkover for the American team, so far as the situation at present phro-phesies. Only one American has been chosen thus far, Henry Weymann, who, some time ago, took up the Nieuport monoplane, other names have been considered, James V. Martin, who flies the Jj'irgess built "Baby Far-man" of "Grimy White"; Earle L. Ovington (Bleriot 70 gnome), and Arthur Stone, who has heen flying the new "Queen" monoplane (Bleriot type) at Belmont. Weymann stands the best chance of any of these, as the Nieuport machine has recently made new records. GORDON BENNETT BALLOON RACE.

For the international race at Kansas City, October 5, there will probably be 9 balloons,

3 each from France, Germany and America. The American team will include Alan R. Hawley, 1010 winner, and the other two will be those who set first and second in the National, which is an elimination contest. Germany has just held its elimination.

If America wins the race this fall, the third time in succession, the cup will become the property of the club, and further competition for this cup will cease.


The only cities thus far received for this race, which takes place July 10 at Kansas City, are, "Topeka 11.," of the Western Aero Association; the balloon of Wm. Assmann of St. Louis, and the "Kansas."

All pilots competing in the above two events are also very fortunate. A personal inspection made by H. E. Honeywell, showed a large and well-situated grounds, plenty of good gas at hand, and 2S3 miles greater distance from the ocean, permitting all records to be broken. It is very probable that there will be a new world's record established this year.

President Geo. INT. Myers and his able staff have the work well advanced, even to the minutest detail.

Provisions are made to inflate twelve or more large racing balloons in six to eight hours. Grand stands to seat thirty thousand people also a large automobile court and ample police protection.

The Kansas City Aero Club have placed their order with the French-American Balloon Co. for a fine new 80,000 cu. ft. racing balloon; also made Honeywell, who will pilot

same, pledge to throw away his clothes if necessary, to win.

The Aero Club of St. Louis will enter three or four balloons, with a large delegation.

The Kansas City Aero Club will offer a silver cup for the winner of the national race, which starts from Kansas City July 10. A silver cup will also be given to the. balloon securing second place in the national race. In adciK.on to these trophies, the club will give a bonus of one hundred dollars to each balloon which actually starts in the race. The program for the national race, July 10, will provide that the first balloon shall start at four o'clock p. m., and that the others shall follow at five minute intervals.

The grounds chosen are situated within three blocks of the gas works, and the LTnited Gas Improvement Company guarantees an abundant supply of gas of a specific gravity of at least .40. The fact that the gas has sucli a short distance to travel and the fact that the piping is all being arranged especially with a view to giving every balloon an equal chance to secure the best quality of gas. seems to assure the contestants will not have any complaint on the score of gas.

New Plying" Grounds.

The Aero Club of New York, located at Nassau Boulevard, on the Long Island Bail-road, the property of the Garden City Estates Co.. of which the Hon. Timothy L. Woodruff is president, has applied for a charter from the State. The old "New York Aero Club," which expected last year to use these grounds, has been dissolved. The president is the Hon. Timothy L. Woodruff; vice-president, Clifford B. Harmon; second vice-president, Htidson Maxim; 3d vice-president, Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin, 4th V.P.. and B. B. Sinclair, secretary. The directors are: Hon. Timothy L. Woodruff, Clifford B. Harmon, Hudson Maxim, William H. English, R, B. Sinclair, Colgate Hoyt, Edward M. Grout and Earle L. Ovington. A tract of land about 2v2 miles in length by sa' of a mile in width, near the Garden City station, is being used for grounds, and already ten sheds have been erected. Another ten sheds are expected to be built in the near future. Those who have already taken sheds are Earle L. Ovington. Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin, Harry S. llarkness, Clifford B. Harmon, George Kussell, Bomain Berger, Queens Aeroplane Company, Lad is Lewkowicz, L. P. Sanger, Jr., and Fred P. Schneider. The privileges of the Garden City Estates Club have been extended to the members of the Aero Club of New York. Membership dues are $10 a year; no initiation fee. The grounds can be reached by the Long Island Railroad from the Flatbush Avenue Station, Brooklyn, or the new Pennsylvania Station, New York.

The Aero Club of x.011? Island will begin llights in a few weeks by members of the club. Heretofore the club confined its energies mostly to instruction of its members and the building up of a permanent organization.

Francs Willson, member, is assembling his Curtiss-type biplane at Mineola. It will be driven by a 50 h. p. Kirkham motor. It possesses features never before embodied in a Hying machine, and is expected to open the eyes of some of tlie veterans of tlie old field. It is built on thoroughly sound principles and lias already won the admiration of Chas. K. Ha milton.

A Chanute-type "lider of exceptional efficiency has been built, after his own modifications, by Thomas Kramer, member, age IS, and has already made about 150 flights on the hills near Long Beach. Young Kramer

has become expert in gliding, and is willing to match his machine and skill with any amateur. This is his fifth glider, and he has made nearly 1.000 glides.

The motorless biplane of William and Henry Newell, members, is complete, and will be shipped to Mineola and set up in preparation for towed flight prior to the installation of its motor. It is of the headless type, simple in construction, and equipped with the Newell method of control.

Charles D. Spence. member, is having constructed by the White Aeroplane Company a 4 0-foot monoplane embodying the most advanced and practical methods of trussing and control yet attained in that type of dying machine. In a lengthy illustrated lecture to the Aero Club of Long Island, Mr. Spence compared by actual tests the present methods with his own. The simplicity and positive-ness of his construction supersede all other systems. The design of the machine's control is the most natural that can be attained, and still uses only hands and feet to operate: no shoulder gmues. The building of the machine is well under way. Mr. Spence's invention is a substantial modification of the well-known Pratt truss.

The Aero Club of Long Island is an educative society, and invites inquiries from those who wish to associate with it. Address Secretarv, Aero Club of Long Island, Richmond Hill, L. I.

Rhode Island Aerodrome.

The Rhode Island Aeronautical Society, of Providence, R. 1., has secured an aviation field near Narragansett Park, which is very favorable for llights. It is flat, protected to some extent, has a straightaway of nearly a mile and is convenient to the ciiy. Otto Hermann and Sidney Borman, both members of the society, are engaged in actual work 011 machines. Mr. Borman is building his fourth machine, the mechanical details of which are as near perfect as could lie wished. Regular meetings are held the third Wednesday of each month, and lhe society is planning an active season.

The Aero Club of Illinois has held its annual election, and (lie following officers have been chosen: President, .lames E. Plew; first Nice-president, Harold F. McCormick; second vice-president, T. Edward Wilder: secretary, Grover F. Sexton: treasurer, Charles F. Bart-ley; consulting engineer, James S. Stephens.



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Aeroplane Cloths



We have furnished covert for C. B. Harmon's Farman biplane, Burgess Co. & Curtis biplanes, Grahame - White's special biplanes, and Glenn H. Curtiss


U. S. Patent issued. PARTNER WANTED FOR FOREIGN PATENT RIGHTS Liberal Interest. Write promptly for particulars F. G. DIETERICH, P. 0. Box 2J08, Sta. G\, Washington, D. C.

250 West 54th Street New York City

cable: aeronautic. new york "phone 4833 columbus Published by

aeronautics press, Inc. a. v. jones, pres't - - e. l. jones, treas'r-sec'y

ernest l. jones, editor — j. c. burkhart, ass'l editor

subscription rates

united states, s3.00 foreign, s3.50

advertising representatives: e. f. ingraham adv. co.. 116 nassau st.. new york

Gil Rankin. I Beacon St.. Boston. Mass.

NO. 47 JUNE, 1911 Vol. 8, No. 6

copyright, 1010. astronautics press, inc.

entered as second-class matter september 22, 1908, at the postotfice new york, under the act of march 3, 1879. ^ aeronautics is issued on the 30th of each month all copy must be received by the 20th. advertising pages close on the 25th. :: :: :: :: :: make all checks or money orders free of exchange ^ and payable to aeronautics. do not send currency. no foreign stamps accepted. :: :: ::

agents fob "aeronautics."

NEW YORK—American News Co., 15 Park PI.; Brentano's, 5th Ave. and 27th St.

ST. LOUIS—Aeronautic Supply Co., 3932 Olive St.; H. P. Mardorf, 4068 Olive St.

JERSEY CITY—A. W. Castellanos, 231 Virginia Ave.

BOSTON—I. N. Chappell, 26 Court St.; J. F. Murphy, South Terminal Station.

SAN FRANCISCO—Foster & Orear, Ferry Bldg.; San Francisco Stationery Co., 20 Geary St.; California Aero Mfg. & Supply Co., 4 41 Goldengate Ave.

CINCINNATI—J. R. Hawley News Co., 11 Arcade.

MEMPHIS—R. M. Mansford, 26 S. Main St. CHICAGO—P. O. News Co., 17S Dearborn St.;

H. S. Renton, 4 9 "Wabash Ave. BOISE—Rawl's, 917 Main St. PORTLAND, ORE.—S. S. Rich, 267 Morrison


SALT LAKE CITY—Sheppard, the Magazine Man.

DALLAS—S. W. Aeronautic Supply Co., 214 Main St.

LOS ANGELES—Whalen's News Agency, 233

S. Spring St. WASHINGTON—Brentano's.

BERLIN—W. H. Kuhl, S2 Koniggratzerstr., S.W.

PARIS—Brentano's, Place de l'Opera. LONDON—Aeronautics, 27 Chancery Lane: Geo.

II. Scragg, 12 Newgate St.. London, E. C. BERNE—A. Francke's Sortiment.


Note.—Volume I. started with the first issue, that of July, 1907. Volume II. started, with the issue of January. 190S. Volume III. started with the July, 190S, issue. Volume

IV. started with the January, 1909, number, and Volume V. with the July, 1909, number. Volume VI. started with the January, 1910, issue, and Volume VII. started with the July,

1910, number. Volume VIII. started with the January, 1911, number.

january, 1911.


Notes on the Aeroplane Propeller. By ,

Matthew B. Sellers.................... l^""""

The Life and Work of Octave Chanute. . . -Z The Fallacy?of the Screw Propeller. By

C. Wesley! Hewell. Jr................. 5

Farman's Flight of S hrs., 12 min........ 7

Legagneux Makes Altitude of 10,496 ft.. 7 Experiments with Aeroplane Wireless. By

Harrry M. Horton .................... S

Measuring Propeller Thrust............. 9

English 24-hour Non-stop Aero Engine

Run .................................. 11

Aeronautics and War. By Lieut.-Col. W.

j\. Glassford ......................... 12

Wright's Improved Anemometer. By John

W. Mitchell ........................... 15

Scale Drawings of the Bleriot XI Monoplane ................................. 16

WTinter Ballooning New Sport........... IS

Rexford Smith Machine................. 21

Walden-Dyott Monoplane ............... 22

A. M. AVilliams' Monoplane............. 2 4

National Council Convention ............ 26

Extension of Dewey Decimal System to

Cover Aeronautics. By L. P. Erode.... 27

Wright Company Suits.................. 2S

Club Mews ............................. 30

Bissell Motor .......................... 31

Military Aeronautics in America for 1911. 34

Simms Motor Starter.................... 36

Index to Volume VII................... 37


february, 1911.

How to Build a Curtiss-type Biplane. T5y[ 'V

G. H. God ley ........................

The New York Aero Show .............. ^57

The Los Angeles Meet. By Prof. H. LaV.

Twining .............................. 53

Long Model Flight Wins Stevens Cup.... 56

The Thompson-Van Arsdale Machine..... 57

60-mile Flight by Masson................ 59

Deaths of Hoxsev and Moisant.......... 61

Death of Cecil Grace................... 0 2

The Physiology of High Flying.......... 63

Scale Drawings of the 1910 Light Far-man .................................. 6 4

Congress $125,000 Aero Appropriation.... 66

Wright Training School Starts.......... 66

Many Nqw Records Abroad.............. 69

How Altitude Records Are Made......... 71

Tracy Dynamometer .................... 75

Ascensions ............................. 77

Rvan WanK A C. A. Made National..... 7S

Club News ......................... 79

March, 1911.

The Duni» Automatic Stability System.

By T. O'B. Fubbard............ SI

Insurance for A\ iators......

The New Southard Monoplane.......... M

National Council and Aero Olub.....

Scale Drawings of Southard Ii. A ono-

plane ................................. s-'

Success of the Curtiss Hydroplane. By

Prof. H. LaV. Twining................. S6

State Registration of Aeroplanes......... 87

New Model Curtiss Biplane.............. SS

Construction Aids XVII.................. S9

McCurdy Makes Over-Sea Flight........ 90

American Distance Flights Cross Country. 90

Winter Flying at Mineola............... 93

San Francisco Meet. By Cleve T. Shaffer. 95

San Diego Meet. By II. LaV. Twining. ... 9S

Havana Meet ........................... 9S

Aeroplane Reconnaisance ............... 99

How to Build a t'urtiss-type Biplane. By

G. H. God ley ......................

Curtiss Plant Sold ..................... 104

Aero Motors in America (Kirkham; Detroit Aero; Kinek) .................... 106

Club News ............................. 13°

April, 1911.


A Transcontinental Aero Way. By Morris Wm. Ehrlich....................... 115

The Hydro-Aeroplane. By W. R. Turn-bull, jM.E............................. 117

What Our Aeroplane Builders Need...... 119

Parmelee and Foulois Make Great Bec-

ord ................................... 121

Flight Progress About the Coutnry....... 123

Four American Rotary Motors........... 126

Boston's Second Aero b.iow.............. 132

The Hubbard Monoplane (Scale Drawing). 136

Bleriot «Bus ..................-........... 13S

Washington Aeroplane Show. By W. Wilson Southard and Antony Jannus..... 139

Ascensions ............................. 141

Club News .............................. 144

The Missouri Signal Corps in Aeronautics.

By Andrew Drew.......................145

How to Build a Curtiss-type Biplane. By

G. H. Godley ......................... 146

Vaniman Propelling Mechanism Patent... 149

May, 1911.

Some (Facts About Soaring Flight. By E.

F. Andrews .......................... 155

The Influence of Multi-Point Ignition on

the Efficiency and Output of Internal

Combustion Engines. By Otto Heins... 156

Army' to Have 30 Aviators............. 158

Closed Circle Aeroplane Becords. By

Geol H. Scragg ....................... 160

Aeronautical Manufacturers' Association. 162 National Council and Aero Club of America ................................... 163

How to Measure the Pitch at Any Point of an Existing Propeller. By Hugo C.

Gibson ............................... 164

New Fraud Medium .................... 165

How to Build a Curtiss-type Biplane. By

G. H. Godley (Serial No. 4)............ 166

Jannug Takes Passengers ............... 168

Gary Machine........................... 173

New Kimball Biplane ........... .... 172

The Burgess-Wiseman Machine ......... 173

The Meyerhoffer Triplane. By Cleve T.

Shaffer ............................... 175

Sheaf( and DeBerri Biplane.............. 176

Fortney Monoplane ..................... 176

Johnsbn Monoplane .................... 177

Brewer Bros. Biplane.................... 177

Wheeler Monoplane .................... 177

Prier 'Flies from London to Paris........ 180

A. C. A. Banquet ....................... 184

Gray Eagle Motor ...................... 1S6

Wolverine Two-Cylinder Motor.......... 187

Short Bros. Landing Gear Patent......... 190

June, 1911.


Aerial 'Motors of To-day. By George S.

Bradt\..................;.............. 195

How Fdst and How High May an Aeroplane Go. £!y Harry E. Day........... 197

Wireless Experiment of "N. Y. World."---- 199

State Aero Legislation................... 200

U. S. Military Aeronautics................ 202

Ascensions ............................. 202

Ascensions .............................. 2015

Auto Chib $1,000 Motor Prize............. 203

Baldwin Biplane III (With scale drawings) ................................. 204

Fairchlld Monoplane II (With scale drawings .................................. 206

Aeronautical Society Banquet............. 209

Aero Club and National Council (Bepudia-

tion Agreement)....................... 211

Howard Wright Biplane (With scale drawings) ................................. 211

Death , Lt. Kelly, Hartle, Bouruiqtie and

others ................................ 213

Bray aind Hermann Biplanes.............. 215

Schools of Flying 'in America............. 220

List American Pilot's..............212 and 222

Vedrinfes Wins Paris-Madrid Pace....... 222

Club News.............................. 226

Patents^................................. 232


EQUILIBRIST, SLACK WIRE WALKER, well educated, good business training in office, exnerienced in shop work, four seasons operating own automobiles, wishes to associate with manufacturer to give flying exhibitions, train others and prosecute business generally. Excellent reputation. Address "Equilibrist," care "AERONAUTICS."

LEARN AT HOME, in a few evenings, how to construct, operate and repair Flying Machines, Commercial Trucks, Automobiles, Motorcycles, Motor Boats, Gasoline Engines. Electric Motors. P.iir demand, with good pay, for competent men. Thousands of positions open. Let us help you in place and. pay. A postal card will do. Address EXTENSION DEPARTMENT, The Charles C. Thompson Co., 549 Wabash Avenue, Chicago.

SITUATION WANTED—Active and clean-cut young man, ex-observer of U. S. Weather Bureau and Meteorological expert, desires affiliations with aeroplane manufacturing company, with object of being instructed in practical flying, for which tuition will be paid. Proficiency acquired, position of demonstrator and salesman for company would be expected. A-l references given and required. Address, Harry T. Johnson, 1213 Emerald Ave., Chicago Heights, 111.


$25,000 WANTED, on a partnership basis preferably, for tlie construction and development of a new and larger type of aeroplane, equipped with two engines (100 h.p. each) and four propellers (shaft transmission). Machine is non-eapsizable and will be of exceedingly strong construction. Should be capable of standing very heavy weather and is suitable for long non-stop cross country flights. Planes are adjustable either for speed or" for passenger carrying. Only those interested and willing to invest the required amount in such a proposition need apply. Address "R. D. W.," care "AERONAUTICS."

FOR SALE—HO h.p. II. F. or Harriman aviation engine: new; $500. This is the same size engine that the Harriman Motor Works are charging $1,075. for. Address "Box 3. Girard, Kans."

PROPELLERS—Guaranteed, laminated ash and spruce, 6 to S ft. in diameter, any pitch. Introduction price, $16.50. PAYNE & NEIGHBORS, Sedalia, Mo.

BIPLANE FOR SALE—Complete, nicely fitted up machine, slightly damaged. Elbridge 3-cylinder power plant with all fittings and a spare propeller. Power plant, wheels, etc., good as new. Will sell whole machine for less than cost of engine. R. E. LEE, Charlottesville. Ya.

WANTED To represent reliable firm handling complete machines ; also supplies for this western country. Rest references exchanged. Have many dates 'to lie filled. Address. Dr. G. Brownfield, 1234 "O" Street, Lincoln, Nebr.

MANAGER WANTED—Capable man, sober and reliable, to arrange meets for two real flyers. Address at once, Sparling Aviators, East St. Louis. 111._^_

AMATEUR AIRMEN and others; full size monoplane, ready for power; $75 one passenger. Fine flyer: also full size biplane. Three-cent stamp for particulars and blueprints. 10. M. Minert Aero Co., 1122 West Locust St., Davenport, Iowa.

AVIATOR PILOT, licensed A. C. France, experienced in flying and construction of Bleriot and other monoplanes, seeks engagements and aviation business. Write to Dr. Yellens, ',)'.) Myrtle street, Boston, Mass.

The Aeronautic Supply Company


And Still the Largest

Because we sell nothing but good goods at the right prices



Address all correspondence to 6664 Delmar Blvd. St. Louis, Mo.



In Stock For Immediate Shipment

Our New Prices

6-ft. Anv pitch 7-ft. "' " 8-ft. " "

$30.00 40.00 50.00



Bleriot-type Monoplanes and Curtiss-type Biplanes in stock

We arc now booking: for exhibit i ns with licensed aviators.


330-332 EAST 98th STREET

Phone, 6006 Lenox ::: NEW YORK



We claim more for the Boulevard than docs the manufacturers of any other motor.

We claim and cruarantee: 1st. Maximum thrust for bore and stroke. 2nd. 8 hours continuous run at maximum speed. 3rd. Every motor for two years against breakage, through faulty workmanship or material. 4th. Less vibration than any other aeronautic motor.

5th. That the motor will never overheat. 6th. Perfect compression.

7th. All parts to be perfectly balanced with respect to each other and also center of gravity.

We have extended the time limit on our "Special Offer" to June 18th.

If you don't buy from us, we both lose money.

Boulevard Engine Co. :


! NAIAD Aeronautical Cloth

Manufactured Especially for -- Aeroplanes-

Light, Strong Air'Tight and Moisture Proof

Sample Book A-6, Data and Prices on Request

I The C. E. Conover Co.


t 101 Franklin St., New York ++4-+4>+++++*+++++++++H




Specific Gravity 3 20 Tension, - 44,000 lbs. to sq. in. Compression, 126,000 lbs. to sq. in.

Transverse, 87,000 " " " " jorsjon, - 60.000 ........

Send for test bar or a pattern for sample casting


19 Rapelye Street BROOKLYN. N. Y.


Expanding to atmosphere her two-cycle engines volumes inert gas, reducing the temperature and




Everything for Aircraft in Stock!

PROPELLERS—Any size, any pitch, laminated from the finest edge grain Oregon Spruce and Honduras mahogany, per foot...........................................................$6.00

WHEELS—High Duty Aeroplane Wheels, any size, steel or wood rims, each...................................................$6.75

TURNBUCKLES—Lightest and strongest aviation turn-buckles, weight 1 oz., strength 700 lbs., each............$ .20

Locking devices fitted 5 cents extra send 0 stamps for illustrated catalogue


3403 Southport thro to 1352 Roscoe CHICAGO, ILL.

explode a small concentrated charge into several strains to workable aero limits under abnormally conditions.



=$1000.00 =

PROPELLERS FOR MODELS; iiSLr^a.i.01,*!,'.''.^

shaft accurately and seciirely attached; 3?>iin. 15c., 5 in. 20c, (i in. Be, 8 in. 35c, 10 in. 50c. Post-paid. Low quantity prices. ,1 orspy Skeeter Aeroplanes 25i\FlyingSquirrel Aeroplanes 15c. LINCOLN SQUARE NOVELTY WORKS. 1939 Broadway, New York

WRTNKI F'S preservative


An Elastic Non-Porous Varnish for Silk, Linen, Muslin and other Fabrics used in manufacturing of


More Balloon Varnish sold than all other Manufacturers combined. Sample Can Free. WRINKLE PAINT MFG. CO.. COLUMBUS, OHIO

Write for prices of material for Bleriot and Curtiss-type aeroplanes.

Get our prices on complete machines, Turnbuckles, "U" bolts, Sockets, Wheels, Steering gear, Landing gear, made in our own factory.

Craftsman perfect propellers, $40.00.

Oval seamless steel tubing, 25c. per foot.



b. c. mcclellan, of the mcclellan aviation cessfully with a finely constructed curtiss

co., south bend, ind., has been flying1 sue-type 'plane and a model 2 maximotor.

curtiss motors for early deliveries.

The Curtiss Motor Co., of Hammondsport, N. Y., are now in a position to make deliveries on two sizes of their well-known motors.

The four-cylinder motor develops 25 h. p. at 1,300 R. P. M. the cylinders are z% inches by 4 inches, of cast iron, with homogeneously welded copper jackets. The valves are both in the head and are actuated by a

and magneto, is 100 pounds. Ignition is regulated by Bosch high tension magneto, driven by enclosed gears. All the bearings are of very liberal dimensions, ensuring long life. The price, including radiator, magneto and Curtiss propeller, is $1,600.

curtiss 4-cylinder motor.

single push rod and cam. Lubrication is by a forced feed system, the rotary oil pump which is submerged in the reservoir is operated from the main shaft. The oil is fed through the hollow cam shaft to the main bearings, thence through the hollow shaft to the crank and connecting rod bearings, the overflow returning to the reservoir. The crank case is of a special aluminum alloy, and the crank shaft is of Krupp chrome nickel steel. The weight, including oil and water pumps

the curtiss eight.

The eight-cylinder motor develops in excess of 50 h. p. at 1,200 R. P. M. The cylinders, 4-inch bore and stroke, are cast separately and are fitted with light steel water-jackets. The genera] specifications are the same as the four-cylinder. The weight, including oil and water pumps and magneto, is 200 pounds. The price of the 50 Ii. p. power plant, including fuel tank, radiator, propeller and all accessories, is $3,000.


Brooks X. D. Aeroplanes.

The Brooks Aeroplane Co., of Saginaw, Mich., reports the recent sale of several monoplanes.

The original intention to manufacture monoplanes only uy toe well-known Brooks knockdown system for boats, has been modified to the extent that they are now prepared to also market biplanes, and in addition to furnishing the assembled sections in the knockdown, are also able to furnish tiie complete machines either ready for the installation of the power plant or equipped with 30 to 50 h. p. motors ready for flight if desired.

Every effort has been made to combine in a standard design, strength, quality of material, perfect workmanship and construction, with simplicity and safety of control, the aim being to place on the market a machine in which the factor of safety predominated.

The monoplane built by this company is of the well-known Bleriot type, embodying all the 1911 improvements, while the biplane is of the Farman type.

Shows Parts Numbersd for Assembling.

There are two complete and separate systems of control, so arranged that the failure of one set of control would not make the machine inoperative. The emergency guys are fitted in such a way as to normally carry none of the load, so that if a fracture occurred, the emergency guy would immediately assume the strain.

After repeated experiments it has been decided to abandon the regular Bleriot "U" type of wire strainer, which was originally used in the Brooks monoplane, and in place thereof pressed steel fastenings have been substituted, eliminating entirely tlie boring of boles in the longitudinal body members, which necessarily weakened the members in question. This new fastening was adopted after repeated experiments and tests on full-sized machines, showing that the point of fracture of the body when strained to tiie breaking point was invariable where the "U" bolts went through the longitudinal members.

An important feature in connection with the manufacture of aeroplanes by tin's system is the fact that all parts of the machines manufactured by this company arc made. to Template on special jigs, so that replacement and duplication of parts can be simply, accurately and immediately made.

Chicago Company Increases Space.

The Chicago Aeroplane Manufacturing Co. of Chicago, 111., announces an increase in its capital stock to $50,000. Progress with this company has been rapid. Less than two months ago the company found it necessary to more than treble its floor space, and now occupies quarters with seven stores on Cottage Grove Ave, Xo. 2224 to Xo. 22.">S, and three stores on Indiana Ave., the building extending through from one street to the other.

In addition to this, the company has for an aviation field the Hawthorne racetrack.

Tlie present equipment provides for the completion of two aeroplanes per week. In spite of these increased facilities, the company finds itself unable to meet the demand for its product, and negotiations have already been closed for three more stores on Indiana Ave., which are being remodeled to be used as machine shops, and the directors of the company have decided to increase their capital stock to $50,000.

IK L. Dennis of Franklin, Ind., visited the motor factory of II. O. Rubel. Jr., & Co., and after several demonstrations of the "Gray Eagle" motor, he purchased one for his biplane, which he expects to have ready for making exhibition flights within the next 30 days.

Another "Gray Eagle" motor was sold to Mr. Louis Fernsner of Trenton, X. J., for his Bleriot style monoplane.

I). A. Kreamer of Freeport. 111., has made a number of flights recently with his Curtiss type, using a four-cylinder, 30-35-horsepowor Boulevard motor. The Chicago School of Aviation has also made a test of the motor.

Simplicity is the feature of the Boulevard motor. It has the overhead cam shaft, doing away with rocker arms, push rods, etc. Having the valves in the head, it is a simple matter to remove them, substitute new ones and regrind the old ones at leisure moments. The Ilekla 1 Mini, steel crankshaft is another important point. The six-cylinder, 50-liorsepower has a 1%-in. shaft, and there are 2-in. crankshafts in the four-cylinder, GO-horsepower, and the eight-cylinder, NO-horsepower. The system of driving the magneto direct on the crankshaft is unique and dispenses with gears, which is a great advantage. The Boulevard Engine Co. has moved into new quarters and guarantees prompt deliveries. The office is at Gbio Building, St. Louis. .Mo.

Gibson propellers are now standard equipment with the Aeronautic School of Engineers, the Moisant School and Queen Aeroplane Co.

The new Adams-Farwell motor, made by the Adams Co.. Dubuque. Ia., announcement of experiments with which has previously been made in AERONAUTICS, will shortly be ready for the market. The cylinders revolve and' the crankshaft is stationary. The cylinders are 0 in. by 0 in., A. L. A. M. rating, 72 horsepower, five cylinders, four cycle, radial, mechanical intake valve, SO pounds compression, bronze hearings. A six-cylinder motor, in which both cylinders and crank revolve in opposite directions, is being proven. This is intended to drive propellers in opposite directions.

Although one may know in a general way that there is a great deal of activity in the building of machines and accessories, it is hard to realize the extent to which the industry has boon carried in so short a lime, unless one looks a( the catalogues of some of the various makers.

The Chicago Aero Works, 104 North Wabash Ave. Chicago, has put out a catalogue which shows this progress to a striking degree. The main feature of the catalogue is the listing of nil the parts of a Curtiss type machine, with the prices of each part. This will enable the novice to obtain any or all of the parts of this machine and assemble it himself. A great variety of struts, ribs and beams are also listed, as well as hardware for both full-sized machines and models. A Curtiss copy, engincd, ready for flight, is sold at $2,000.


20 Years Experience

June, ign +************+*+



+ +



Send for book telling how to obtain Patents and Illustrating 100 Mechanical Movement* - BOOK MAILED FREE TO ANY ADDRESS -

CHAS. E. BROCK, patent attorney

913 f street, washington, d. c. 256 broadway, new york city

i have in my office copies of all patents granted for aeroplanes



manufacturers are writing me for patents obtained through me. send for three books with list of 200 inventions. a postal will bring them free. my clients' patents sold free. personal services. aeronautical expert.

RICHARD B. OWEN, 0VVdeenpVdg. Washington, D. C.

Our Books for Inventors Free

send sketch for free opinion as to patentability. specialists in aeronautics.


Patent Lawyers

87-90 McGill Bldg. Washington, D.C.


CImprovements in Aerostructurei should be protected without delay. thousands are experimenting, and your discoveries may be made and patented by others. a seemingly unimportant point to-day, may control the aeroplane and dirigible in the future as the selden patents control the automobile. Do not give your idea* away ; protect them with solid patents.

We render an opinion as to the patentability of any invention without charge. send us a sketch and description, photographs or a model for immediate report.

booklets giving full information in patent matters, a list of needed inventions and a history of successful patents, mailed free. write for them.


. Elhs Chandlee & Company 1247 F strooti WaahlnBton, D.c.

Carath Oval Tubing

For DEMOISELLES and other Aeroplanes CARRAN & HATHAWAY

worcester, mass., sta. a

Price: 25c per Ft. Sample on request

section full size, no. 22 and 2i gauge






U. s. Patent oflic

Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patents

american and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. handbook for inventors sent upon request 30 McGill Bldg. WASHINGTON, D. C

s^-PATE NTS SECURED OR fee returned

#TT Send sketch or model for FREE Search of Patent Office records. Write for our Guide Books ^JJ and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our

special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes.

$600,000 OFFERED IN


^Jf We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of ^JJ patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed.


main offices - 724-726 ninth st., n. w. - washington, d. c.


«j engines, M h.p., weight, iVs lbs—1 h. p. &/s lbs. very strong, powerful and efficient. complete line of ace s-sories, ball-bearing propeller shafts. miniature pneumatic tire wheels, made in six sizes. turnbuckles. metal fittings, propellers, rattan, bamboo, all six sizes of selected woods, finest grade english rubber strand, etc.

correct prices, complete catalogue sent on request

THE WHITE AEROPLANE COMPANY, Brooklyn, N.Y. office and salesroom: 337 adams street telephone, 3878 main


prepared as per formula of U. S. Army Emergency Ration. This ration weighs 8 oz. net and will sustain the average U. S. Soldier for a period of 24 hours in perfect physical condition.

prepared by

POWELL'S, Canal and Sullivan St$., New York

WIRE Aviator wire of high strength—Plated finish—Easy to solder —Aviator cord of twisted wire. John A. Roebling's Sons Co., TR^ON'

special grades of bamboo for aeronautic work. reed, rattan and split bamboo for models. all Gndet In Stock.

J. DELTOUR, INC., 49 Sixth Ave., New York



»11 q. built to order on extremely

olZCS short notice. C.We do experimental work of all kinds. C.We are specialists in light, tubular, frame construction work :: :: :: :: 'պ ::

Tiger Cycles & Aeroplane Go.

782 Eigbtk Ave., N. Y. Phone, Bryant, 1268



C The P pump is the smallest practical rotary pump and can be regulated. Wrile for circulars.






Telephone 108 FULTON STREET Cable

100 John NEW YORK Photonewi. N.Y.

Photographs of Practically every Aeroplane aod Ainhip in the World

Lantern Slides and Enlargements our Specialty Write (or Catalogue Agents Throughout Europe



to learn aviation. over $1,000,000 in prizes. no limit to salary. aviators who own aeroplanes make $500 to $1000 a day in exhibition work. we teach you to fly. to care for. assemble and repair aeroplanes. we have the most complete equipment and are largest manufacturers of aeroplanes in west. unlimited course—no books used— actual practice on finest aviation field in u.s. references required. write todav for full information.

aviation training school, 1195 locust st. kansas city, mo.



Laminated to Order W. C. DURGAN

SEE OUR EXHIBIT AT "AERONAUTICS"' OFFICE 115 Brown Street :: :: Syracuse, N. Y.


Stock Sizes

Prompt Deliveries

16 x \v2 in. monoplane tail wheel. weight 3 lbs. 20 x 2 in. curtiss type. weight 7 lbs. rims, either

wood or steel 20 x 2Vz in. wheels for single tube tire. 20 x 3 in.

20 x 4 in. " clincher tire.

24 x 3 in. "

HUBS furnished 4 x 5 x 5l/s or 6 inches wide. fitted with plain or knock out axle or bronze bushed to fit 1 in. axle. other sizes to order.


don't fail to gat our pricmm

J. A. Weaver, Jr.,Mr.

Model Aeroplanes

we build scale models to your own design or supply all necessary materials. drawing and directions for building perfect three-foot bleriot monoplane. clear and complete; 15 cents. send for price list.

Ideal Aeroplane and Supply Co.

Dept. A, 1200 Bedford Ave.. Brooklyn, N. Y.




Less lhan 3 lbs. per H. P. A. L. A. M. rating

Self cooled by its own revolution



Maximotor Makers Detroit.

The Detroit Aeronautic Construction Co, Detroit, Mich., has changed its name to "Maximotor Makers, Detroit," at 1913 Jefferson avenue. The motor will now be called "Maximotor" instead of "Aeromotor."

Maximilian Dingfelder, president and designer of Maximotor Makers, who helped construct the famous Daimler engine used in the German Mercedes, has been building marine engines for ten years, the last five of which his boats held the Detroit championship against the speediest racers brought against them from all over the country. He drove the first automobile on the streets of Detroit long before Henry Ford started the industry which nearly doubled the city's population in five years. For the past three years Mr. Ding-felder has been experimenting with aeronautic engines, and attending the big meets and exhibitions. The "Aeromotor" was put on the market by his company, the Detroit Aeronautic Construction Co., about a year ago. It is now flying in 'planes and dirigibles as far away as japan.

John T. Patterson, secretary, business manager of the firm, was formerly in the publicity business with the Sacramento (Cal.) Chamber of Commerce, and was recently engaged in automobile advertising at Detroit.

The factory is still at the foot of Crane avenue, and the propeller branch shop on At water street, but the offices have been moved up to 1913 Jefferson avenue, E.

Hints on Eng-ine Installation.

The new Elbridge engine catalog contains some good pointers for the novice, in addition to describing the features of that well-known motor.

Don't pass on any part of your machine as "good enough." Nothing is good enough in aeroplane construction but the very best.

Don't bolt your engine into place until you have made sure the machine is properly balanced. See that the weight of engine and operator are properly distributed. It is easy to shift the engine an inch or two before it is bolted down ; but a big job afterward.

Don't place the radiator directly behind the operator; let it have all possible air. If the radiator boils over at the normal flying speed of your machine, get a larger one. Don't expect an aeroplane radiator to keep your engine cool on the ground or in a tent, unless installed in a monoplane with the full current from the propeller blowing on it.

Don't forget to replace paper packing, coated with shellac or thick oil, if you remove intake manifold or carbureter. The joints should be air-tight.

Don't try to run an engine with propeller attached without thrust bearings.

Don't place the gasoline tank on timbers of engine bed : the bottom of the tank should be at least twelve inches above the top of the carbureter or the flow of gasoline will be too slow when tank is half empty.

Don't waste your time, money and temper experimenting with poor propellers, make-shift radiators, or second-hand automobile engines.

Dou't pull the propeller out of true in bolting it to the flange. Put a rule against the main frame of the plane and mark where the propeller tip lines up; then swing the propeller over and see that both ends touch the same mark. If they are not even the vibration may be terrific.

Some further "don'ts" which may be added are ռ/p>

Don't let your magneto get covered with oil and crease; it may short some time, when you will be sorry.

Don't let oil collect on the surfaces of the plane. Put a drip pan under the engine. Tt will pay, as oil causes most coverings to deteriorate very fast.

Don't trust to the cut-out on the foot brake alone. Have another one. or better, two. handy, as your foot is likely to jar off when landing and the engine start up, possibly causing trouble.

Don't let a rip in the surface go. Patch it before it has a chance to spread.

The Ideal Aeroplane & Supply Co., 1200 Bedford avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y., have just issued their first catalogue of model supplies. The model supply business has grown to large proportions in this country. Thousands of school boys are building models with supplies obtained from such houses. The even work and finish of some of these model supplies are reallv extraordinary.

Robert E. Lee, Charlottesville, Va., has a biplane fitted with a 3-cyIinder Elbridsc engine, EI Arco radiator, Unisparker, 10-galIon copper tank and direct connected 7-ft. diameter bv 5-ft. pitch propeller and a spare one also, which he is willing to sell for less than the cost of the engine. The machine is designed something like a Farman. It is complete with tires and fittings. He reports a number of short flights last summer The running gear is too light and needs to be rebuilt.

Antony Jannus, like "Grimy" White, has turned his rudder ito literature, and "Success" will shortly have an article on the sensations of flying. No one yet has been able to give anv intelligent description thereof, so the reading of this may be looked forward to with pleasure. Not only that, but he will, after a time, be flying a monoplane equipped with an Emerson engine.

J. A. McCallum of the Midwest Aviation Co., Kansas City, Mo., has been making frequent flights at Elm Ridge during the past few weeks. He uses two biplanes, one with a tractor screw working in front of the operator, the other equipped with usual tvpe of propeller. The lougest flights have been made with the latter machine. McCallum is making a series of exhibition flights in Kansas and Missouri. He uses an Elbridge "Featherweight" 1910 model engine, with El Arco radiator.

"Why is an aeroplane called 'She'?" was asked of G. S. Bennett, the secretary of the Kansas City Aviation School.

"I can guess several reasons," said Mr. Bennett. "One reason is that aeroplanes have wings and wings only grow on female angels. Another reason is because aeroplanes have extra ribs and more ribs than a man, and a 'She,' you know, has more ribs than a 'He.'

"Then every aeroplane has 'Stays' on them. Men don't wear stays or corsets in this country, so you see its furnishings are of the feminine type.

"All aeroplanes have to have a lot of cloth— high priced goods, too, to get them up in the world, and this is true of the 'She' sex.

"Men are needed to care for and manage all aeroplanes, as they are inclined to follow off some side fad that they meet up with in the air.

"But the main reason that aeroplanes are called 'She,' " said Mr. Bennett, "is the way they act. Uncertain, contrary and obstinate at a time when vou expect so much from them. Everything may he most favorable—wind dies down, the motor runs smooth, a crowd out to see her go up—-and she won't go up an inch 'just because.' "

The Burgess-built "Baby" Farmans, which were made for C. G. White, arc getting plenty of flying at his school. Even passengers are being carried.

The firm of G. White, Bleriot and Maxim has not been able to get the £200,000 they tried to raise by selling stock. The money subscribed has been returned.

Farman is suing Grahame-White for infringement on the landing chassis on the "Baby" and Bleriot is also suing him. Far-man is also suing the Bristol people, whose machine is almost an exact copy.


copies of any of these patents may be obtained for 5 cents each, by addressing- the "commissioner of patents, washington, d. c."

Johann Schutte, Langfuhr, Germany, 98S.597, April 4, 1911. DIRIGIBLE having a plurality of spherical cells inside the casing.

Edwin Wilson, Lynn, Mass., assignor of one-half to Jacob Boyle, of Lynn, 988,611, April 4, 1911. Device for LAUNCHING an aeroplane by a spring.

Chas. M. Wanzer, LTrbana, O., 988,681. April 4, 1911. PROPELLER with plurality of blades.

James Means, Boston, Mass., 9S9.022, April 11, 1911. OPERATING DEVICE for aeroplanes.

Patent covers a combination with independently operated lateral and longitudinal rudders, of a vertical rudder, a single manually operated means for simultaneously actuating said lateral and longitudinal rudders to correct disturbances of the lateral and of the longitudinal stability of said machine, and a controlling device for said vertical rudder mounted on said manually operated means or pendulum operated means, etc.

Florentin Barmettler, San Francisco, Cal., 989,319, April 11, 1911. DIRIGIBLE, with plurality of propellers in horizontal plane.

Jacob Phillips. Westfleld, Pa., 989,412, April 11, 1911. HELICOPTER.

John Washington Wadsworth, Leetsdale, Pa., 989,455, April 11, 1911. DIRIGIBLE, heavier than air, air sucked in and discharged through ducts.

John J. Donnellv, Denver, Colo., 989,490, April 11, 1911. HELICOPTER.

Joseph A. Blondin, Los Angeles, Cal., 989,520, April 11, 1911. LANDING DEVICE, in which wheels are depressed into contact with ground when starting, tilting machine at a greater angle of incidence than in flight. In flight the wheels are raised for landing on skids.

Elmer E. Lessard, Heber, Ark., 989,616, April IS, 1911. Pivotally mounted engine operating ailerons for STABILITY.

Phineas S. Woods, Smithville, Mo., 989,6S1, April 18, 1911. Provides movable propeller shaft in a vertical plane, means for converting planes into parachutes.

Ulysses Grant Lee and William Austin Dar-rah, Brooklyn, N. Y., 989,786, April 18, 1911. Supporting surface of symmetrical, CONICAL SLTRFACES, concave downward, side bv side, converging at front.

Joseph I. C. Clarke, New York, N. Y., 989,834, April 18, 1911. Apparatus employing a BLAST OF AIR under a surface, drawn downward from above by a blower.

Charles P. Savage and Jesse W. Silver, Ta-coma, Wash., 990,011, April 18, 1911. Ailerons which are rotatable around a horizontal axis, in unison or separately, power driven, for STABILITY.

Josef Skorupa, Alpha, N. J., 990,015, April 18, 1911. Means for causing an aeroplane to rise vertically in starting a flight.

William Stemmer, Philadelphia. Pa., 990.404, April 25. 1011. tiled Sept. 20. 1010. Aeroplane with PLURALITY OF PLANES.

Brantly Ohalfanl. Philadelphia, Pa., 000,424, April 25. 1011, filed Sent. 27. 1900. Dihedral SURFACE with wing extremities curved upwardly and steering device.

Fred G. and Albert E. Dieterich, Washington, I). C, 000,712, April 25, 1011, filed Jan. 13, 1011. AERO MOTOR in duplicate, or two distinct engine units, either of which can be run "live" or dead, as desired. Means for changing fuel supply from one to the other; one unit to be run at high speed and the other at a low speed.

Abel T. Newbury, Vermilion, Alberta, Canada, 090,S07, May -1, 1011, filed Oct. 7, 1900. Combination airship, helicopter and aeroplane.

Geo. S. Udstad, Aurora. 111., assignor of one-half to Charles Liet, Aurora, III., 991,115, May 2, 1911, filed Eel). 21, 1910. Combination of ROTATING BOX KITES, propellers and oscillating vertical surfaces mounted on a frame.

Edgar Murray Yates, Norman, Okla., 901,259, May 2, 1911, filed Dec. 27, 1909. DIRKCT LIFT machine in which planes composed of pivoted slats maintain a horizontal position while rotated about 011 axis.

Sidnev Lawrence, Micheldever, England, 991,331, May 2. 1911, filed Nov. 23. 1909. PROPELLER in which variations of shape, set or position of blades occur automatically under working conditions, in which blades possess, in part, rigidity, flexibility and resiliency.

Riley Estel Scott, 250 W. 54th St., New York, 991,378, Mnv 2, 1911, filed May 4, 1910. MEANS for DROPPING PROJECTILES from aerial craft. Comprising a device and method enabling the operator to launch a projectile or bomb at such a time and in such a position that the target may he stauick with accuracy. This device takes scientific consideration of speed, height, resistance of atmosphere, and other factors of such a problem and is the first device of its kind to have been patented.

John C. Schleicher, Mount Vernon, N. Y.. 991.459, May 2, 1911. filed March 2G, 1910. GAS ENVELOPE for airships.

Jack Lloyd Nichols, Belton, Tex., assignor of one-f uirth to Albert Lee Jacks and one-eighth to Robert Lee Willis, both of Belton, Tex.. 991,528, May 9. 1911, filed Oct. 20. 1909. Aeroplane with propellers below the planes, means for tilting the planes.

John Hughes, Baker, Mont., assignor of one-half to Helen Tracy, of Lake Andes, S. 1)., 991,020, May 9, 1911. filed May 14, 1910. AEROPLANE with superimposed planes; gears for driving the wheels of running gear.

by the use of the

G & A


Practically all Aviation Records

are held by the

Adjustments GU Carburetor

All climatic conditions taken care of without the use of any springs or any adjustments. Send for booklet on carburetion and Special Offer to Aviators

G. & A. Carburetor Co.

£44-250 West 49th St. New Yor^F





For All Types of Aerial Craft

WRITE US FOR PRICES, STATING JUST WHAT YOU HAVE Give Total Aera of Lifting Surfaces, Engine Bore and Stroke with R. P. M. and whether

Left or Right Hand Rotation


44.46-48 and 58 West 43rd Street



Write for interesting circular describing

these efficient propellers. SOLD ON A BROAD GUARANTEE

The "EXPANDING PITCH" Propeller. Guaranteed to deliver a thrust of 6.25 to 9.25 pounds per actual horse power at 1200 R. P. M.

R. O. RUBEL, JR. & CO., - (133 N. 4th Street) - LOUISVILLE, KY.



" " _____________________________ me. Advice and book sent free. TERMS LOW. __GEO. C. SHOEMAKER, Patent Atty., 929 FSt., Washington, D. C.

CLARKE'S FLYERS —Best and Go Furthest

%-oz. to V/\ lbs. Latter has flown 600 ft. 37 cts. to $5.28, postpaid. RACING MODEL D, l-oz., RECORD OVER 900 FT., $1.08 POSTPAID. Send for Big Catalogue Models and Supplies T. W. K. CLARKE & CO., High St., Kingston-on-Thames, England


First American designed and built Monoplane to successfully fly


H. W. WALDEN ■ - Factory at Mineola, L. I.


Used by Leading Aviators.

Light in weight— Strong and


Variety of types and sizes in stock. Absolutely Guaranteed.

Send for Catalogue 19.

All Sizes Hoffmann Steel Balls on Hand.

R^I. V. CO. 1771 Broadway, New York

♦ M M ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ MM ♦ ♦

California Aero. Mfg. & Supply Co.;

MOVED TO J 781-3 Golden Gate Avenue J

2 Floors, 50x120 each


(Trade Mark)

High Grade Aeronautic Materials 1

We have several slightly used Standard ^ machines for sale at low figures.

"Camasco" Knock Down Planes t from $150.00 up

Curtiss (type) Biplanes $500.00, without power.

Agents: Elbridge Motors, Requa-Gibson I Propellers, Goodyear Fabrics, Naiad y Cloth, all makes of Aero Tires, Detroit T Motors, El Arco Radiators.

♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦Mi

dltrq1t-/^rq - power PLANT






MI5SrDETR01T MONOPLANE price $\500




1!WIBXoai)Way, New York City

London Representative: 1'aris Representative:

Simms Magneto Co., Ltd. Cie des Magnetos Simms

I Wolverine Aero

25-30 H. P.

Guaranteed One Year

Price for June $250.00


and 7 feet, any pitch, laminated Wolverine wire tighteners, aeroplane :: :: parts, etc. :: ::

* Wolverine Aeronautic Co. *

$ Albion :: :: :: :: :: Mich $


Our Aviation Field Now Open

Special course to out-of-town students

Practical course in construction and assembling in our factory Write for frem booklet "Aviation"

Chicago School of Aviation

2224-2238 COTTAGE 6R0VE AVE., 2227-2231 INDIANA AVE. CHICAGO, ILL.


We furnish yon this biplane in iS-foot size complete in every detail except the motor, in the knocked down style ready to assemble.

The aviation season for 1911 is close at hand. Grasp this opportunity and be in shape to compete for the rich purses and exhibition prizes which are now being ottered, which at the present date amount to over $750,000.

Write or wire at once as we are only putting out a limited number of these aeroplanes at this price.

All parts of any make Aeroplane at low prices.


2230-38 Cottage Grove Ave., Dept. C, Chicago, 111.

TYPE A-l, 40 H. P., 250-260 Pounds Continuous Thrust.

For particulars regarding this, the <>0 H. P., Type A-2, and the 80 H. P., Type A-15 aviation power plants, and information regarding nights made with Hall-Scott Power Plants throughout the country. Address publicity department,

HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR COMPANY, - - San Francisco, California





The Roberts Motor Never Fails You







C. O. Hadley Flying at Mineola. Power Model 4X Roberts

Read the following letter carefully:

The Roberts Motor Co.,

Sandusky, Ohio.


It will no doubt be gratifying to you ts receive an account of the success we have obtained with our new 4X' Roberts Aero motor which we purchased froff you last month.

Our biplane in yJW-GS its installed this motor is 45 foot spread by 6 foot chord, and is said to be the largest t&cichine that ever ■aarie a successful flight on Mineola field.

We made our initial try out on May 15, and to say that the motor is satisfactory is putting it mildly. It has all the speed and power that is necessary for any ordinary machine and is as flexible as any motor ever flown on Mineola field.

We flew the first attempt with the throttle but half open and carried a passenger with plenty of power in reserve.

Should any one wish to know of the wonderful performance of this motor we will gladly refer them to any aviator that has seen the performance of same on this field, without regard as to what motor they are flying with, as every one of them pronounce it the most perfect motor ever turned over on this field.

Yours very truly,

(Signed) Hadley & Blood.


1430 Columbus Avenue :: :: Sandusky, Ohio, U. S. A.