Aeronautics, April 1910

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VOL. 6 NO. 4.

APRIL, 1910

25 CTS

Facts About "Elbridge" Engines

More actual power for weight than any other engines in the world! Only engines with unlimited guarantee based on actual performance!

Less bulk for the power than any other engines in the world!

Fewer parts (Working or otherwise) than any other engine in the world!

Guaranteed speed range 200 r. p. m. to 2200 r. p. m.

Extra large bearings, —more than 15 in. in 4 cylinder engines.

A refinement of detail only possible in a light weight engine that has actually been on the market more than four years.


Elbridge rating, 40 h. p. A. L. A. M. rating 60 h. p. Weight 167 lbs. Also made in 2 cyl. 20 h. p.; 3 cyl. 30 h. p.; 6 cyl. 60 h. p. Air-cooled engines, 1 to 4 cyl. 5-20 h. p. at 1,000.

Particulars and prices on request


10 Culver Road

Rochester, N. Y.

The Bowden Patent Wire Mechanism

Made in England


THE Bowden Wire Mechanism is particularly adopted for Motor Car, Motor Cycle, Motor Boat and Airship service: For

Brakes for Cycles, Motor Cycles. Brakes for Motor Cars. Valve Lifters for Motor Cycles. Ignition and Throttle Controls for Motor Cars, Motor Cycles, Motor Boats and Airships.

Carburetor Ticklers. Sprags for Motor Cars. Muffler Cut-Outs for Motor Cars, Motor Cycles, Motor Boats and Airships.

Auxiliary Air Controls for Motor Cars, Etc.

Solarclipse Gas Lamp Shades.

What it is. -The Bowden Wire Mechanism consists of hut two parts—a closely coiled and practically inconipressihle spiral wire, constituting what is termed "the outer member," and a wire cable, practically inextensible, threaded through the above and termed "the inner member."

What it does. Previous to the introduction of the Bowden Mechanism the usual mechanical method of transmitting power in other than a straight line was by means of angle levers and rods, cables and pulleys, and other such devices, all of which necessarily involve considerable complication, besides increased labor and expense in adapting them satisfactorily to the user's requirements. The Bowden Wire Mechanism dispenses with all these difficulties, while enabling power to be transmitted by the most tortuous route. The mechanism is complete in itself, and requires only that one member shall be anchored to a stop at each end, and that the other member shall be attached to an operating lever at one end and to the object to be moved at the other.

*I The opportunities for the use of the Bowden Wire Mechanism are practically unlimited, and in every case its employment is accompanied by decreased cost of actuating mechanism, simplicity, instantaneous operation of actuated parts [due to absolute lack of lost motion] and reliability.

*I The Bowden Wire Mechanism may be adapted to impart either a pulling or pushing movement.

Over Two Million Feet Sold Annually




(incorporated) PROVIDENCE, R. I.

P. O. Box 735 March 1, 1910

The Requa-Gibson Co., 225 West 49th St., New York, N. Y.

Dear Sirs:—

The propellers your company are manufacturing fulfill every claim you make, in fact, the 6 ft. dia. 4 ft. pitch propeller delivered to us did even better work than you guaranteed.

We will need more very soon.

Respectfully, L. A. W. MOTORS CO. Per Oliver Light P. S. The pull obtained was about 210 lbs. at 1,000 to 1,050 R. P. M.

C,We are more than making good. C,Do you not think it would pay you to save time and money by purchasing a standard article from stock?

6 ft. - $50.00

7 ft. - 60.00

8 ft. - 70.00

Sole Importers Times Building, New York REQUA-GIBSON CO.

cAlso U. H. The Master Magneto. F. S. Annular Ball Bearings. German Steel Balls

225 W. 49th Street, New York City

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Four Lbs. per H.P. 50 H.P. and 30 H.P.

m\\ For ten years we have been building light weight speed engines jj That Run and our aviation engine is Not An Experiment


built of Laminated Mahogany fitted with Bronze or Aluminum Hub and


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Price with Standard Equipment

50 H.P., $830 30 H.P., $650

C. 10 H.P. and 100 H.P. Aviation Engines built on special order

C If you want a reliable Light Engine delivering

REAL HORSE POWER, call on us

Harriman Motor Works, Inc.

South Glastonbury, Conn.

New York Office: 1777 Broadway, N. Y.

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Do You Want Your Aeroplane to Fly?

HOW many have tried and failed ': How many of our best aviators are satisfied with their engines? Why do they misfire and behave badly at eritieal times? One reason is because they do not scavenge properly—neither the 2-or 4-cyele types.

Have your aeroplane equipped with an


2-CycIe, 3 or more


Wastes no charge at any speed. Cleans out cylinders and pumps in clean charge of full volume every stroke. Means double power per cylinder of 4-cyele type. No baffle plate used. One valve only exposed to fire. Moderate weight with fair factor of safety. One lever controls everything from start to stop and intermediate speeds.

Aeroplanes and propellers built to order. Pattern making our regular business.

Let us build your aeroplane complete from your plans or ours.

Trenton Pattern Works, Trenton, NJ.

It is the prime mover of the future Z and is applicable to automobiles -and to any power plant

It is as big a thing as the telephone \ and a small investment now will make one independent for life

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For further information apply to


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Wittemann Glider In Flight

C. and A.



Aeroplanes, Gliding Machines, Models, Separate Parts

PRACTICAL LESSONS IN GLIDING Experiments Conducted Large grounds for testing


17 Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road, Staten Island, New York

Telephone, 390-L West Brighton


~ Magnetos

Supreme at Rheims and Brescia

At the great aviation meets at Rheims and Brescia Bosch Magnetos were supreme. The four great prizes at Rheims and six of the nine prizes at Brescia were won by Bosch equipped aeroplanes.

700 Bosch Magnetos for 1910 Aeroplanes

There are already contracts for more than 700 Bosch Magnetos for use on 1910 aeroplanes.

"The Bosch News", treats of Bosch Equipped aeroplanes and flying machines. A copy will be sent free upon request.

Bosch Magneto Company22 nIw york St

Chicago Branch:

San Francisco Branch:

1253 Michigan Avenue 357 Van Ness Avenue


UNTIL further notice, the contests for the handsome Aviation Trophy first offered in 1907 by the


will consist of a 40-mile flight across country (either straightaway or 20 miles and return).


the latest developments in aeronautic progress. AERONAUTIC PATENTS

We were pioneers in assisting aeronautic inventors, and our facilities are especially adapted to their needs. Valuable information sent free on request._

MUNN & CO., Inc.,


365 Broadway, New York.

Scientific American-Trophy, 1907


Your Success or Failure largely depends upon the power, weight and reliability of your Motor.


25 - 30 - 50 - 60 Horsepower.

4 and 8 cylinder.

Winners of Gordon-Bennett Cup.

(First and only international event)

Twice winners of Scientific ^American


Send for descriptive circular "M" and full particulars.

The Herring-Curtiss Co.

Hammondsport, N. Y.




Tells the aeroplanist just the force of the wind pressure against his planes, enabling him to guard against accident through diminished air resistance.

Built on the errorless magnetic principle which has made the Auto-Meter the standard Auto-speed indicator.

It looks unlike the Auto-Meter but has the same honest "insides'' and consequent capacity for "delivering the goods.'"










Auto - Mete r

We manufacture the Lightest Weight and Highest Quality Engines in the World

All working parts of Krupp and other German Steels of highest tensile strength obtainable


ALEXANDRIA .'. .. ." Virginia

To Owners and Builders of Air Craft:

Don't merely get off the earth; give your machine a ehanee to be a world-beater. It can't do its best with guessed-out propellers; they must be designed for the weight, surface-ratio, speed and power of your machine. We have made a special study of the mathematics and design of propellers and are prepared to turn out blades of the highest excellence in every particular. 1 f you ha ve"good-enough'' propellers we will furnish better or no pay. Send a general description of your machine for preliminary calculations and free estimate. If you want to be early in the game, Do it now. Satisfaction guaranteed.

American Propeller Company :: 616 G Street :: Washington, D. C.


Dynamometer tests of aeronautic motors made for inventors, manufacturers and experimenters.

Any size—Any speed Reliable, conclusive and confidential reports.


Consulting Engineer 116 West 39th St. :: :: :: New York


A MAN of great intelligence,

*ՠ And well supplied with brains, Who, through his downright commonsense

Unnumbered friends retains. The homage of the "Teat and small

Is his in hi rye decree, Since in his genial manner all

The true good fellow see.

The Art of flying well is blest,

This patron earns his fame! With a machine, his mind's obsessed.

"Twill bust the motor game. To fly by man-power is his plan—

It'll come to that some day. We must do honor to this man

Is what the world doth say.



Balloon and Aeroplane


COnr fabrics are composed of the finest procurable cotton fabrics treated with Fine Para rubber compounds. C.The materials are practical-1}' air and moisture proof and will not deteriorate quickly. Also they will stand—for their weight—enormous tensile and tearing stresses. C.Aeroplane fabrics with weights from czh to if ounces per square yard are offered by us.



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True Screw—Laminated Spruce and Ash. Guaranteed as good as the best. Ten years' experience building propellers. Any length and pitch, 2 or 4 blades. Tell us power of engine, weight of machine, supporting surface, how driven, and we will fit a propeller guaranteed to do the work. Delivery in 7 days. C. 2 Blades, 7-Foot, Any Pitch - - $50.00


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Aeroplane IECo.


Working Models Flying Models Separate Parts


From Working Drawings, Etc.


Aluminum, Rattan, Bamhoo, White-Wood, Etc.


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To take orders for our Working Models and Flying Toj\s. Liberal commissions.

address all communications to


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Everett V. Cnritcii, pres. and lv'y't

CHICAGO AGENT: II. S. Renton, t-9 Wabash Avenue

Catalog, Free on Request.



By Henry S.

IN reference to your remarks on the efficiency of the Wright's propellers in November issue of Aeronautics, a simple consideration of a couple of fundamental laws of dynamics may be of interest as corroborating your conclusions on the matter.

A screw propeller rotating upon a standing machine discharges a certain number of pounds of air backwards every second.

The two fundamental laws which will be quoted may be found in text books on dynamics. They are the law of kinetic energy and the law of momentum.

The law of kinetic energy is expressed by the equation:

w = 6^

where (K) is the number of foot pounds of work which, applied to a body (or volume of 'air) of (W) pounds weight, will give it a velocity of (V) feet per second.

The law of momentum is expressed by the equation:

T7> W V

F =

32 T

where (F) is the force in pounds which, applied to a body (or volume of air) of (W) pounds weight for a time (T) seconds, gives it a velocity of (V) feet per second.

Consider now two specific cases for the sake of comparison. Take two propellers rotating on standing machines using the same horsepower each, but of different diameters. The given horse-power acting on the smaller amount of air in the smaller propeller gives the discharged air a higher velocity than with the larger propeller. This velocity corresponds somewhat to the slip in a propeller on a moving machine, and should not be mistaken for the velocity of the machine.

Baker, B.Sc.

Let the two propellers be of such sizes that for one horse-power applied to each, the velocity given to the discharged air by the small one is, say, 40 feet per second, and .by the larger one is 20 feet per second. One horsepower is 550 foot pounds of energy expended per second. Consider the law of kinetic energy as applied to the volume of air discharged in one second by the two different propellers. We have for each propeller K = 550 foot pounds. V = 40 and 20 feet per second, respectively. Then the weight (W) of air discharged by the small propeller in one second is:

W =

64 K 64 X 550

= 22 pound s of air

V2 40:

Again, for the large propeller

w 64X 550 yo .

W = =08 pounds of air.


Now that we have the values of (W), or weights of air discharged, we can apply them in the equation of momentum and get the force applied to the air, or the thrust of the propellers.

For the small propeller we have,

W V 22 X 40 =

27.5 pounds thrust.

32 T 32 X 1 Again, for the large propeller, 88X20

F = — =57 pounds thrust. 32 X 1

Of course, in these two cases the loss of energy due. to skin friction and to mixing up of the air is neglected, but the figures show striking comparison in favor of the larger propeller, both in having smaller slip and in having higher thrust than the smaller one for the same amount of energy in each case expended in producing slip.


By M. B. Sellers

There are two meanings of the term propeller efficiency.

One, the true efficiency, is the useful work of the propeller, divided by the power absorbed by it. Now the useful work is the speed of the aeroplane, multiplied by the thrust of the propeller while driving the machine at that speed, and, of course, the power absorbed is the brake horse-power (in foot pounds) of the engine at the number of revolutions made under those conditions less the power lost by transmission.

The other meaning of propeller efficiency is simply the thrust exerted by the propeller when revolving at a fixed point, multiplied by the pitch velocity; and this product, divided by the foot-pounds delivered to it by the en-

gine. The "pitch velocity" is the pitch times the number of revolutions per minute.

"Aeronautics'" Platform

Aeronautics always has been, and ever will be, "free and independent."

It plays no favorites.

It gives praise where praise is due.

It condemns on just cause.

It feels entitled to criticise where criticism appears needed. It holds the privilege of criticizing adversely as well as favorably.

The columns of Aeronautics are always open. It courts criticism, is glad to hear from its readers, and will, further, print any letter taking issue upon request.



MANY of the scheme's illustrated here were seen on machines at the Boston show. Figure 2 shows Morok's arrangement for sliding in or out the auxiliary stability surfaces. Figure 3 shows the fastening of vertical struts to horizontal beams in the wooden framework of the tail structure. The L. A. W. Motor Co. bolts the aluminum casting shown in Fig. 8 to the back of the front strut, and this acts as the hinge for an aileron similar to the Curtiss.

Fig. 10 illustrates the terms "pitch" and "thrust." The screw propeller is merely an adaptation of an ordinary wood screw such as we are all familiar with, and which consists essentially of a spiral or thread traced or formed round a central core or axis. The distance traveled along the axis is by the thread in one complete revolution is the "pitch." See 10-A.

Now, the screw of an aeroplane does not work in wood or iron but in the air, and it will consequently only advance for one revolution a portion of the distance it would do if it were working in some solid substance, and the difference between the distance the screw actually drives the flying machine and the distance it would drive it if working in some solid medium is called the "slip of the screw," and is generally expressed as a percentage of the latter amount. The result of revolving a screw in water or air is to project a current or stream in a direction approximately paralled to the axis of the screw, and the rection from this in the flowing is called the "thrust," and the aim of- every designer is to obtain the greatest possible thrust from any given dimensions of propeller when working at its designed speed.

THE fifth of a series of articles on the requirements of the patent laws of the principal countries of the world, by F. O. Andreae.

Norway.—Patents of invention are granted for a period of 15 years from the date of filing and a certificate of addition can be obtained, which ends at the same time as the principal patent.

New inventions capable of being utilized industrially are patentable with these exceptions : Inventions dealing with breaches of the law, good morals, or public order. No article of consumption of first necessity, or luxury, or a medicine is patentable, but the processes or apparatus employed remains patentable.

An invention is not considered new if, before the date of application for patent, it is already sufficiently well known to enable it to be worked by people in the trade; the publication of a printed work or the exhibiting of the invention at international exhibitions, would not constitute an anticipation until after six months.

The patent must be worked within three years from the date of the grant of the patent and subsequently every year.

There are annual fees increasing every five years.

Portugal.—Patents allowed for a period of ts years from the date of grant. Patent of introduction of a maximum duration of 10 years and certificate of addition ends at the same time as the principal patent.

Patentable inventions are: Industrial object or material production of a commercial character. Improvement or amelioration of a pioduct or of a known industrial object of the same nature. Discovery of a method easier and less costly of production.

Exceptions: Pharmaceutical preparations and remedies for men and animals, chemical productions; processes for obtaining these, however, are patentable. Inventions prejudicial to health, public security or against the law.

An invention is considered new which has not been described in any publication whatever during at least the last 100 years or which has not been used notoriously in Portugal and in Portugese possessions.

Patent must be worked within two years of date of patent and subsequently every two j ears.

There are fixed annual payments.

Russia.—Nature and duration of the grant: Patents of invention for a period of 15 years. Patents of importation end at the same time as the foreign patent. Certificates of addition ending at the same time as the principal patent.

Patentable inventions : Improvements which present an essentially new element, either as a whole, or in one or several of their components parts, or again in the original combination of their parts where these are already known separately. Exceptions : Scientific dis-

Talks With Inventors, V.

By- F. O. Andreae


coveries or abstract theories, inventions contrary to public order, morals and good living, chemical products, food stuff and analogous materials, medicines and their processes of manufacture.

An invention is not considered new which has been described in a work so sufficiently and completely as to enable it to be reproduced, what is known abroad without being patented, or which is patented there by someone other than the applicant, unless the patent has been made over to the applicant.

Patent must be worked within five years from the date of the signing of the patent.

Annual fees.

Sweden.—Patents granted for 15 years from the date of the deposit. Certificates of addition end at the same time as the principal patent.

New inventions relating to industrial productions or new processes are patentable with these exceptions: Inventions of which the working is against the law or good morals; food products and medicines.

An invention is not considered new which is described in a published print or sufficiently worked for an expert to be able to reproduce it.

The patent must be worked within three years, and subsequently everv year.

There are annual fees to contend with.

Szvifzerland.—Patents for a period of 15 years from the date of application. Certificate of addition ends at the same time as the principal patent.

All new inventions applicable for industrial purposes and capable of being represented by models are patentable. The invention is not considered new which at the date of the application for the patent is sufficiently well known to enable it to be carried out by one of the trade.

No period is fixed for the working of the patent. There are annual fees.

Turkey.—Patents are granted for 15 years from date of application. Certificate of addition ends at the same time as the principal patent.

New industrial productions or materials are patentable; new methods or the new application of known methods. Exceptions: Pharmaceutical compositions, schemes or combinations relating to finance or to sales. Inventions of which the application is against order,

public security or good living and against any law in force.

The laws simply specify that the invention must be new.

The patent must be worked within two years from the date of patent. Subsequently every two years.

Fixed annual payments.

Finland.—Patents of inventions are srranted

for a period of from 3 to 12 years.

New inventions relating to manufactures of industry and art are patentable with these exceptions: Medicines, inventions the working of which is against the law, general security or good living. The invention must be new. The patent must be worked within two years from the date of patent.

There are fixed annual payments.

National Fund For Aviation


THE West somehow is more progressive than the East. Perhaps it has more breadth of view than actual step-ahead-itiveness.

At any rate, a San Francisco newspaper, the Bulletin, is the first to editorially urge a national aviation movement. In speaking of the visit of Cortlandt F. Bishop to Washington to present the resolution of the St. Louis conference in regard to equipping the army with the means to carry on aeronautic work "as a scheme to encourage aviation," it says:

"It seems rather a left-handed way of getting at a good thing. The President is not believed to favor it, because it would interfere with his campaign of official retrenchment, and it Is not regarded as imperative or essential at the present time. Nor is the plan likely to have the effect Mr. Bishop seeks, for it is a matter of history that military experiments in aviation have done little to develop the science along practical lines.

"Independent investigation, on the contrary, has been marvelously prolific in the improvement of man-flying. Civilian inventors and scientists have turned their attention to the airship with excellent results, and are continuing to do so. Why not, therefore, ask the President to urge a national aviation fund upon Congress? This could be made to represent a definite sum and' would not be subject to the politics, jealousies and red tape of an army issue. It would attract international attention, do away with the necessity of secret demonstrations and give a great impetus to the work of solving the problems of aerial navigation.

"We, of America, who have taken so prominent a part in aviation, development, should set the pace with such a fund. It would be worth the sum expended many times over in the way of national prestige, and should not seriously interfere with the national economy program.

"If Mr. Bishop will drop his present circumambient idea in favor of this direct course to the end he seeks, he may succeed in interesting the President and making a triumph out of his present failure. A national fund for the promotion of aviation will meet with the approval of all progressive persons, and should prove so popular an issue that Congress will feel compelled to give it favorable attention."

But—Congress is in the East

IN THE days following the opinion handed down in the Paulhan suit various newspapers of the country remarked editorially on the situation.

The St. Paul Dispatch objects to the Wrights turning "their success in aviation into a monopoly exploited primarily for the benefit of their pocketbook. All those who fly must fly on the Wright patent machine." This paper says that patent laws now make for monopoly and suggests that the stand taken by the Wrights, if upheld by the courts, may be the cause of securing a revision of patent laws in line with present needs.

A more modified view, and one which apparently seems to express the general opinion, was printed by the Boston Herald. This says:

"Another judicial decision entrenches the Wrights in their claim to the system of three-rudder control of aeroplanes. There is not the slightest desire among Americans to see these pioneers in aerial flight fail to receive the customary enrichment which our patent system ensures to men of insight, patience and daring, but it must be recognized that the rights which the courts are granting them are so broad that there is bound to be a check to experimentation by other aviators Exclusion of men like Paulhan from1 sharing in contests here is bound to have its effect when our flyers enter competitions iu Europe."

Zodiac Airship to Come Here.

A contract has been closed with A. Leo Stevens by the makers of the French sporting dirigibles, "Zodiac," for the construction of a hydrogen generating plant, triple system, at Newport, R. I., for the inflation of one of these airships that has been purchased by Messrs. Davis and J. H. York. This plant will make gas at the rate of 2,500 cubic feet an hour. Mr. York has been abroad and made several trips with Count de la Vaulx in an airship of this type.

AERONAUTIC model contests held under the auspices of the West Side Young Men's Christian Association, at the 22nd Regiment Armory, New York, were continued on Saturday, March 5th, after a lay off of a number of weeks owing to the models being exhibited in Boston and Newark.

Edward Durant, has offered a cup for the Boys' Class, which will go to the boy winning the first three "legs." The A. Leo Stevens cup for the longest flight in 1910, was placed on exhibition in the Armory on March 5th. It stands about two feet high and is a beautiful piece of workmanship, being exquisitely engraved.

The following is the result of the contest on March 5th in the Men's Class: W. Morrill Sage, with a Wright biplane, 71 ft. and 4 ins.;

it ready for the next contest, and from all appearances it. should be a winner.

The next contest will take place on March 26th, being a lapse of two weeks. A number of the contestants complained that they did not have time enough to work on their machines, and the Y. M. C. A., therefore, decided to hold contests bi-monthly, so that they will have a chance to get their machines in good working order.

stipple. or & -r»qg*b

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o» t/oort

"7V/ /I u Ji- /3est./?//yo

sprit li

M. P. Talmage, with a Curtiss biplane, 53 ft. and 2 ins.

There were twenty-one machines entered all together, and the winners in the boys' class were: F. M. Watkins, with a monoplane of his own make, 121 ft. 7 ins.; Percy Pierce, 113 ft. 3 ins.; and Ralph Barnaby, 76 ft. 2 ins

The next flight took place on March 12th. The winners of the men's class was W. Morrill Sage, with a Wright biplane, 81 ft. 5 ins. In the boys' class, the three longest flights were made by new entrants: D. Grier, with a Langley make, two propellers, 133 feet; H. Southwortlv double propellers, monoplane of the Langley type, 114 ft. 8 ins.; George Merz. same kind of machine, 96 ft. and 4 ins. (The^e two boys are partners, and they have just completed a man-carrying machine.) There were 14 machines entered and Frank Schoeber brought a Bleriot 6 ft. long with a 7 ft. spread. It was a very powerful machine and exceedingly well made. Upon one of its first trials it ran into a spectator, smashed one of the wings and the propeller. He promised to have-

Chanute Model Cup Contest.

The Aeronautic Society held its first elimination contest to select a team of three to represent it in future competitions for the Octave Chanute Challenge model cup, on March 3 at the 69th Regiment Armory, New York. A goodjy crowd was present—members, friends ;.nd the general public attracted by the announcement. The contest was open to boys as well as men and it so happened that a boy carried off first honor.

Frederick M. Watkins was first, with an original design monoplane. 148 ft. Laurence J. Lesh was second best with his own design monoplane. 125 ft. His apparatus was all wood, held together with elastic bands. Ralph S. Barnaby, third, 114 ft., with his own design of monoplane something along the Demoiselle order.

The other contestants were Dr. Dederer, Louis R. Adams, W. Morrill Sage, W. H. Crocker, L. W Houck, J. K. Salkranian, M. P. Talmage, C. G. Halpine and W. S. Howell, Jr.


The Herring-Burgess Machine

CERTAINLY the finest machine that has yet been seen, from a point of fine workmanship and finish, is the new Herring-Burgessjbiplane, built by fheW. Starling Burgess Co., of Marblehead, Mass. Five orders have been received for machines. A duplicate of the one shown at Boston goes to C. W. Parker, of Abilene, Kans., on March 15. The others will be turned out at the rate of one a week. Two will be of special design, and the others, duplicates of the present. One will be used in the Gordon Bennett meet. Sheds are being built, to house two machines, on Plum Island, near Newburyport, Mass., where there are many miles of flat open country.

The new biplane resembles greatly the well-known Herring-Curtiss, except that it has neither wheels nor "ailerons," the engine is set further to the rear, so that there is no notch in the planes for the propeller and the planes are set at a steeper angle. The curve is more efficient, lifting a given load at less speed and with less thrust. The travel of the center of pressure is only about 4 in., about one-third of that in its prototype. The controls are different, also, there being no steering wheel; levers being substituted, in addition to which are the foot controls. The control system is being patented so that full details are not disclosed.

Main Planes.—These spread 26 ft. o in., with a depth of 56 in., spaced 4 ft. 4 in. apart. Succeeding machines will be spaced 4 ft. The ribs 25 to a plane, as well as the other parts of the machine, are of spruce. The small ones have three laminae and the main ribs at the 16 strut points have 12. The planes are covered with "Naiad" silk. Under the motor, between the central struts the whole lower surface is of aluminum sheeting. No turnbuckles are used throughout the machine, sniy wires in the main cell being kept taut by the introduction of coiled springs, which absorb all shocks. The strut sockets are of tempered sheet tool steel, weighing but a half-ounce each. They are in two parts, one being fastened to the lateral beam and the other to the strut itself and are joined by a pin, which makes of the two parts a hinge, instantly detachable. All struts and crossbeams are fish-shaped. The hollow cross or lateral beams are hollow, as well as the larger spars running out to the rudders, and each section weighs but two pounds. Each lateral beam is in three sections and the main

rell as a whole separates quickly into three sections, or each plane alone if desired. The planes are set at a very steep angle.

Other Surfaces.—A single surface horizontal rudder 27 in. deep by 6 ft. 2 in. spread is to be used in place of the double surface rudder exhibited at the show. This is pivoted 12 ft. from the front edge of the main plane. In the rear, 12 ft. from the rear edge of the main cell, is pivoted a movable horizontal single surface 27 in. by 6 ft. 2 in., bisected by a vertical movable rudder 2]/2 ft. by 2 ft.

Power Plant.—A stock 25-horse-power Cur-tiss motor, in which the oiling system has been changed and the material and size of bearings been altered, drives direct a 4-bladed Herring propeller, 6 ft. diam. by 5 ft. pitch, which gives a thrust with this engine of over 200 pounds. Ignition is by Bosch and the radiator is an El Arco.

Stability —The lateral equilibrium of the machine is partially automatic, banking itself on curves in proportion to the centrifugal force. The device was not shown at the Boston exhibition.

Back of six of the eight front struts of the main cell are masts 3 ft. in height, from which vertical triangular sails or vanes run back to points along the rear lateral beam. Each of these is held, when the machine is on the ground, by rubber bands, in a plane at right angles to the lateral beams. When the machine heels over on turning, or skids, the pressure against these vanes automatically tends to right the machine. It would be possible to equip these with a device by which the aviator could move them as might be required.

Control.—Steering right and left is by a lever in either hand working independently. Fore and aft control is by a foot lever on the right side, and left foot controlling the throttle. The spark is fixed. Both these foot levers are mounted on friction bearings, capable of adjustment, so that the rudder will retain the angle at which it is set by the foot if the foot is taken off. The same applies also to the engine. The arms may rest on two brace spars running from the strut on either side of the aviator to the vertical struts in the outrigger framing.

Mounting.—The machine rests on the central skid. Under the two middle struts of the main cell are two skids raised a few inches from the ground, while at each extremity of the main planes is another small skid. At present, the machine is designed to slide on the ice on the long central skid. In starting, the machine is tied to a post by a rope ending in a butterfly hook. When the aviator is ieady, he pulls a string which allows the wings of the "butterfly" to fly back slipping the rope. The weight of the entire machine, without operator, no fuel or supplies, is 360 pounds

For teaching, a motorless duplicate will be used, using a falling weight to be released

by the operator. As the student becomes more and more familiar with the machine, the height of the drop will be increased. A tank of water, equal in weight to the engine, will be installed.

Herring-Burgess Machine's First Flight.

Hamilton, Mass., Feb. 28—The first trial flight of the new Herring-Burgess aeroplane took place late this afternoon over the frozen surface of Chebacco Lake, with A. M. Herring as aviator, after waiting all day for the rain to let up.

The machine was hooked to the butterfly releasing device which was secured to a stake, the Curtiss engine started on the first turn, and after a slide on the ice of about 80 ft. under its own power, the machine easily took the air and traveled on even keel with the light wind at an elevation of 45-50 ft. for about 140 yds. A turn to the left was made to try the stability device. It was the first time the stability device and the releasing scheme, both of which worked satisfactorily, had been tried out in flight.

DURING this period of aeronautic pre ress the question of ownership of th* air has already been the subject of de-x bate. The rights of the landlords, based on Blackstone's musty law "Who owns the land owns to the heavens above," have recently been the basis of speculative fiction in which this circumambient gaseous area has already been segregated for commercial purposes into its components of linear and of gaseous content —the former as an aeronautic right of way and the latter as a source of nitrates in the manufacture of fertilizer now being conducted as a great enterprise in Sweden.

As a result the landholder, having made a fortune from the timber on his land and perhaps another from the mineral beneath or the soil on top, is rubbing his palms hopeful of a new source of income. On the other hand the aeronaut or aviator is tacitly under suspicion as a trespasser. He boldly makes his flights through air space assumed to be the property of the landlords who for the present suffer the outlaw to go unhung.

The purpose of this paper is to remove this stigma of aerial privacy and to "nail the Stars and Stripes" on a newly discovered territory.

Imprimis, by the common law the possessor of a piece of land—of a city lot 50x150 ft. in its dimensions, for example—owns all land beneath and air space above to the zenith. Surely no landowner, supposing him to be cognizant of his rights in Cujus est solum, ejus usque at caelum can lay claim to more than his right and title to this column of air space 50x150 feet in cross-section and extending to the "heavens above."

Newly Discovered Right of Way

By~ Charlemagne Sirch

I respectfully recommend that we grant this right.

Now I beg to point out that a segment of a spherical body like the earth has lines constantly diverging from the center. These lines at the surface after passing through the boundary lines of the above mentioned city lot continue diverging while the air space belonging to the landlord is contained within perpendicular lines of his surface area. The angle S between the vertical boundary of the land and the projected divergent radius presents abundant linear dimensions in every direction for aeronautic purposes.

Having duly explored sufficient of this newly discovered air space to calculate its extent I now take pleasure in repeating the Peary business with the Stars and Stripes and present this vast region to all aeronautic pilots, pirates, and quasi-trespassers present and to come to be used as an aeronautic highway in perpetuity, world without end. Amen.

:: Shown :: at Boston

BOSTON, Feb. 23. The most complete aero exhibition ever held in this country closed to-night after being in progress in the Mechanics Building since the 16th. While crude as compared with shows abroad, it suggested next year's possibility. Nine aeroplanes complete, four more nearly finished, six gliders, fabrics, motors, balloons, parts, accessories and innumerable models were shown.


The W. Starling Burgess Company, of Mar-blehead, Mass., showed for the first time the new Herring-Burgess biplane, built by the Burgess concern from designs by A. M. Herring with modifications by Mr. Burgess. This machine stood out from all the others by reason of the exceptionally fine workmanship displayed in every detail of its construction.

The Aerial Exhibit Co., 2717 Heath Ave., New York, composed of J. C. B. Storrs and Romer Stevens, showed a very close copy of the Bleriot XI which they call the "American Blerioplane." This sold for $3,750, including instruction. This was fitted with a Cameron air-cooled 4-cylirjder 24-horse-power motor. The warping of the wings is done by the movement up and down by either knee of a centrally pivoted lever just above the knees. The other operations are controlled by a wheel and post as in the Curtiss.

Fred Shneider, 1020 East 178th St.. New York, had a fairly exact duplicate of a Wright biplane with an Elbridge, 1909 type, 3-cylinder 2-cycle engine. The ailerons were attached to the rear of the planes as in the Farman.

The Easton Cordage Co., Easton, Pa., had on exhibition their $3,450 Voisin type machine, of steel tubing, fitted with their new 8-cylin-der motor. This has already been described in Aeronautics.

The Scientific Aeroplane and Airship Co., 361 Broadway, New York, showed an Antoinette-type and a Bleriot Xl-type. the latter selling at $1,000. This had a 4-cylinder 2-cycle 16-horse-power Duryea motor, air cooled.

Louis G. Erickson, of Springfield, Mass.. had a biplane of the Curtiss type but which was novel from a constructional point. The surfaces were flat and every bit of the entire framework, save the engine bed. was of bamboo. This was called the "Ericka II." A Buick motor was installed temporarily. The wing tips were controlled by a shoulder brace as in the Curtiss.

A new York concern, Morok, 1777 Broadway, showed a monoplane similar to the

Bleriot XI at $2,500. Lateral stability is to be secured by sliding "wing tips" on top of the main planes, increasing the surface on either side as desired. These follow the plan of A. L. Pfitzner described in the March number. The wings spread 26 ft, are 7 ft. front to rear, set at a slight dihedral angle. The sliding panels are about 2 ft. spread by 3 ft. the other way. These slide on two of the three steel tubes which constitute the lateral members of the wings. The 3-strip laminated ribs, y2-\n. by V^-'m. section, are of wood. The cloth is laced to wires at both the entering and rear edges. The movable horizontal rear control is 5 ft. spread by 3 ft. long. Just back of this is the vertical tail about 3 ft. by 3 ft. The rear wheel steers on the ground in conjunction with the rear vertical. Two handwheels operate the controls as in the Antoinette. .It is to be equipped with a Harriman Motor Works 30-horse-power motor.

A biplane of quite novel features were exhibited by the L. A. W. Motors Co., of Providence, R. I., and) called the "Page-Light." The main planes have a spread of 22 ft. while the wing tips add 5 more feet to the spread. The depth of the main planes is 6l/2 ft. The wings are light frames of ash, spruce and whitewood. The construction is such that the upper and lower wings on tach side may be easily taken out of the sockets, in the central framework, together or independent. A biplane horizontal tail of 7 ft. spread by 3 ft. length, which is also the size of the single surface wing tips between the main planes, is provided with two planes, 3 ft. by 2 ft., which act as a horizontal rudder. These latter are attached to a central member which acts as a bearing. These planes are carried outside of the biplane tail In the extreme rear is a vertical rudder, 5 ft. by 2 ft., which steers in conjunction with the rear wheel of the 3-wheeled chassis. For a total of 318 sq. ft. of supporting surface in the machine the weight is estimated to be 750 pounds with aviator.

A 6-cylinder 2-cycle revolving reciprocating L. A. W. motor is hung on trunnions in the front of the main planes and can be rocked back and forth by moving a pivoted lever which carries the steering wheel either forward or backward. In getting off the ground the motor with its propeller is designed to be tilted upward. At the same time, by means of a cable, the rear horizontal controls are tilted up in conjunction. Steering right and left is by turning the wheel. A lever operated by the aviator's shoulder controls the wing tips.


The monoplane of Elmer Burlingame, P. O. Box 2953, Boston, was an example of unique construction. The 30-horse-power machine was listed at $3,590 and the 50-horse-power at $5,000. No guy wires were used in the make-up, the main planes being supported by trusses underneath. The spread measures 40 ft., depth of planes 10 ft., total length 43 ft..

weight without operator or fuel estimated at about 600 pounds. A Harriman Motor Works engine is to be installed to drive an enormous propeller 9 ft. in diameter and 16 ft. pitch, and whose thickness is gl/2 in.


by 2 ft. Rear vertical rudder, 2 ft. by 3 ft. A 25 horse-power 4-cylinder motor of their own manufacture was shown partly finished. Fine workmanship was displayed on this. It is to weigh but 00 pounds. Fred Shneider


The L. A. W. Machine


G. S. Hayward, Hyde Park, Mass., had a biplane in general appearance like the Curtiss. The main planes measure 44 ft. by 1\ ft., vertical tail and horizontal control in rear, each 3£ ft. by 7 ft. The front control is 7 ft. by 3} ft. by 3£ ft. The wing tips and rudders are operated the same as in the Curtiss. All the structural work is ]'oi bamboo" except 'the'ribs 'and engine bed. A 12-cylinder 100-horse-power Buffum motor is to be installed.

had a Wright-type machine, without warping device or wing tips partially complete.

View of L. o4. W. Showing How c^VIotor Tilts

Another Curtiss type was that of Eisner-Downey. Main planes, 30 ft. by 5 ft., spaced 5 ft. apart. The front rudder is 2 ft. by 5 ft. by 2 ft. Rear rigid horizontal surface, 5 ft.


Gliders were shown by the Wittemann Brothers, of Staten Island; the Tell Manufacturing Co., Medford, Mass., Harvard Aero-

nautical Society; Southworth and Merz, two New York boys; Harry C. Lord and M. P. Hubbell, Ashburnham, Mass., who have formed the Ashburnham Aviation Co.; and the Mass. Institute of Technology Aero Club.

The Wittemann glider was of their well known type but stained and finished to the queen's taste. This easily would have won the workmanship prize had any been offered. The Harvard glider had two single surface front controls on either side, no tail and the operator lies in a cradle of woven catgut. The M. I. T. glider had a Lilienthal tail, with a single front horizontal rudder, with wing tips outside the main planes.

motors and accessories.

The Cameron Car Co., Beverly, Mass., showed two of their regular air-cooled 24-horse-power 4-cyHnder and 36-horse-power 6-cylinder motors. The Harriman Engine Works, 53 State St., Boston, had a small model rotary gas engine. The Easton Cordage Co., Easton, Pa., exhibited their new 8-cylinder 50-horse-power motor with a Requa-Gibson propeller mounted on the shaft. H. H. Buffum, a 12-cylinder 100-horse-power motor, cylinder set V, weighing 388 pounds. L. A. W. Motors Co., 6-cylinder 2-cycle rotary air-cooled motor. The cylinders are mounted offset radially about a central hub with their heads to the center. The piston pins, instead of connecting rods, are provided with ball bearings of large size, forming rollers: these run around in a circular ring set eccentric to the cylinder hub. This eccentricity causes the pistons to move in and out of their cylinders as they rotate about their hub. The inlet for the fresh gas is through the central stationary hub, which has a port which registers in turn with ports in the cylinder heads. Ignition is accomplished without any electrical apparatus, except for starting. In operating each cylinder fires the one next to it by means of a by-pass through the central hub, which admits some of the burning gas into the cylinder just ahead. A single spark plug may be fitted into this port. A. P. Homer, 88 Broad St., Boston, was another exhibitor of motors.

The B. F. Goodrich Co., Akron. O., exhibited the well known Palmer tires, especially made for aeroplane work. The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., also of Akron, made a showing of fabric.

The C. E. Conover Co., 101 Franklin St., New York, booth was quite elaborate. They showed their various weights and grades of Naiad aeroplane cloth.

The El Arco Radiator Co.. 6 East 31st St., New York, was the only exhibitor of radiators. The El Arco radiator is used almost universally on American aeroplanes.


There were models and flying toys innumerable. The Church Aeroplane Co., 15 Myrtle Ave., Brooklyn, which makes a specialty of manufacturing flying toys for the market and

models of various machines to order, have announced their intention to build full-sized machines. This company sold out every one of their toys, most of the models of well known aeroplanes and obtained several orders for special models. One wealthy Bostonian ordered a $75 2-inch-to-the-foot modfel of the Voisin biplane. This purchaser is bidding a big machine of his own.

The Boston Y. M. C. A. aero school had a pretentious exhibit of kites and models of the best known aeroplanes.

The International School of Aeronautics exhibited a model of the Baldwin dirigible, a Chauviere propeller, various instruments used in ballooning, aeroplane parts, etc. The Harvard Aeronautical Society was an exhibitor of Bleriot and Wright models.

Among the boys who had models were Percy Pierce, C. G. Halpine, W. S. Howell, Frederick Watkins and Earl F. Kimball. Many of these were of the very finest workmanship.

Charles F. Durant, son of the first American aeronaut, showed the flag carried by his father and an old-time poster announcing an ascension.

The Aero Club of New England, which had a good exhibit of photos, inflated the balloon Boston with air in the middle of the hall, whde at one side were three balloon baskets belonging to A. Leo Stevens, of New York. One of these was from the balloon "Mercury," of 160,000 cu. ft, one belonging to the "America," and to make a contrast he had the basket of the "Midget," a little" balloon of but 11,000 cu. ft., a one-man affair. Another exhibit of the Aero Club of New England was of Charles J. Glidden's instruments.

Samuel F. Perkins, of Boston, the professional advertising kite flyer, had an exhibit of various kinds of kites used in his work. The hot air balloon as used at the county fairs was shown by the New England Balloon Co. W. Morrill Sage, who is associated with Leo Stevens in model building, had a beautiful model.

A. V. Wilson, of Bar Harbor, Me., had an "aeroplane ice boat." Above the usual triangular ice-boat frame was a monoplane surface, set at a dihedral angle. It had a 7-horse-power motor. The wings could be instantly set at any angle of incidence when sufficient speed on the ice has been attained.

The magazine Aeronautics had an interesting booth and ajdjoining was sold the "A. B. C. of Aerial Navigation," so that no one had to go away without knowing pretty . nearly all there was to learn about air ships and flying machines.

I wish to thank you for the benefit I have derived from your magazine. I recommend it to all interested in the science of aeronautics. —J. B. F.

Wrights Form Exhibition Co.

The "Aeroplane Exhibition Co., exclusive licensees under the Wright Brothers' patents," with Roy Knabenshue as manager, has been formed to conduct exhibitions and meets throughout the country during this year. It is said that practically no Wright fliers will be delivered to amateurs until the fall.

Several aviators are now being taught the construction work. Experiment grounds have been selected near Montgomery, Ala., where flying lessons will shortly begin.

Clifford B. Harmon, who now has a Curtiss machine and has ordered a Farman, saw the Wrights at Dayton on his way East from his balloon trip, in regard to obtaining privilege of flying the Farman machine he has bought. Mr. Harmon stated to a reporter that the Wrights refused at the time to permit him to fly his Farman, though he offered to pay them the profit on one of their machines at $7,500, and even to purchase one of them. Mr. Harmon is awaiting a definite decision.

Ten Entries in G-B Aviation Race.

Three more entries have been received for the international aviation race from Great Britain. This makes ten in all, though it is not certain that Italy will have a machine. The Wrights have signified their intention not to place any obstacles in the way of this particular contest. The location of the meet has not yet been decided by he A. C. of A.

McCurdy Flying at Baddeck.

The Canadian Aerodrome Co., composed of F. W. Baldwin and J. A. D. McCurdy, has been giving the new biplane, "Baddeck II," further trials. On March 3 two flights were made over the ice of Bras d'Os Lake, lasting 25 and 16 minutes.

On the 8th both Baldwin and McCurdy flew at one time. Three passenger flights were made of 4 to 7 minutes duration. The machine was described in the" "Foreign Letter" last issue.

Aviation Meet for Buffalo.

A real aviation meet of possibly a week's duration is the plan of the new Aero Club nf Buffalo for June, though it may be that it may have to be put off until a little later. Secretary D. H. Lewis is now in communication with aviators with the idea of finding out whether they can participate. He says: "It is the intention to jump right^ in and endeavor to give the people in this vicinity some sport worth seeing."

model contests scheduled.

The club is going to do everything it possibly can to promote the sport. All available

* rj. viation %

models, together with two or three complete flying machines, will be exhibited at the boat ?nd sportsman's show which takes place in Buffalo March 21 to 30. On April 1 a model aeroplane contest will be held in the 65th Regiment Armory, the first of a series.

A. C. of Penn. Plans Meet.

The Aero Club of Pennsylvania, Phila., is planning an aviation meet for July or August. Appeals are bing made by chairman of the meet committee, Henry S. Neely, 810 Betz BIdg., to the business associations of Philadelphia and one large organization has agreed to co-operate. A large field permitting oval flights ot 3£ miles is available within three miles of the center of the city, out South Broad St., towards the Navy Yard.

Customs Collector Holds Aeroplane.

As R. J. Saulnier was about to sell the Bleriot monoplane which was brought over last fall and started and ended its exhibition career by not flying at a land sale at Ampere. N. J., Collector Loeb stopped the proceeding, which was to satisfy a $600 mortgage held by one Lewkowicz, Saulnier's aviator, claiming that the machine came in under bond and could not be sold without payment of duty.

Saulnier is defendant in an infringement action brought by The Wright Co. when he imported the machine.

Phila. Aeroplane Co. Progress.

The Philadelphia Aeroplane Co. is working along actively. This company was organized with R. H. Beaumont at the head some time ago to build a machine along designs of Laurence Lesh and to take over some patents he has pending. Two types of machines will be put on the market; one a monoplane to sell at about $2,500, and a biplane along the lines of that designed for the U. of P. club, at $3,000.

The monoplane has the elevating and the vertical rudders in front, the propeller in the 1 car. Underneath are two fin keels. A new air-cooled motor, of which the company has the selling rights, is to be installed. This will consist of three units of two cylinders each, set "V" way. The crank case and shaft is so arranged that another unit may be added if desired. The three units of six cylinders will give about 30 horse power.

Rehearing in Wright-Curtiss Suit.

As stated in a former issue of Aeronautics, the motion for preliminary injunction in the Wright v. Curtiss suit was decided by Judge Hazel in favor of the Wrights, but no injunction was actually issued. The Wright patent claims means for warping the wing tips, in combination with a vertical rudder so as to turn the rudder in such a direction as to counteract the unavoidable tendency of the machine to turn around a vertical axis and out of its course when the wing tips are warped, as the deflection of the aeroplane shown in the patent necessarily occurs whenever the wings are warped.

It was the contention of the Wrights in the suit that the Curtiss machine operated in the same way. Mr. Curtiss contended that it was not necessary in his machine to turn the vertical rear rudder on this account as there was no perceptible deflection of the machine caused by his ailerons when restoring equilibrium. Judge Hazel in his opinion seemed to consider that the Curtiss machine must be deflected when the ailerons were moved, and that the rudder therefore must necessarily be turned, and that on this account the Curtiss machine probably infringed the Wright patent. The defendants have, however, since the decision, had test flights made with the rear rudder sealed so that it could not be moved, and found that the use of the ailerons for restoring equilibrium did not turn the machine, so far as could be detected by careful observation. The matter has also been mathematically calculated by Prof. Albert F. Zahm, of Washington, who has for many years given great theoretical attention to aeronautics, and his calculations are said to show that even under exceptional conditions there was no deflection of the machine which could be detected by the operator, and that Mr. Curtiss was probably right in stating that the rear rudder was not moved or used on account of any effect produced by the ailerons.

A rehearing of the motion for preliminary injunction was applied for, and in view of these new facts Judge Hazel granted it. The rehearing is set for argument on March 14 in Buffalo, when the matter will be thrashed out.

The Curtiss factory is working right along building and selling machines under the relief provided by a $10,000 bond. In regard to the flying of the machine with the rudder tied, quite a series of experiments have been carried out on the ice of Lake Keuka and Mr. Curtiss stated: "There is no turning tendency due to the use of the ailerons, and further to determine the resistance required at the wing tips to produce any noticeable turning tendency, I believe we have upset a great deal of theory."

Flights by Curtiss Aviators.

Chas. K. Hamilton met with an accident flying in an exhibition at Seattle, Wash., March 12th. He intended to just miss the

water of a pond, but miscalculated and the machine hit the water at speed.

Hamilton and Willard's tour, since the Los Angeles affair, has covered Phoenix, Tucson and Douglas, Ariz.; Fresno, San Diego, and Bakersfield, Calif.; El. Paso, Tex.; and Portland, Ore., March 5, 6 and 7, together with E. H. Wemme, the Portland Curtiss agent. At Phoenix, Hamilton had a race with an automobile and won. At El Paso he_ demonstrated the possibility of aeroplanes being used for smuggling, crossing the border into Mexico several times and landing on both sides.

lands to inquire way.

An incident at Fresno was his landing on a farm in order to find out what direction to take to get back to the aviation field. A flight at El Paso was at a higher altitude above sea level than Paulhan's world record of 4165 ft. Here he went up 750 ft. above the town which is 3,702 ft. above sea level.

Otto Brodie was in Dallas, Tex., March 4, 5 and 6; Brodie is demonstrator for James E. Plew, of Chicago. Hamilton in Portland, March 5, 6, 7, together with E. H. Wemme, the Portland Curtiss agent. Frank H. Johnson, Curtiss California representative, flew at Stockton, Cal., March 5 and 6.

exhibitions pay big.

At Fresno the gross receipts were $13,500. During the three days 19,898 people paid admissions, of which 4,120 bought grand-stand seats. The Chamber of Commerce has $5,000 left above expenses to devote to improvements on its building.

' Phoenix did not do so well. The management took in for admissions and sales of stock in the show, $23,751.05. The services of the aviators cost $Q,100. The total expenses were $12,246 10, leaving a cash balance of $11,504.10: percentage of cash balance to stock issued, 79.2 per cent. The stock sold amounted to $14,525.

American Aero Calendar.

April 6-9.—Memphis, Tenn., exhibition flights.

April 21-24.—San Antonio, Tex., exhibition flights.

May 13.—Dayton, O., aviation meet.

June 19-26.—Nashville. Tenn, exhibition flights by Hamilton.

July 5-6.—Peoria, 111., balloon race (provisional).

June 30—July 10.—Atlantic City, N. J., aviation meet.

July or August.—Philadelphia, aviation meet.

August 12.—Indianapolis, Ind., balloon race.

September 17.—Indianapolis, Ind., elimination race to pick team for Gordon Bennett.

October 17.—St. Louis, Gordon Bennett balloon race.

-Cleveland, aviation meet.

-Buffalo, aviation meet.

Gordon Bennett Already Being Contested.

"bishop stringing the public."

The international aviation meet is already being flown with Cortlandt F. Bishop, head of the Aero Club of America, and Col. Jerome H. Joyce, president of the Aero Club of Baltimore, the only aviators.

Soon after Curtiss won the cup a committee was formed in Baltimore and Washington to urge the selection of College Park as the site. It was made plain that about $100,000 would be necessary in order to have the meet and one of the vice presidents of the A. C. A. promised his support for the Baltimore-Washington location. Feeling assured of its selection the committee worked indefatigably ever since to raise this big fund, and with success. President Taft, members of his Cabinet, the Diplomatic Corps, members of Congress, the Governor of Maryland, and the Mayor of Baltimore honored the committee with their patronage and manifested great interest in its success.

Last month it was announced by Bishop that he would be one of twenty to put up $5,000 to have the meet in New York. This announcement struck home in Baltimore and Washington and called forth a good warm letter from Colonel Joyce to Bishop.

The communication calls attention to the fact that no one has regarded New York as a contestant for the honor because the claims of New York have not been pushed and because many alleged objectionable features make it impractical as a site. And further, that College Park is nearer either Washington or Baltimore than any place on Long Island is to New York, that transportation lines are better, that the wind velocity on Long Island exceeds 20 miles an hour do per cent, of the time, while at College Park it attains that velocity only 12 per cent, of the time, that the temperature at College Park is higher, and that the objections raised as to the course itself have been removed.

The letter also says:

thought a. c. a. national body.

■' If New York has any interest in the coming aviation meet it has been kept well under cover. * * * Our understanding of the matter was that the Aero Club of America was a national organization—hence the affiliation of the other clubs. This quite debars it from taking any action of a local character. If it is to be regarded as a New York club and its officials empowered to act in the interests of their home city, that puts a very different aspect on the case. This is a point the members of our aero club would like to understand more ciearly. Baltimore and Washington have gone too far in this matter to retrace their steps. Our people have declared for an aviation meet but I will be frank and tell you it must be the international aviation meet or nothing. No lesser substitute will satisfy us."

Bishop was annoyed because the contents of Colonel Joyce's letter was given the press before the letter itself reached him. "I shall not answer Mr. Joyce," said he, "for the reason that the letter does not require an answer and the statements made in it are largely matters

of personal opinion. Of course, Mr. Joyce has a perfect right to hold his own opinions, and to express them if he wishes to, and in any manner that he may deem proper."

Colonel Joyce rejoins: "It is unfair to these cities to keep them dangling on a string while the effort is being made by the Aero Club of America to work up sufficient enthusiasm in their home city to justify the holding of the meet there."

The Beach Bleriot-Type Monoplane.

One of our photographs shows the Bleriot type monoplane of Stanley Y. Beach, with which he is still experimenting as we go to press. On March 5th he tried his machine in the main street of Stratford, Conn. Some difficulty was experienced in keeping the monoplane on the road, which is a wide macadamized street 75 feet in width, and several times it ran into the gutter. After several attempts Mr. Beach succeeded in getting the tail to rise, whereupon he ran the machine down the street at a fast clip for a block or more.

After this experiment, which was unsuccessful as far as getting the front end of the machine off the ground is concerned, Beach decided to make new and larger wings with a greater curvature. It is expected that with these wings, the machine will readily fly, as the surface is such that a load of less than three pounds is carried per square foot, whereas in Bleriot's latest monoplane he is carrying a load of nearly 6J4 pounds per square foot—a truly remarkable weight per unit of surface.

Negotiations are now going on with parties for the sale of his machine, and he expects to dispose of it as soon as it has made a flight.

New Greene Machine Ready.

New York, March 13.—The Greene Company has just installed a Harriman engine in the new biplane with vertical surfaces in the main cell and will probably begin trials to-morrow at the Aeronautic Society's grounds at Mineola. This machine has been sold to Auchinvole, Botts and Crosby of San Francisco, for exhibition purposes. This company also has the western agency.

The Thousand Islands Aero Club, theoretically, but Dr. Gibbons, practically, has an aeroplane ready for trial near Mineola. Finding the grounds at Garden City too rough and minus the promised suitable shed, Dr. Gibbons is having a tent made to house the machine and will probably make his trials from the Mineola side of the Plains.

Captain Baldwin Builds Aeroplane.

Captain T. S. Baldwin has built a biplane at the Curtiss factory. A feature is the use of a vertical surface on top of the main cell for lateral stability. First flights were made in it by G. H. Curtiss.

Paulhan Flying in New York.

New York, March 12.—The former mechanic, Paulhan, today began at Jamaica race track the first of an advertised series of daily flights up to March 20th. A crowd of several hundred waited until a few minutes before six to see a short flight of about 300 feet. The wind was given as the reason for not flying further. It has been arranged between the lawyers in the Wright-Paulhan suit that the latter may fly for one week beginning today under a $6,000 a week bond.

Yesterday two short flights of a couple of minutes each were made before a number of invited guests and newspaper men. It was given out that Paulhan would fly with his rear vertical rudder off in order to show that the same was not at all necessary in preserving lateral stability. But the rudder was on the machine when he flew and not even tied so as to make it immovable.

The Sketches Were oMade, However

Wilbur Wright and his attorneys, H. A. Toulmin and Pliny W. Williamson, were present on both days.

Although the details of Paulhan's machine have been published, and Wilbur Wrright and his lawyers yesterday inspected the Farman



^~~~7-____ 1 I CSLL


<iu°«jr-"'—jci 0_


machine, today a newspaper representative who attempted to make a sketch aroused the irascible Frenchman to a fury and the torrent of overlapping words sounded like the open exhaust of his motor. President Bishop when appealed to did not seein inclined to explain matters and the gentleman of the press had to leave the enclosure.

Representatives of the Wright Company were invited on Friday by Clarence J. Shearn, attorney for Paulhan, to inspect today the Bleriot monoplane, sometimes operated by the Frenchman. They called, but were not permitted to inspect. Neither was Mr. Shearn present, as expected.

In the afternoon Wilbur Wright, with his lawyers, again applied for an opportunity to look over the Bleriot machine, but were refused admittance.

Paulhan came to New York from San Antonio, where his last flights were made. In his tour he has visited Los Angeles, San Francisco, Salt Lake City, Denver, New Orleans, Houston and San Antonio.

Motor Stops in Army Aeroplane.

San Antonio, Texas, March 2.—After three successful flights to-day by Lieut. B. D. Foulois at Fort Sam Houston, in the Wright aeroplane, the fourth attempt resulted disastrously. The rudder of the machine was wrecked and the life of Lieut. Foulois was endangered.

The flights were of Jl/2, 11, 21 and 15 minutes respectively. In the fourth flight this afternoon when the machine had just turned the southern end of the field and was headed north the gasoline feeder of the engine broke, cut off the power and the engine stopped. The aeroplane, which was at an elevation of about forty feet, fell to the ground and Lieut. Foulois was almost unseated. The rudder was dashed against the ground, breaking it off close to the body. The body of the machine was not damaged.

Meet for Dayton.

Definite and final plans for a big aviation meet in Dayton were made at a recent meeting of the International Dayton Aeroplane Club and the Aero Club. May 13, the anniversary of the Wright brothers' home coming celebration, has been set aside for the start of the meet, which will last several days. Both dirigible balloons and heavier-than-air machines will compete.

J. H. Klassen Monoplane.

One of the new machines on the Coast is that of J. H. Klassen. It is extraordinarily light, weighing only about 250 lbs. without operator. Chassis, three 20-inch wheel and skid combinations. Double covered planes 15 by 6 ft., 210 sq. ft. Curvature 2*^ inches in 6 ft., arc of a circle. The planes are covered with paraffine paper pasted upon cheesecloth, making a drum tight surface.

The power plant is a Curtiss 20 h. p. 4-cyl., air cooled motor, driving a 5 ft. 8 in. propeller, 20 degrees pitch, Holley carburetor, battery ignition. Lateral balance is ehpected to be had by the sidewise movement of a normally vertical fin placed at an angle from a point over the operator to a point above the motor. A rear vertical rudder operated by foot control.

The rear horizontal rudder, 3^ by 8 ft., is controlled by lever operating wires over pulleys. The operator has a canvas seat.

In a trial of the machine the motor did not develop sufficient speed even with the exceptionally small propeller surface.

Edgar S. Smith Monoplane.

The "Dragon-fly," an aeroplane built by Edgar S. Smith, of Los Angeles, Calif., is a monoplane of the Langley or following plane type :

Supporting Surface: Two sets of planes are used, four planes in all, each measuring 8 ft. by 5 ft. depth, making a total sustaining surface of 160 sq. ft. The rear planes are stationary, separated 6 ft. back from the forward planes and 18 in. lower. Front planes are each pivoted independently on a lateral axis at the normal centre of pressure. All planes have a curvature of 1 in 20. Planes are constructed of %-in. steel tubing and trussed to a mast in the center of the plane, both above and below plane. Ribs are of birch and slip in pockets in cloth. Cloth is varnished and coated with aluminum powder. The four wings weigh 60 pounds complete.

Framing: The body is of "V" cross-section, apex down. The main girders are of spruce 1 in. by i7A in.; the cross struts are of -1<$-in. steel tubing, 2 ft. long. Tubing is flattened at ends and drilled for 3/16-in. bolts. One bolt is made to hold two tubing ends and four guy wire braces. The whole truss construction is braced with No. 18 spring steel wire.

Power Plant: The motor is secured to the forward end of the frame or body and is 12 in. under the forward planes and even with their front edge. The engine is a 2-cylinder, horizontal opposed, 2-cycle engine, air cooled. Complete it weighs 45 pounds and is rated at 15 h. p., at 1,200 rev. The bore and stroke are 4 in. It drives direct the propeller which is constructed of steel tubing with aluminum blades. The blades may be adjusted to different pitches. The present pitch is 4 ft. for a 6 ft. propeller at 1,000 rev. The pull has not yet been accurately ascertained but is estimated to be between 75 and 100 pounds, one tank is used for both gasoline and oil with a float feed carburetor, and gives satisfaction. Gasoline and oil is mixed at a ratio of 1/10 to 1/6 oil of motorcycle quality.

Running Gear: Three wheels, two in front and one in rear, are heavy bicycle wheels with steel rims braced to frame with J.-^-in. steel tubing.

Control: The planes are set at a dihedral angle of 168 deg., while the body is covered with cloth forming a keel which reacts with the planes to tend to keep the monoplane on an even keel in good weather. When greater lateral stability is required, the front planes, each of which can be tilted independently of the other, are used. They are operated by two hand levers one on each side of the aviator's seat, which is just in front of the rear planes and inside of the enclosed keel or frame. Fore and aft stability is effected by tilting both forward planes as a unit. A vertical tail at the rear is controlled by foot levers.

General Description: The machine complete with operator weighs 100 pounds. Ma-

Many Machines On the Coast

chine without engine, tank, batteries, etc.. weighs 120 pounds, operator 150 pounds, making a total weight of 340 pounds, about 2% pounds to the sq. ft. of surface. The length is 10 ft. width 17 ft., height, including propeller, 7 ft. The machine is easily dismantled and stored in a small space and has been carried around on the shoulders of the aviator. Mr. Smith's ambition is to build the smallest and lightest machine possible that will actually fly, and this is his first attempt. He hopes to build an aeroplane yet that an ordinary motor-cycle engine can drive through the air successfully.

Tests at the Los Angeles Meet with a Curtiss wooden propeller in place of crude metal propeller proved engine too weak to turn at proper speed and the machine was unable to get off the ground.

The George H. Loose Monoplane

After being towed thirty-five miles over rough country roads, the Geo. H. Loose monoplane arived safely in San Francisco, and although the motor is not yet installed, was on exhibition at Balloon Park, where it attracted much attention while the "Queen of the Pacific" and the "City of Oakland" were being inflated, preparatory to the second race for the Portola Cup.

The monoplane is completed with the exception of the motor and attachment of the two rudders.

An advantage that can readily be appreciated on this machine is that when not in use the supporting planes and propellers can be folded back against the body, thus allowing it to be driven through the street or kept in a garage, taking up no more space than an ordinary touring car.

The Loose monoplane weighs less than 200 pounds without the motor, which will be a 20-25 horse-power one, weighing about 100 pounds, the entire weight then being about 300 pounds.

The sustaining surfaces have an area of about 200 square feet. The propellers are 6 feet in diameter, and have a 20.5 degree pitch. The propellers are built of 18 gauge special seamless drawn tuning, draw-filed, on which are attached at different angles six castings of special alloy, for each blade. These preserve the uniform pitch throughout the blade. On these propeller ribs are riveted the aluminum surfaces after they have been expanded and shrunk to the proper pitch. The blades are set in special alloy hubs which run on R. I. V. ball bearings.

Geo. H. Loose oTVlonoplane Upper left photo shows rigidity of frame; lower lett, detail of folding wing; lower right, the aviator's seat.



Some of the Machines Seen


at the Boston Show

The transmission is by half-inch steel cable direct from the crank shaft, driving straight on one side and crossing on the other. The bronze pulleys which receive the cable are machined to mesh, each strand of cable allowing no chance for slip and yet allowing the cross drive without the usual wrenching and wearing that a chain gets.

The horizontal rudder is in front, the area of which is 15 square feet. The vertical rudder is in the rear with an area of 10 square feet. The sustaining surface, which is a rubber sheeting, is attached to twelve ribs, six on each side. One end of each rib is joined with a carden joint to a shoulder, which is securely fastened to the square frame of the machine. The rest of the body is triangular. Fourteen guy wires are run from the first ribs of the supporting planes to a ring which is connected with a screw at the forward end of the body. By turning this screw the planes are drawn as taut as a drumhead, and bv reversing the screw the guy wires can readily be removed, allowing the planes to swing back against the body. Guy wires also run from different intervals on the ribs to the keel of the machine. All guying is done with No. 21 high carbon piano wire.

The wheels are made with extra long hubs. The front wheels are 26 inches in diameter. The rear ones are 20 inches in diameter. The control consists of one wheel, the shaft of which runs through four bronze bearings in an aluminum casting and an S-inch bronze pulley between the two centre bearings. The pulley is fixed to the steering wheel shaft, and at the centre of the casting which is in line with the centre of the pulley are the bearings for the casting which permits the wheel to be moved up or down. This motion controls the horizontal rudder through a cable.

The steering cable, which connects the vertical rudder in the rear, passes through the casting bearings, which are-hollow, and fastens to the pullev. By turning the wheel to the right or left the vertical rudder is so actuated.

Hudson-O'Brien Monoplane


John W. Hudson and C. O'Brien, of the Pacific Aero Club, have almost completed their large monoplane, which closelv resembles Bleriot's. Onlv a few minor touches remain to be made before trials.

A long triangular body carries at its rear end a fixed vertical plane and the vertical rudder. It also carries and bisects a horizontal surface, and the horizontal rudder or rudders. At the front this bodv is solidlv affixed to four uprights, the wheels, equipped with shock-absorbers, being pivoted to the two outmost, and the motor frame and motor being placed high up between the inmost.

The motor, of Mr. Hudson's manufacture, is a revolving five cylinder, weighing 12? pounds, including frame, and is rated on piston displacement, according to their figures,

at 37 horse-power at maximum speed. It revolves in a horizontal plane and drives by a roller engagement a vertical sprocket carried on one end of the very short propeller shaft.

McAdamite is used wherever possible. Ignition is by a chain driven magneto.

The planes, 19x7, are double surfaced and have about the same curvature as the Wrights'; the head resistance seems a bit large, however. Though completed, they are not yet attached, so am unable to give angle of incidence, probably 1 in 10. and placed at a slight dihedral angle.

The laminated propeller is 7J/2 feet diameter, 4 feet pitch.

Total weight, 650 pounds. Total surface, about 260 square feet, not including small rear surfaces.

The operator's seat is placed between the frame members, though not as far back as in the "Antoinette." Vertical control is by a lever, with quadrant and release, on the right.

Horizontal control is by a wheel in front of the operator, the end of the wheel post being pivoted to allow of motion to either side. Turning the wheel operates a knuckle joint, and a horizontal continuation of the post acting as a drum will warp the wing tips by cables.

A novel feature is the use of thin strap iron for guying instead of wire, as it is simply nailed, and no provision is made for tightening it will no doubt be discarded after the machine has made some hard landings.

On the whole the makers are deserving of much credit, and it would seem to the writer that this if properly handled will be the first dynamic machine on the Coast to get off the ground.

Twining's Ornithopter Experiments


The ornithopter of H. La V. Twining, of Los Angeles, illustrated in the October number, has been tried out. Mr. Twining states :

"I was able to bring a 1,000-pound pull to bear on the wing, and developed 30 pounds reaction under each wing, where T needed 125 pounds. T could beat the wings 42 times a minute. It weighs 110 pounds.

"The experiment demonstrated that the wine; is not broad enough, that the centre of gravity is too low, that a 4.000-pound pull is needed at the wing in order to develop a 125-pound reaction on the wing. T could beat the wine through 18 feet at the tip with onlv an 18-inch movement between the hands and feet, bavins a leverage of 5 to 1, against the wing. T am going to change the leverage so T can get a xooo-pound pull on the wing, drive it through 6 feet at the tip. with iS-inch movement between hands and feet, and drive it three times as fast, thus developing nine times the reaction. I hope to get off the ground.

"As soon as T develop the principle I shall install a motor. At present myself and the Eaton Bros, arc building a monoplane, and have applied for patents for a new method of control."

News in General

Fan Dynamometer.

The work of making horsepower tests of aeronautic and other internal combustion engines has been greatly simplified and the cost reduced by the production of the fan dynamometer shown in the accompanying illustration, which has been placed on the market by Joseph Tracy, consulting engineer, 116 West 39th street, New York.

This standard type fan dynamometer can be employed in testing motors on the block by making suitable connection between the jointed dynamometer shaft and the motor shaft, and it can also be used to test an aeronautic motor in position in the frame by dismounting the propeller and

substituting for it an extension shaft connected to the jointed shaft of the dynamometer.

The standard dynamometer is designed to test motors of moderate power, but by the use of fan blades of greater or less area, and suitable tachometer scales, the range of power absorbtion and measurement can lie varied within wide limits.

The apparatus consists essentially of a metal standard carrying a horizontal steel shaft mounted in large ball bearings and provided at one end with a universal joint for making suitable connection to the motor under test and carrying at the other end

an overhung two-bladed fan, as shown. On the dynamometer shaft a small pulley fitted' to a boss on the rear of the universal joint is belted to a larger pulley on the special tachometer mounted on top of the dynamometer shaft housing.

The tachometer of the standard fan dynamometer is provided with a double scale and single pointer, the inner scale showing the revolutions per minute and the outer scale the horsepower developed. The r. p. m. scale is graduated progressively by divisions of 20 revolutions from 200 to 2,000 revolutions. The h. p. scale gives a minimum reading of 1 h. p. at 400 r. p. m., and a maximum reading of 105 h. p. at 2,000 r. p. m. Consequently, at all ordinary rates of motor speed a simultaneous reading of r. v. m. and h. p. can be obtained without any computation.

Features of this- apparatus that will commend themselves to builders of motors, aeroplane and dirigible balloon manufacturers and experimenters include: Simplicity, low first cost, compactness, durability and freedom from possible breakdown or interruption of tests, ease with which readings may be obtained by unskilled help, and capacity for continuous tests for long periods without constant attention.

Patents have been applied for on this apparatus.

St. Louis Gets Balloon Race.

St. Louis has been selected for the place; October 17. the time, at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, for the Gordon Bennett balloon race. On this night and those immediately following there is full moon.

England has entered one balloon, making 15 in all. (See list in March number.)


In tiie issue of November, 1007, Aeronautics urged the holding of an elimination race to select America's representatives. This plan was intended to avoid any charge of favoritism that might otherwise lie against the Aero Club of America, for the club should emulate Caesar's wife, and at the same time secure the , best balloonists. This year the club has adopted the suggestion and an elimination race is planned for September T7 at Indianapolis. Applications to enter the first race must be filed with the Aero Club of America before September 1, accompanied by a check of $100 and a detailed description of the balloon and equipment.


The month of February has been somewhat remarkable for the small number of patents which have issued from the Patent Office. But tour have come through during February. The "Patent Orifice Gazette" contained no aero patents for the weeks ending February 8,

15 or March i. This indicates that for some reason many are failing to pay the final fee which allows the patents to issue.

William E. Goble, Dinuba, Cal., No. 945,514, Jan. 4, 1910. Aerial machine. A helicopter consisting of a body and motor rotating vertically journaled shafts at the upper ends of which are the propellers. These are provided with flexible blades and means are shown to raise or depress them with relation to the hubs and also to change the pitch angle. A propeller and rudder are provided at the extremity of the craft as a means for steering and propelling.

Edwin J. Lester and William G. Best, Chap-ham, England, No. 946,673, Jan. 18, 191 o. Airship and aeroplane. Running gear, the wheels of which are provided with fans or paddles and so connected together in pairs that they are adapted to swivel for the purpose of raising, lowering, steering and propelling the apparatus.

Arthur Crane, Berkeley, Cal., No. 947,802, Feb. 1, 1910. While the title calls for an airship, it is actually a helicopter construction, consisting of superposed lifting propellers connected to independent motors so that the relative speed can be varied to steer the machine without the use of a rudder.

Vincent Wisniewski, Berlin, Germany, No. 948,121, Feb. 1, 1910. Flying machine, airship and the like, comprising a propelling apparatus applicable thereto consisting of driving wheels located along the frame work; driving mechanism imparting alternate rotation to the same; and shutter like wings driven by cables guided over and driven by the driving wheels; the wings being located throughout the distance between the driving wheels.

James Beard, Veterans Home, Cal., 950,427, Feb. 22, 1910. "Aerial Machine." of the helicopter type, having a main frame adapted to carry a motor, with a vertical parallelogram hinged to the front and a similar parallelogram at the rear, provided with a rudder. At the sides extend horizontal planes hinged at their forward ends and capable of being tilted up or down. A vertical shaft journaled to the main frame operates a propeller composed of a series of arms hinged to the shaft one above the other and capable of extension by centrifugal force.

Jesse A. Turnidge, Webb City, Mo., assignor to Commercial Aerial Navigation Co., Webb City, Mo., 949,810, Feb. 22. 1910. "Air-Ship," the characteristic feature of which consists of wings at each side composed of members hing-edly connected together, collapsible on the vertical stroke and means for opening same on the down stroke Operated by lazy tongs and toggle levers.

Mr. Harmon has secured the use of some 500 acres near New Brunswick, N. J., for use as flying grounds. He will erect a workshop and shed.

New Books.

"Airships in Peace and War" is the title of a new edition of R. P. Hearne's work :'Aerial Warfare," in which seven new chapters have been added. When the first book was written a fifteen-minute flight was a great one. Now flights of such duration do not obtain mention. The new chapters cover the achievements of the past year,with titles as follows : The Commercial Uses of Airships, Aeroplane Progress in 1909, Aeroplane Racing, Aeroplanes of the Year and Aeroplane Records, Future Developments in Flying Machines, the Wright


Military Trials, Dirigible Balloons in 1909 and Airship Fleets of the World. Many new and beautiful illustrations have been added to the former fine collection. Sir Hiram Maxim has rewritten his introduction to include a comparison of the Wright and the French machines. The book is published by the John Lane Co., New York, $3.70 post paid.


"The Boys' Book of Airships" is another new book, published by the Frederick A. Stokes Co., New York, at $2.00. The author is Harry Delacombe. The title is unworthy of the book. It is certainly not essentially a boys' book any more than Maupassant is an author for the Sunday School. It is an interesting history of the whole art for the "man in the street," To the layman it will give a good working knowledge of progress up to date in balloons, airships and aeroplanes. The construction and operation of all three classes of aerial vehicles is described fully in a most entertaining way. The work is profusely illustrated with fine half tones and drawings.

Either of these books may be obtained from Aeronautics, 1777 Broadway, New York, at the price named.

OWING to the high standard of applied science new inventions are constantly made in the German Empire. In this aeronautical age, on one side means for attacking troops are improved, and the same is done with apparatus to destroy these mediums of attack.

At the beginning of this year special machine guns were constructed for attacking aerostats, and then some types of armored automobiles. Later, new models have been turned out which attracted wide attention. They have been made by the well known Krupp concern, one with two wheels as a portion of a horse-drawn gun, the other mounted on an automobile chassis. To be effective such a gun must comply with the following requirements: Unlimited moving ability sideways, shooting under any angle up to the vertical, highest speed of the projectile or smallest time for flying, best possibility to hit the aim. It

Newark, Feb. 26.—The aero division of the automobile show which has held forth the past week at the Essex Troop Armory was organized by the newly formed Aeronautic Society of New Jersey, a branch organization of the New Jersey Motor Club but under its patronage and enjoying the privilege of its rooms.

The only aeroplane shown was the Greene machine purchased by Wilbur R. Kimball and Frank E. Boland, on which experiments have been carried out at a field near Rahway. Movable vertical surfaces between the main planes act as rudders for steering right and left and also for obtaining stability. No tail is used. Good passenger flights have been recently made with this device.

The Wittemann Brothers showed a well finished glider, together with samples of various aeroplane fittings. Frank E. Boland exhibited his new 8-cylinder V aero engine. The Bosch Magneto Co. had on view their aeroplane magneto, Pennsylvania Rubber Co. aeroplane wheels and tires. Hartford Rubber Works Co. aeroplane tires, Warner Instru-

|N ewarkl I cA ero Show |

ment Co. "aerometer." The Requa-Gibson Co. exhibited propellers. Seventeen models were shown by various local and New York men. C. E. Fisher, Newark representative of the Cadillac car, has given a cup for gliders, which was on exhibition, and has purchased the glider which has been exhibited here by the Wittemanns.

The Fisher cup for the best constructed model was awarded to John Carisi and William Piceller. W. Morrill Sage, the model builder associated with A. Leo Stevens, won honorable mention.

:: GfeJ'r man :: | I! Experiments 1 I Shooting Balloons | with Special Guns

| By* cTWax A. R. Brunner jj

is also necessary that the vehicle can be at the desired spot at a moment's notice.

The horse-drawn gun hits an aim with certainty up to 8,650 meters distant and reaches a height of 5,700. The other model is stronger and is mounted on an open power wagon driven by a 50 horse-power engine. There are no spokes on the front wheels, but steel disks, while all four are fitted with solid rubber tires. All four wheels are connected with the engine and thus steep grades and rough ground can be overcome. It has a maximum speed of 45 miles an hour. On the platform seats for five men are provided and room for 62 cartridges.

The gun is mounted on a cast steel pedestal and can be completely turned round; also moved up and down. This is made possible by compressed air. The barrel has a bore of 7.5 cm. and is fitted with a brake operated with a liquid. The barrel is made to slide out by the expansion of the air after its bolts are removed. When it is extended a shot is fired automatically after which the gas pressure carries the barrel back to its aiming position. Interesting are the projectiles, which contain a burner ignited at the beginning of the flight in order to leave behind a path of black smoke. ՠIts purpose is to leave a black path of smoke behind to indicate the path and to show whether the shot went too high or too low. The other burner comes into action after the balloon is hit and its fire ignites the gas. When an aerostat is hit by such a projectile it is completely wrecked while with an ordinary gun or shrapnel only the cover is injured. The gun itself weighs 1,065 kg.; the weight of the entire car is 4,300 kg. The horizontal range is 9 km.; vertically, 6,300 m.

UNFAVORABLE criticism of the Wright Brothers' action in bringing suits is rampant. Is such criticism just? Will a verdict favorable to the Wrights hinder progres's ? _

The Wrights are not preventing anyone from inventing a new device for obtaining stability. Will not inventive faculties be stimulated?

At any rate, it is pointed out, there are precedents which cast light on the controversy. The majority of automobile manufacturers in this country are paying royalty to owners of the Selden patent. Those paying royalty do not seem to be grumbling. The association of licensees under this patent are even making advertising capital out of the very fact. In Europe, all automobile manufacturers are paying royalty to one manufacturer-inventor.

The stand taken by the Wrights is set forth in the following document:

"When a fishing vessel returns to Gloucester after a terrible season on the banks of Newfoundland, would it be to the advantage of that town if every inhabitant could carry off as many fish as he wished without paying or even thanking the men who brought the cargo to port after so much labor and danger?

"Experience has taught the world that such a policy is not really to the public Interest. Yet when, a couple of flying machine inventors fish, metaphorically speaking, in waters where hundreds had previously fished for thousands of years In vain, and after risking their lives hundreds of times, and spending years of time and thousands of dollars, finally succeed in making a catch, there are people who think it a pity that the courts should give orders that the rights of the inventors shall be respected, and that those who wish to enjoy the feast shall contribute something to pay the fishers. After the Wright brothers had proved that human flight was not the impossibility which the world had believed it to be, and had 'shown how it could be attained, dozens rushed to appropriate the invention without offering to pay the inventors one cent out of the thousands they were realizing from its use. The inventors appealed to the courts for protection against such an outrage, and their petition has not been in rain.

will not spoil international meet.

"However, the owners of the patents realize that the world Is intensely interested in this newly created art, and intend to exercise their rights with proper regard for the public wishes and public interest. It is not their intention to prohibit sport or spoil the international meet by restricting it to machines built by the Wright Com-

******** ********

i *

JcAre the* J Wrights i j Justified? {

i *

pany itself. But the meets have been made possible by an invention covered by patent, and their success depends upon the utilization of the lawful property of the owners of the patent. It is only just that in figuring up the cost of a race meet, a reasonable sum should be set aside to compensate the owners for the use of their property. If this is done, race meets can be held at which infringing machines of every style and make, domestic and foreign, can compete without hindrance. No one can truthfully say that anj past action of the owners of this invention has been unreasonable, unwarranted or unjust. It is not the intention that any future action shall be unreasonable, unwarranted or unjust. So far they have been always the victims of injustice instead of the aggressors."

bishop spreads pessimism.

The president of the Aero Club of America seems to persist in pessimistic proclamations to the press of the improbability of the international aviation meet being held in America. He is quoted in the Tribune of March 13 as follows:

"Cortlandt Field Bishop, president of the Aero Club of America, said at the race track yesterda? that America would lose the international aviation meet for the Gordon Bennett trophy, won last summer by Glenn H. Curtiss, of Hammondsport. N. Y., if the Wright brothers should win their suit now pending against Paulhan.

"He said that all the foreign aviators of note had assured him by letter that they would not sign contracts to appear in this country until the suit against Paulhan was decided.

" 'If Paulhan wins,' he said, 'they will be glad to compete. If he loses they do not care to place themselves within the jurisdiction of American courts.' "

Wilbur Wright proposes to enter the international meet himself with a specially built racing machine.

Strobel Has Flying Troubles.

Charles J. Strobel, the well-known airship impresario from Toledo, who bought the Aeronautic Society's Curtiss biplane, has been having troubles, real ones, the same being peculiar to aeroplanes. And anyone knows they're enough.

Without a real aviator, Charles F. Willard having joined with Curtiss. Strobel took the aeroplane to Tampa, Fla.. from Los Angeles, in charge of Sam Tickell, or "Tickle," as he is known to fame. Tickell was assistant to Willard and knew all about the machine, except the flying part.

Somehow or other, although a half dozen would-be aviators were at hand, all anxious to try, no flights were made at Tampa and the

charge that the machine was not set up properly was entered against the aforesaid Tickell. or Tickle. So to prove the machine was all right Samuel made a flight, of 300 ft., duly measured, but the machine went to the aeroplane hospital. After sundry discussion as to who should be the official bird-man, the "Golden Flier" itself took a hand, started "rough house" in resentment at strange jockeys and as a result is now in Toledo for replacement of various incidentals of its anatomy, if not to undergo a complete reconstruction. It is rumored that Mr. Strobel, not content with his title of "Airship King," is going to have a fleet, or flock, whichever is correct, of aeroplanes of various types in the near future.

The Aero Club of America, a membership corporation, has been duly incorporated to take the place of the old unincorporated association of the same name. In a letter dated February 17, the "members" were notified of the forming of such corporation, and stating that those who did not indicate otherwise would be considered members of the new association. It was announced in this circular that the following are the governors and officers:

Governors—Cortlandt F. Bishop, James A. Blair, Jr., Philip T. Dodge, Charles Jerome Edwards, A. Holland Forbes, L. L. Gillespie, Alan R. Hawley, J. C. McCoy, William W. Miller, Dave H. Morris, Charles A. Munn and Samuel H. Valentine.

Officers—Cortlandt F. Bishop, president; Samuel H. Valentine, first vice president; Dave H. Morris, second vice president; Clifford B. Harmon, third vice president; Charles Jerome Edwards, treasurer; William Hawley, secretary.

On February 16th there was filed in the county clerk's office the certificate of incorporation of "Aero Corporation, Limited," with $500 capital stock. Cortlandt F. Bishop, Charles Jerome Edwards, A. Holland Forbes, Samuel H. Valentine and Alan R. Hawley are the directors. Subscribers to the stock are Dave H. Morris, 34 shares; Gen. Geo. Moore Smith, 33 shares; James A. Blair, Jr., 33 shares. The stock, under the plan recently adopted, is to be turned over to the membership corporation.

The annual banquet will be held at the St. Regis on March 24. The club rooms are now at 29 West 39th street, in the United Engineering Society building.

An association similar to the Aeronautic Society in New York is about to be organized in St. Louis, where 30 builders of air craft signed the charter membership roll, March 4. There were more than 50 people in attendance at the organization meeting. The organization adjourned to meet March 12 to adopt a name, by-laws and constitution. Thomas W. Benoist was appointed temporary chairman and L. S. Shapiro, temporary secretary.

As an attraction E. Percy Noel, new secretary of the Aero Club of St. Louis, was secured to give an illustrated lecture on practical air craft. This was well received and the temporary organization was promptly accomplished. At the close of the meeting Mr. Noel pointed out the importance of each member of the new association becoming a member of the Aero Club of St. Louis, as well, and showed the advantages.

Albert Bond Lambert, president of the Aero Club of St. Louis, was in New York at the time of the meeting, but was pleased to learn of the new organization upon his return and stated that the club would lend every possible aid to the inventors and builders' association, even to the extent of supplying grounds for their use, as soon as possible.

The latter part of last month L. D. Dozier, for nearly three years head of the Aero Club of St. Louis, tendered his resignation, and Albert Bond Lambert, first vice-president, was elected to the office of president. At the same time E. Percy Noel was appointed active secretary, Eugene R. Cuen-det being honorary secretary. The club has established a new office at 304 North Fourth street, St. Louis, and is making preparations for the busiest year of its existence.

It is probable that the program this year will inclube first and certainly the international balloon race, a smaller club spherical race, two aviation meets and about 100 individual ascensions.

The Aero Club of Illinois has been formed in Chicago, with Octave Chanute as its first president. James E. Plew, the Curtiss agent, its first vice-president; second vice-president, Harold F. McCormick, of the International Harvester Co.; Robert M. Cutting, secretary; Charles E. Bartley, treasurer; Victor Lougheed, consulting engineer. The members are chiefly solid business men and it is hoped that great good will follow. Several members already have machines and others are prospective builders or purchasers.

The University of Pennsylvania A. C. has

nearly completed its aeroplane and are awaiting an engine. This was built by the members, students at U. of P., from designs by Laurence Lesh. On March 4th the first glides this year were made with the modified Witte-mann glider. So many are anxious to make flights in it that the applicants have been divided up into squads of six, and they are out every night. Arrangements have been made with automobilists to help in towed flights.

The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain,

the oldest aeronautical body in England and one who devotes its whole efforts to scientific studies, is having much the same trouble as the Aero Club of America. The members are just beginning to wake up to the fact that they have no voice whatsoever in the working or the finances of the Society, and that their self-appointed Council "is a most unbusinesslike body."

The Aero Club of the Carnegie Technical Schools, Pittsburg, Pa., is one of the very liveliest of college organizations. Since the formation the first of the year, the membership has grown to eighty. This club is entirely under student control and while it has received no official recognition from the Carnegie institution, it is believed the club will be a factor in student activities. It is supported entirely by students, who at present are working with models. Later on glider work will be taken up. William J. Vance is president; William P. Field, secretary.

The National Model Aero Club, 282 Ninth Ave., New York, is the latest organization, primarily to promote the study of aeronautics by means of models. Its object will be to control and regulate all competitions throughout the United States, to promote exhibitions and contests. It is proposed to offer medals and cups for longest flights, best design and originality of construction of machines less than 6 ft. in their greatest dimensions. It is not intended by the organizers of this club to invade the field of, or antagonize the societies already formed but to co-operate in the development of the model.

Membership is divided into two branches: senior and junior. The junior class is limited to boys under 21.

The officers and directors are: W. H. Crocker, president; W. Morrill Sage, 1st vice-president; C. W. Wilcox, 2d vice-president; F. S. Crocker, secretary; M. P. Talmage, treasurer. The other directors are A. Leo Stevens, Edward Durant, A. Armstrong and L. W. Houck.

stevens offers cup.

A. Leo Stevens has offered a handsome silver trophy for the longest flight made under the rules of the new club.

The Aeronautic Society has removed from Morris park to the new grounds on the Hempstead Plains, L. L, at Mineola. Three members have their machines there now: Dr. William Green, who is daily expecting to make first flight with the machine sold for exhibition work to Auchinvole, Botts & Crosby, of San Francisco; and Messrs. Diefenbach and Rosenbaum.

Plans are now being prepared for the first shed, 40 ft. wide by 100 ft. long, to be erected on the acre leased by the Society adjoining the fair grounds.

Regular members' meetings are held on the . 2d and 4th Thursday nights of each month at the permanent town headquarters, 1999 Broadway, New York.

hudson MAXIM, new president.

The annual meeting was held on February 24, the following officers being elected for the ensuing year: president. Hudson Maxim; 1st vice-president, Lee S. Burridge; 2d vice-president, William J. Hammer; 3rd vice-president. Louis R. Adams; secretary, Wilbur R. Kimball ; treasurer, Clarence F. Blackmore; assistant secretary, Alva D. Lee; directors, Thomas A. Hill, Lee W. DeForest, Carlos De Zafra, Hugo C. Gibson, Dr. Dwight Tracy and C. W. Howell, Jr.

The Kansas City Aero Club has now been incorporated with a paid up capital of $10,000, its membership including more than a hundred of the principal business and professional men of Kansas City, Mo. The club will take an active part in promoting aeronautical affairs and will hold various exhibitions and contests during the coming summer.

The officers and directors are: George M. Myers, president; Jay H. Neff, vice-president; Louis W. Shouse, secretary; W. F. Comstock, treasurer; John H. Bovard, Fred S. Doggett, E. H. L. Thompson, Jos. D. Havens and A. B. Richards.

The Aero Club of Nebraska, Omaha, Neb., is another new club. The new club starts out with twenty-nine paid up charter members. The charter membership list will remain open until March 15. Colonel W. A. Glassford was elected president of the club: J. J. Deright, vice-president; J. M. Guild, secretary, and Gould Dietz, treasurer. The directors are: Colonel W. A. Glassford, J. J. Deright, Edgar Allen, H. H. Baldridge, C. H. Pickens, T. R. Kimball, C. G. Powell, Gould Dietz and J. M. Guild. The articles of incorporation authorize a capital stock of $50,000, with shares at $5 per.

The Atlantic City Aero Club was organized at an enthusiastic meeting of the leading business, hotel and financial men held at the Marlborough-Blenheim on March 10, and plans were adopted in the rough for the holding at Atlantic City of the greatest aviation meet held since men learned to fly. The officers elected at Thursday night's meeting include the leading men of the resort. The following is the list: President, John J. White; first vice-president, Louis Kuehnle; second vice-president, Walter J. Buzby; third vice-president, "Carlton Godfrey; treasurer, J. Haines Lippincott; secretary, Colonel Walter E. Edge.

The Aero Club of Pennsylvania is soon to have flying grounds. Louis J. Bergdoll, who bought the Wanamaker Bleriot, will probably erect his shed on the grounds selected and another will soon follow, erected by the club for the Philadelphia Aeroplane Company and the Robertson Aerial School and for the workshops of the club. This will be the beginning of the club plans to make the southern section a permanent centre of aviation activity. Nominations for officers for the ensuing year have been made as follows: For president, Arthur F. Atherholt; first vice-president, R. H. Beaumont: second vice-president, W. D. Harris and L. Bergdoll; treasurer, Lawrence Maresce; secretary, Clarence P. Wynne and Thomas B. Tuttle; assistant secretary, Carl H. Carson; for board of directors, Thomas T. Tuttle, Robert D. Carson, Clarence P. Wynne, Joseph Rhodes, Henry M. Neely, J. S. Clark, John Hiscock, W. D. Harris, L. Bergdoll and Rev. Geo. S. Gassner. The election of officers will be held at the next monthly meeting.

Wright-Paulhan ::::Opinion ::::

ON February 17th, as the March number was on the press, Judge Hand, of the U. S. Circuit Court, Southern Division, handed down his opinion on the application made by The Wright Company for a temporary injunction restraining Paulhan from using his Farman and Bleriot machines in this country.

Several hearings were had and briefs submitted. The Bleriot machine did not come in for any discussion, but only the Farman machines. Following are excerpts from Judge Hand's decision. Another hearing will be held March 16th.

The first part of the document is taken up with an argument on the means for warping and operating the rudder as described in the patent, quoting claim No. 7, the principal reliance of the complainants. He says it is not necessary, to constitute infringement that there must be a constant proportion between the degree of deflection of the rudder and that of the warping of the planes, as happens to be illustrated in the patent, but that independent movement of thjLa'Ulid^,-aILis_ actually in the "WrighT ma^TTmeT comes within the patent. Judge Hand further says:

But the invention is not of a machine: il is not an invention of this means of so turning the rudder, but it is an invention of a combination of which this action of the rudder is a part. The statute authorizes such an invention, and if the combination be not a mere aggregation of old elements, as I shall try to show hereafter, then the precise means is of no consequence. In the patent-in-suit any skilled operator, who may serve pro hac vice fora"skjHej3LjiLe^anic,'' finding the automatic connT'cTtoTrTmlsatisfaetory. would at once disconnect it and attach, the tiller jfqne to aflever o a foot pedal which lie could directly,.eSTTfraL, As--rtie eiaiuineT~snm in Ins letter or July 14. 1003, it is merely a matter of taste to attach the tiller ropes to the warping rope. The machine would be changed, but the combination would remain, because there would remain the means of causing the rudder to operate on the side of lesser incidence. The defendant urges very vehemently that the means must be the means specified. All that the specifications need contain is so clear a description that any skilled mechanic may use the invention. Where the change is only an obvious modification of the means specified, and a modification which retains each element of the combination contributing the same effect as before, the claim is not too broad which includes the modification.

The defendant alleged that under some circumstances the rudder is turned "toward that side of the drift nearer the angle of greater incidence," relieving him of infringement. The Judge admits that this may be the case for a

short time, but decides that eventually, to restore equilibrium, Paulhan must use the method specified in the patent.


I think there is nothing in the further objection that the Farman machine has two ailerons or tlaps instead of a general helieoidal warp through the whole plane. The use of such ailerons is an obvious equivalent, and the only possible question arises from the fact that the ailerons cannot be given any negative angle. However, the essential of the combination is a differential In the marginal angle, and that is as well accomplished, though the lesser angle can never be less than zero, as though it could.

Considering, therefore, that the complainants carefully avoid limiting themselves "to the particular description of rudder set forth," I think that the detachment of the ropes from the warping devices, leaves the patent substantially the same as specified.


Before taking up the prior art the opinion discusses whether the Wright patent is of a true combination and whether it be merely a principle or abstract function, rather than a true invention.

As to the first, there can be no doubt whatever. The three elements are combined into an effect which Is absolutely different from that which any one of them produce alone. The differential of angle instead of maintaining equilibrium would up set it. The rudder bearing upon one side only would not be sufficient. I am aware that the defendant contends that he can fly by steering alone, but 1 do not understand that he claims that in practice this can safely be continued permanently in machines of this type. In combination their result is not the aggregate of their separate results; it is the result of their mutual and antagonistic reactions.

The question as to whether the combination is not merely of a function is likewise plain. The combination is a definite adjustment of the material parts of a machine to secure a specified result. It is not the effort to patent a certain way of operating an. aeroplane as the defendant insists, because the patent demands for its fulfilment certain physical parts in combination, able to work in the way prescribed. * * * The combination is * * * quite new, and the method of operating it need not be relied upon as the invention. No one before did in fact combine all these, and therefore no one gave to aviators the possibility of so operating.


Finally, the novelty of the patent is considered, taking up in order the defendants citations. Some of these were from O. Cha-nute's book, published in 1894. The opinion states that these were not described fully enough to constitute valid anticipations.

D'Esterno: * * % It is impossible to say that this had in any sense the combination patenled. Apparently the wings were to be fixed at a given dihedral angle, and the rear parts were merely flexible. It would be most dangerous upon the meagre and unsatisfactory evidence presented of what the actual machine was, to consider that it raised a reasonable doubt of an anticipation. Moreover, there is no proof that it was ever used or became more than a paper description, in which case, as I shall afterwards show, it cannot be regarded as an anticipation.

LeBris : This is a description of the same kind which is too inadequate to understand or to give effect to. So far as one can gather, the wings could be set as a whole at different angles of incidence to the wind. Here too there was apparently a flexible rear portion of the wings.

No one could possibly design either of these machines from the descriptions given, and it would be most extraordinary to suppose that they in any sense contained the combination of elements worked out after much experiment by the complainants, except by a mere chance, which in no sense gave them the necessary vitai correlation upon which the patent depends. Moreover, it does not appear that in the case of either of these devices they were known or used in this country. * * *

Mouiliard: There is a patent in this citation which is a part of the papers, and which I have examined, in no one of the nineteen claims Is there anything which in any way even foreshadows the patent-in-suit. * * *

Mattullath. This was an abandoned patent containing fuii specifications which described six lateral and supplementary planes, three on a side, which were adjustable to different angles and were to be used to promote stability. At the rear was "a rudder secured on a vertical shaft." It does not appear whether this rudder was fixed or not, and the application does not include any use of the rudder to counteract the effect of the differential In the angle of incidence of the supplementary pianes. At most Mattuilath's designs were purely experimental, and did not give the pubiic the benefit to which it was entitled, if the patent-in-suit is to be heid to be anticipated and without consideration. * * * In the absence of some showing, which is not suggested, that the complainants borrowed any ideas from Matuilath, his discoveries must be held to be no anticipation.

Zahnr: Dr. Zahm in a paper In 1S94 suggested the use of slats in the wings so as to create a differential in the angie of incidence, but it was clearly oniy an ingenious suggestion, and did not in the faintest degree show any comprehension of the complicated reactions and necessary correctives which would alone make the suggestion feasible. It was at most oniy a speculative suggestion never reduced to practical form, and faiis as an anticipation, under the authorities mentioned under Mattullath.

Ader : The most serious attack upon the noveity of the patent-in-suit is raised over the machine of Charles Ader, a distinguished French engineer, a description of which is contained in Itevue de L'Aeronautique for 1S93. This being a foreign printed publication would under the statute be a vaiid anticipation if it foreshadowed adequately the patented invention.

Whatever may have been the merits of the machine described and actually made by Ader, it is quite clear that the patented combination was not included or understood by him. A reading of his first chapter, pp. 72, 73. is enough to show that he did not regard a rudder as essential. It is not correct to say, as the complainants do, that the vertical rudder was tixed in piace. The rear wheel could be moved around a vertical axis, and was to be so moved to direct the machine upon the ground ; "une quatrieme a 1'arriere pour dinger l'aeroplane sur 1'aire." "Quand l'aeropiane a un gouvernail vertical celui cl est solidaire de la roue d'arriere et manoeuvre avec elle." The cut shows such a "gouvernail vertical," and we must assume that it was meant to be used and to be turned when, the wheei turned.

However, it is aiso equally clear that the rudder was no part of the machine. M. Ader, with the characteristic clearness of a French mind, enumerates on p. 71 the four necessary primary parts of the machine: "Corps," "ailes," "force motrice," "propulseur," and these he takes up in four separate chapters. The first and shortest, chapter concerns the "corps de i'aeroplane." and enumerates seven constituent parts of which the "gouvernail vertical" is not. one. The only mention of it is in the sentence I have quoted in full. The whole matter may therefore be disposed of by the single consideration of whether the permissive suggestion of a rudder Is to be taken as antcipat-ing the patented combination. In so treating the defendant's contention, I shall assume that the machine was not an unsuccessful experiment, and that there was an adequate and detailed description of its construction, which showed that the lateral ends of the wings couid be warped to different angles of incidence at the wiii of the operator.

The actual invention of the complaintants depends first upon the discovery of the necessary interrelation per my et per tout, as Mr. Justice Mathews puts it, in the citation quoted above, between the several parts which go to make It up. The mere coincidence of these parts by chance or as a matter of taste was in no sense an anticipation of their functional correlation, in understanding which the complainants' discovery consists and with it their invention. When, appreciating this necessary co-operation of all the elements, they specified their new combination, stating the essential necessity of their union and mutuai reactions as the very essence of what they claimed, they invented something new. Ader fortuitously suggested the possibility, as matter of preference, of the third element, the rudder, and so shows conclusively that he did not in the lease apprehend the mutually dependent relations between wings and rudder. Thus, the patented combination is not in the ieast merely a new function of one possible form of Ader's apparatus, which experience might teach an aviator. If the invention be a combination at all, and not an aggregation, it is such solely by virtue of the apprehension of that vital relation of the parts, which Ader conclu siveiy shows he did not have. Nothing than his description could more clearly show that with him the three were in merely non-functional aggregation ; nothing can be more clear than that in the patent they are understood as In inevitable combination.

These are the only anticipations cited upon the defendant's brief, so that I may assume that he relies in fact upon only these, and not upon the others cited upon the argument. However, a few words will dismiss ail the others in case 1 mis understand his position.

Bechtel, Grapar, Johnson, Stanley. Marriott : These are all for lateral planes to dirigible balloons. The whole problem is so entirely different wheu suspension is effected by a reservoir containing a lighter gas than air, that there is not the least resemblance between the patents and the patent-in-suit. Assume the lateral balance of such a machine to be disturbed by a depression of the left side. It does not appear that an increase in the angle of incidence upon that side would not be adequate to restore it. The resistance so created might have some effect to turn the ship in that direction, but the inertia of the body and the friction would be presumably so great that the equilibrium would be restored without auy use of the rudder. Besides, the equilibrium Is insured by the fact that in such machines the centre of gravity is much below the centre of buoyancy, as in the case of a ship in water, and the planes were designed in all cases simpiy to cause the ship to rise or fall.

Boswell : This is a device to be attached to a dirigible airship, consisting of a plane adjustable in all directions used in connection with a ver tical rudder. It is not apparent to me how the tilting of the plane in any of the positions in which it offered no plane of incidence to the drift would cause the ship to turn in one direction or the other, nor. how. if it did, it could even then turn it; but, whatever might be its action, it was specified simply as a steering device, and it is so wholly uniike the patent-in-suit both in structure and operation that 1 can see no similarity between them.

Davidson : This is an English patent, and is not in the ieast like the patent-in-suit.

Lampson : I cannot see any relevancy in this patent.

The importance of the issues involved in this cause must be the excuse for so extended a consideration. It is, of course, unusual to grant a preliminary injunction before any adjudication and without any acquiescence. However, when the right is not seriously attacked, and when the infringement is ciear, the court should not hesi tate to interfere. From the showing made I can not doubt that the complainants first put into auy practical form the system of three-rudder control. That there may be other systems is not to the point; let the defendant use those, if he will. Nor is it necessary to conclude that the complainants were the "first to fly." Upon that I decide nothing whatever, for it is not an issue in

this case. All I do say is that I cannot find that any one prior to their patent had flown with the patented system, and that the changes from the specifications which the defendant has made are no more than equivalents which do not relieve him from infringement.

It is quite clear that for the complainants' protection a writ must go pendente lite, because, the defendant being a non-resident, who is here only transiently, there is no way in which they may insure themselves of the monopoly they have acquired except by preventing his use of it at once. * * * *

The showing before Judge Hazel was substantially the same as that made here, and. as I said at the outset, I should have been disposed to say nothing upon the case except to refer to his opinion, had I not thought it fair to give to the defendant the reasons for reaching an independent conclusion in accord with his.

The Portland Aeronautic Club, Portland, Ore., has been incorporated with $10,000 capital stock. Incorporators, A. Crofton, M. C. Dickinson and George W. Joseph. E. Henry Wemme, Curtiss agent, is president.

The Wilmington Aero Club, Wilmington, N. Y., has been incorporated by R. Seide-linger, D. Snellenburg, G. W. Crowe and John A. Montgomery, with $100,000 capital stock.

What Has Become Of:

The Wright aeroplane to have been purchased by the Aero Club of America last spring for the use of members?

Charles J. Glidden's New York-Boston aerial line?

Albert C. Triaca's fine aeroplane?

The American Aeronaut?

The Prof. Todd-Stevens altitude balloon excursion?

Joseph Brucker's transatlantic balloon voyage?

The Baldwin dirigible that went to Germany ?

Amherst's aerial signs for balloonists ?.

All the aeroplanes all over the country that were all going to fly in the "next few days" or weeks?

The great aero park at Springfield?

Many of the aero clubs which have been formed the past year, of which nothing more has been heard?

Columbia's intercollegiate federation? t


1 *

»{. *

I Foreign Letter ! t t



Sr. E. Bregi, who has been making trial flights with a Voisin machine he purchased, near Buenos Ayres, has been able to keep up for 18 and 35 minutes.

A number of French aviators have arrived to take part in a meet.


The Municipal Council of Vienna has voted $100,000 for the management of Stemfelder flying ground.

hour flioht by novice.

Herr Wiesenbach has been able to fly for 56 minutes in his Wright biplane, on February 19, at Weiner-Neustadt.

The same afternoon Herr Wachalowski flew in a Farman for 15 minutes, and later 11 minutes with a passenger, winning $1,200 in two prizes.

A public subscription has been started to have an invention of Lieutenant Hallboun tried out. The invention is of a dirigible with a thin steel envelope. It is to ascend and descend without the use of ballast.


Georges Brichant has founded four prizes of $500 each. One is for a balloon contest and the others are to be awarded hy the Belgian Aero Club to Belgian aviators carrying the greatest load for a given time.


heliopolis meet.

The aviation meet held at Heliopolis, near Cairo, from February 6-13, proved a success; $35,400 were awarded in prizes, of which Rougler got

$19,000 for his share, and Metrot won $10,000 of what was ieft. Both of these machines were Voisins.

Rougier was first in height contest, 255 meters; in the 5-kil. speed contest Balsan (Bieriot) was first in 4 m. Is.; in the 10-kil. speed race, Le Blon (Bleriot) first in 8 m. 7 4-5 s.; greatest distance, Metrot (Voisin), 85.5 kil.; prize for accumulated distance, Rougier (Voisin) 153.5 kil. The accumulated distance of Mme. de la Roche was 20 kil.

De Riemsdyk (Curtiss) was placed sixth for the accumulated distance with 29.5 kil., and eighth for greatest distance In a singie flight of 24 kil. This is pretty good for a novice.

Other competitors were: Latham (Antoinette), Grade (Grade), Duray (Farman), Sands (Antoinette), Hauvette-Michelin (Antoinette).

A school of aviation is to be opened at Heliopolis in the near future.


Moore-Brabazon has increased his duration to 31 minutes in a flight for the British MIchelin cup of $2,500 value for all-British machines.

Sir Hiram Maxim has completed a biplane, the special features of which are the three propellers, somewhat of a dihedral angle and a low centre of gravity.

The Aero Club of the U. K. is holding Its annual aero exhibition March 11-19.

building biggest airship.

Vickers, Sons & Maxim is constructing the largest dirigible yet made, for the British war department. It is to be over 500 ft. long, will have two 200 h. p. motors and attain a speed of 45 m. p. h. It will easily carry 5 tons of explosives besides the motor, car and crew. It is of the rigid type.

E. T. Wiilows has been sailing at Cardiff a dirigible of his own design, 86 ft. long (envelope), with a capacity of 21,000 cu. ft. It is unique in that there are no elevating planes. Steering up and down is by tilting the two propellers on either side of the car containing the 30 h. p. piant which is hung about midway of the ship. This scheme is very similar to the American Riggs-Rice airship described in a recent issue of Aeronautics.

new government airship.

The new British Government dirigible "2-A" has had first trials. This resembles, in the shape of

the bag, the "Clement-Bayard," except that there are but two pallonettes at the rear end. The bag length Is 154 ft.; capacity 70,600 cu. ft. The car. 84 ft. long, is similar to those used on airships built by the Astra Co. The 80-100 h. p. Green engine, placed transversely, drives two pairs of 2-bladed 8 ft. 10 in. propellers, one set on each side of the car, so arranged that the propeller shaft can be tilted to assist in going up or down. A vertical fln is placed under the rear end of the envelope. Two triangular horizontal rudders are at either end of the frame and a vertical rudder at its extreme rear.

King Edward has granted the A. C. U. K. the right to use the prefix "Royal."

The Hon. C S. Rolls flew for 15 minutes with his Short-Wright fitted with a horizontal tail.

The Bronze Medal of the Aeronautical Society, which is purely a scientific organization, was awarded to F. W. Lanchester, the author of two works on aeronautics, for the best paper during the year in "The Aeronautical Journal." This is an annual award. His article was entitled "The Wright and Voisin , Types of Flying Machines : a Comparison," published in January, 1909. The society is about to publish a series of reprints of the most important aeronautical writings of Sir George Cayley, Wenham, Thomas Walker, Stringfellow, Filcher, and so on. These little volumes will be illustrated and contain biographical prefaces. The first two, Cayley and Wenham, will be ready in March. The price will be but a shilling each or 5/6 for the series of six. The editing is being done by Messrs. T. O'B. Hubbard, secretary, and J. H. Ledebocr, editor of British "Aeronautics."


great flight by amateur.

George Chavez, the French soccer player, has been taking lessons on a Farman at Chalons. At his sixth flight, on February 28, he was in the air for 1 hour and 47 minutes, descending for want of gasoline. On his fourth trial he flew for 40 minutes.

Kuller, who succeeded Latham as the Antoinette instructor at Chalons, flew twice on February 27 in the teeth of a nearly 34-mile wind.

The Aero Club of France has decided that it will recognize" pilots' certificates issued by the Kaiser-licher A. C. of Germany.

Several times on a recent flight at Pau, Bleriot stopped his motor during a flight and when near the ground started again and rose to the height of 20 meters.

At Havre on February 19, Molon flew twice cross-country distances of 30 and 40 kilometers.

Sommer made a recent flight in a strong wind and heavy rain with his own machine. lie has carried a'load of 462 lbs. with him in a test.

hour flight at good height.

On March 2 Maurice Farman flew over an hour at Buc at a height of 175 meters.

On March 9 Rougier rose to 1.800 ft. at Monte Carlo, making great circles over the sea and villages between Monaco and Cape Martin.

The Aero Club de France has offered several prizes for machines driven by debutants remaining in the air at least one minute with motor stopped. It has been possible to use the $62,400 raised by Temp's subscriptions as follows : To buy two dirigibles and one Henri Farman biplane, one Maurice Farman biplane, one Wright biplane and one Bleriot monoplane.

Instructions continue of the military officers appointed to learn the new art of flying.


The new German Clouth dirigible at Bickendorf, which made its first ascent, one of an hour, on February 4, has had a 3-hour trial. During March the German military arships. the Zeppelin I. Gross II and Parseval II will manceuver day and night under the direction of Captain Zena.

At Munich, the Parseval Aerial Navigation Co. is preparing for summer excursions to be made daily. The fare has been fixed at $55 for trips in the Immediate neighborhood, and at $125 for trips to the Bavarian Alps.

Herr Echter of Landau has made a short flight in a machine of his own construction.

Herr Hilsmann has successfully flown several times, in the Essen section of the Lower Rhine Aviation Asso., on the Ruhn aviation field.

The German war office is at present experimenting with a 50 h. p. motor car carrying a 3-In. explosive shell gun with a range of 7,000 yards, designed by Krupp to be used as an airship destroyer.

On March 1 the Parseval V successfully covered 133 kilo, in just over three hours, from Bitterfeld to Tegel, near Berlin. . Nos. VI and VII are being built.

The military authorities of Cologne are trying to prevent aerial evolutions in the vicinity for fear that spies will be able to study their fortifications.

On March 3 the Reichstag passed a resolution to establish a Government aeronautical institution to carry on practical experimental work with airships and aviation near Friedrichshafen.


On February 26, the Hungarian Aero Club wa.« formed at the headquarters of the Hungarian Automobile Club in Budapest. Count Karolyl was elected president. The club is already preparing for an aviation meet to be held at Budapest June 5th to 15th. The prize fund aggregates $25,000.


About the middle of February the new Faccioli biplane flew very successfully at Turin. The Wright machine has been out teaching an officer under the guidance of Lieutenant Calderara.


A national aero club was formed at Christiana with Mr. n. Mohn. the meteorologist, as president. The club has anplied to the International Federation for recognition, as the national representative of Norway.


Raoul-Duval. at Mexico, D. ]<\, made several very successful flights in his new Bleriot monoplane the latter part of February. Though he only flew at a height of about 17 ft., his tests were the beginning of a series of experiments to determine how high a machine could arise in that altitude.


$500,000 has been appropriated by the Rns sian Government for military aeronautics. A military aeronautical school is being opened. The Midget calls for four or possibly five dirigibles and a Farman biplane, as the initial fleet.


On February IS the Espana made a 10-hour cruise to the entire satisfaction of the makers. On the 23d. an attempt was made to make the 10-hour night trin which was required by the Government before delivery, and the craft was injured during a fog by running into some trees. Th^ damage necessitated her being shipped back to her shed, but she was repaired in a couple of days. She will soon be taken to her new headquarters in Spain.


Captain Englehardt flew 3 miles on his Wrieht machine over the lake at St. Moritz. the 25th of February. This was the first long flight in Switzerland.

The Dufanx brothers, of Geneva, makers of th» motor which hears their name, have had thpir first success with their aeroplane. It is a biplane. 8.5 m. spread: length 0 m.; surface 24. sq. m. : weight 175 til.: 25-30 h. p. AnzanI motor: propeller 2.1 m. diam.. pitch 0.85 m.. turns at 1.400. A triangular body extends back of the main planes, similar to the Antoinette machine. There are vertirnl and horizontal rudders finite similar to those of the Antoinette. The propeller is in front: the aviatoi-sits just at the rear edge of the main planes. Lateral equilibrium is by wing tips. A wheel anrl post operate the controls : pushing the wheel and post forward and back steers up and down, turn ing the wheel operates wing tips and a foot lever steers right or left.


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bowden wire for aeroplanes.

The J. S. Bretz Co., Times building, New York, suggests the use of Bowden wire on aeroplanes. Bowden wire mechanism consists of two parts—a closely coiled and practically incompressible spiral wire, constituting what is termed "the outer member," and a wire cable, practically inextensible. threaded through the above, and termed "the inner member."

What It Does.—Previous to the introduction of the Bowden mechanism, the usual mechanical method of transmitting power in other than a straight line was by means of angle levers and rods, cables and pulleys, and other such devices, all of which necessarily Involve considerable complication besides increased labor and expense in adapting them satisfactorily to the user's require-



CAPITAL MAY CONTROL FIFTEEN PATENTS that form potentially a WORLD .MONOPOLY of aviation's noblest phase—infringing upon none.

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ments. The Bowden wire mechanism dispenses ^ with all these difficulties, while enabling power '« to be transmitted by the most tortuous route.

The mechanism is complete in itself, and requires pSonly that one member shall be anchored to a Kjjjtfstop «t each end and that the other member shall Kfebe attached to an operating lever at one end, anr" **to the object to be moved at the other.

In (he drawing above, D represents a length of jr.owden wire sufficient to reach from point to point, loosely, round any intervening corners or obstacles. At C the inner member of the mechanism will be noticed emerging from the outer member, being attached at one end to the actuat-

harriman motor works deliveries.

The Harriman Motor Works. S. Glastonbury. Conn., are now up to date with standard sized propellers, suitable for their engines.

catalogue of easton engines.

The Easton Cordage Co., Easton, I'a., has gotten out a most attractive catalogue of their 1910 motors. A real photograph of the 50-horse-powcr motor is used for illustratiou.

It also lists their standard Voisin Type aeroplane at $4,500. completely equipped, delivery in 90 days. A strong feature is made of the point that this is the only type of machine not infringing the Wright patents.

The company is also prepared to build to order laminated true screw propellers of special quality Honduras mahogany with over SO per cent, actual efficiency guaranteed.

The type B-3 water cooled 50 h. p. motor, at 1,200 r. p. m., lists at $1,500. The S cylinders. 4 by 4 ins., are of cast iron, with special aluminum alloy head and shell in one piece, set at 90 degrees. 45 degrees from the vertical. Both valves are in the head, mechanically operated by one tappet rod, overhead rocker arm. Bearings are of phosphor bronze. Lubrication is by force feed oil pump, located in bottom of crank case, operated by crank shaft. One carburetor is used for all cylinders. Pistons are of cast gray iron ground to size. Aluminum crank ease. The weight, including Bosch high tension, gear driven magneto, oiler, ready to run, except radiator, 275 lbs.

The 1910 engine possesses a number of noval and exclusive features, amongst which are to be especially noted head and shell cast in one. piece, integral water jackets. valve actuating mechanism and the position of the spark plug.

more aeroplane tires.

The Pennsylvania Rubber Co., .leanette. Pa., have begun the manufacture of aeroplane tires, and the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.. Akron. O.. have put on the market rubber fabric for surfaces. The G. & J. Tire Co.. of Indianapolis. Ind.. have developed two sizes. 20 and 24 inch. These are 3% inches in diameter, larger than used on manj light automobiles.

church company building .monoplane.

It is stated on good authority that within the next two months the Church Aeroplane Company, of Brooklyn, will have on the market a mono plane that will be listed in the neighborhood of $4,000, and designed to carry one aviator and sufficient gasoline for a continuous trip of ion miles.

Flying models of this machine have been tested under all sorts of conditions, with most gratifying results. It is said that the automatic lateral stabilizing device used is more efficient than any-


All interested in the Art will be benefitted by becoming members.


NO association in the world has accomplished as much.

If you desire to learn what the Society has done for the Art in the last eighteen months, send for the brochure just published reciting the accomplishments from the formation of the Society in July, 1908, to December, 1909. It is practically a history'of aviation in the U. S. during the above period.

For the purpose of increasing the sphere of usefulness the membership should be augmented. Every additional member advances the general good.

C Address the Secretary for booklet and application blanks at P. O. Box 28, Station D, New York; or 1999 Broadway, where weekly meetings are held.

ing lever (A), and at the other to the object to be moved (B), the outer member being anchored to fixed abutments (G G), which may be placed wherever found most convenient. Pull the lever (A), and the power or movement is at once imparted to the other end. When being actuated the mechanism at its curves will exhibit a wriggling movement, as the inner member attempts to reach the straight line of pull but is resisted by the outer member, which cannot shorten its length, anchored as it is at both ends. This movement should not be restrained: the virtues of the mechanism are best evinced when the curves are free. The dotted lines show the lever (A) in its actuated position, and the weight (Bi or object to be moved correspondingly raised. E E are adjustable screws or stops, the extension or screwing out of which is equivalent to lengthening the outer member, and so compensating for any bedding down of the inner. F F are lock nuts for holding the adjustable screws in position. That is the common form of adaptation, but other forms are also in use. The mechanical expert will readily preceive that the ends of the inner member may be anchored, and the outer member then used as the medium for a pushing motion ; or that neither member need be fixed in a stationary sense, but only fixed relatively to each other, so that while one pulls the other pushes, relative displacement thereby ensuing.


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thing of the kind heretofore introduced. So far as can be judged from experiments with models, it is believed to be practically perfect.

The Church Company will shortly move into larger quarters. The company's business has increased so rapidly that its former factory ca pacity, which has already been several times doubled, is hardly equal to more than 40 per cent, of orders actually booked. The demand for flying models is enormous. At present these are wanted mostly by experimentors, and by merchants desiring to display them as novelties in their show windows; but already the buyers for toy houses and department stores are beginning to place their orders for November 1st deliveries, by way of anticipating the country-wide Interest that will be displayed In the international aviation contests this fall.

Mr. E. Vail Church, now the president of the company, started the business last fall on a modest working capital, with the idea that it might prove a very profitable little private enterprise. It is to-day an incorporated company, with a capital of $600,000, and under the necessity of agai nmaterially increasing its factory capacity.

It is building a full size man-carrying machine, a modified form of the Santos Dumont type, for Mr. Frederick Pearson, of Boston, and will shortly commence work on Its Langley-Church aeroplane, estimated to attain a speed of approximately 80 miles an hour, and which will be entered in the international contests.

propellers wanted.

Propeller manufacturers please write Rev. Porter Hardy. Capeville, Va., and B. P. Crumling. Hellam, York county, Pa.

model helicopter flying machine.

A new crucible steel toy called the "Hi-Flyer," the invention of a prominent Buffalonian, has just been put on the toy market for the spring and summer trade.

The feature of this miniature flying machine is its efficiency in high, long or speedy flights, its actual flight path varying from 600 feet to a quarter of a mile, the speed exceeding 30 feet per second.

The wings of the toy are constructed according to a new aerodynamic principle, which, It is claimed, gives to the machine an efficiency for surpassing that of any of the full sized aeroplanes, or helicopters of the day.

the "bosch news."

The Bosch Magneto Co., 223 West 46th Street, New York, has started an interesting little magazine with the above title, telling of the good deeds done with Bosch magnetos. Two numbers have been issued thus far. Both have some line illustrations of aeroplanes and airships. Results of the Rheims and Los Angeles meets are given. The American plant of the Bosch concern has an output of 10,000 magnetos a month, while the world product is 25,000.


For incorporations of aero clubs see under "Club News."

The Cleveland Aeroplane Co. was incorporated under the Ohio state laws March 7th, $10,000 capital stock, to make, sell and lease aerial devices upon five patents now pending. The company manufactures scale models of the well-known flyers, which are sold outright or leased for advertising purposes. They also have an electrically arranged device along these lines to be used as a window display. Later gliders will be added to the line.

Metcalfe Multiplane Co., Driscoll, N. D. Pres., R. M. Metcalf; V. P., F. Jaszkowiak; sec, I. R. Matthews; treas., B. M. Finseth.

Long Beach Airship Spiraway Co., Long Beach. Cal., $35,000. A. T. Smith, A. F. Smith. R. I. Bisby, F. A. Knight and d. S. Bisby.

Automatic Equilibrium Airship Co, Sau Antonio, Tex., to manufacture aeroplane recently invented by Capt. A. F. \Y. MacManus, U. S. A.

Philadelphia Aeroplane Co., Phila., Pa., $20,000, laws of Delaware.

Alabama Aerial Tramway Co., to built and operate aerial tramways in Birmingham, Ala. Capital $200,000, paid in. Incorporators. J. K. Bartiu, J. M. Venable, E. II. Thornton, J. D. Kirkpatrick, C. P. Wittichen, Guy U. Johnson and George II. Clark.

Sparling-UcCIintock Co., $25,000, Grafton, 111., to manufacture a mouoplane designed by J. N. Sparling.

maxim buys wittema.yn glider.

Hiram Percy Maxim, of Hartford, Conn., has purchased of the Couuecticut Aero Company, of Hartford, a Wittemann biplane glider. The machine is of the usual biplane construction, having 22 ft. lateral spread of plaues, and a large rear rudder with both vertical and horizontal members. The weight of the machine is sixty pounds, and represents the latest design in gliders.

It is the first machine to be purchased by a member of the Aero Club of Hartford, of which Mr. Maxim is president. It is expected that many more machines of this kind will be purchased by the members during the summer, as a means of acquiring practical experience in the manipulation of aeroplanes. Later on it is the intention to buy some of the well know motor aeroplanes.

An aviation field has been secured in Hartford, on the east bank of the Connecticut river, on the large meadows, which are unsurpassed for flying experiments. G. E. Lucas, manager of the Connecticut Aero Company, has provided an aeropalne garage where exhibits and instructions in gliding will be given during the coming summer.


Albert E. Ouellette, of Sanford, Me., has built a biplane in which he has installed a Harriman Motor Works M0 II. P. engine, aud is at present educating himself to the coutrol of the machine by ruuning it aloug the ground and taking short jumps. Henry Lawrence Call, of the Aviation Co. of America, has purchased a 50 II. P. engine for his airship, and the Harriman Co. is building a special propeller by which Mr. Call expects to get the same thrust with our 50 H. I*. engine as he was able to get with two 30 H. P. engines used in his first experiments. Louis G. Erickson. of Springfield, Mass., who showed his biplane in the Boston show (this plane being completely built of bamboo and being exceedingly light in weight but strong in construction), has used a H-F propeller in his experimental work, but the automobile engine he was using of 20 H. I'. was too high in weight, and would uot run well without a flywheel. Mr. Erickson has ordered a 30 H. I'. aviation engine on March 10, and will have his motor installed, ready for further experiments by March 10th.

:: Exchange :; and Forum

1,000 lbs. thrust with 50 ii. p.

100. Can you advise me if I can find or have constructed a propeller sustaining a heavy thrust, say, of about 1,000 lbs., and if a 50 h. p. engine can easily carry same?

Where can I get the data as to the pressure per sq. ft. on an S-ft. propeller, 10 to 12 feet pitch, running 750 to 1,000 r. p. m.?

Answer: No propeller now in use will exert a thrust of 1.000 lbs. with 50 h. p. They generally give 0 to 12 lbs. per h. p. You do not specify whether the pressure per sq. ft. is to be calculated on the blades or on the area swept over. It will probably be about 2 lbs. per sq. ft. on the latter, but the pitch, perhaps, is too great. See Aeronautics, also for June, 1000, p. 178; August,




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1909, pp. 40 and 71 ; and September, 1909, p. 99, for theoretical formulae to design propellers. See also Maxim's "Artificial and Natural Flight" for practical experiments on screw propellers, and November, 1909, Aeronautics, p. 174.

A propeller might be built to thrust 1,000 lbs., but in order to get this thrust with 50 h. p. the propeller would have to be very large. This is the problem of the helicopter on which a number of inventors and scientists have been working for years.

Cormi Brothers got SS0 lbs. lift with two 2-bladed propellers of 0 meters diameter at 200 r. p. m., with a 50 h. p. motor. The blades had 4 scj. in. surface. See Aeronautics for April, 1909. See also the July, 190S, number, p. 20, where the lift was 24 lbs. per h. p., and1 May, 1908. The gyrating planes of the Breguet machine gave a lift of 1001 lbs. It is also stated that tnese gave a thrust of 1,050 lbs., using 37-38 li. p., planes rotating at l.S r. p. s., with motor at l,OS0 r. p. m. See Aeronautics for September, 190S. Emile Berliner states that he got a lift of 30U lbs. with a 17-ft. propeller making 150 r. p. in., using about 30 h. p. of an Adams-Farwell rotary motor. See Aeronautics for October, 1908.

Utto G. Luyties, of Baltimore, obtained 700 lbs. thrust with two superposed 4-bladed 34-ft. propellers, having 800 scj. tt. of cauvas blade surface, from 20 b. h. p. J. Newton Williams got 430 lbs. with 19 b. h. p. He used two superposed 2-bladed propellers, 10 ft. 8 ins. diain.," 04 sq. ft. blade area, or 22 plus lbs. per h. p. Prof. W. H. Pickering, of Harvard, several years ago, attained 430 lbs. with 20 b. h. p., using a single 2-bladed propeller, 21 ft. diam.

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a cheap propeller.

101. As 1 am working on a flying machine, 1 would like to have a drawing of a propeller. J will use a gas bag. 1 want a propeller to draw about 200 lbs. through the air. 1 want to use this propeller on a %-inch shaft front of machine. I want a propeller similar to that used by Beachey. I use no engine. My gas bag will only be about half as large as Beaehey's. Will you please give me some instructions how to make this propeller? The machine will be about 10 ft. long.

Answer: A gas bag 10 ft. long shaped like Beachey's would lift less than 10 lbs., as it would contain about 100 cubic feet of hydrogen, which would lift 7 lbs. As to propellers, within certain limits the larger the better, i. e., more efficient. The pitch would depend on the velocity of revolution, which would depend on the power of the

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man and the way it is geared. A simple aud easily made light propeller is shown in sketch. If the propeller is G ft. in diameter, the pitch could be 4 ft. and the velocity about 1!00 r. p. m. (The proper velocity could be found only by trial.; See also references given in No. 100.

center of pressure.

10'J. For plane surfaces, Joessel's formula is D=LX (0.2-t-U.3 sin «) where L is length of plane fore and aft and a is angle of inclination and D is distance from front edge. This formula is not true for small angles. Langley, in "Experiments in Aerodynamics," Chapter VII, gives results of experiments on e. of p. (Apparatus used not very accurate.) W. 11. Turnbull, in Sci. Am. Supplement, Jan. 30, 100'J, gives results with various surfaces using a device similar to Lang-ley's at the mouth of a wind tunnel. Matthew B. Sellers gave practical data on four different surfaces in the March, 101U, number of Aeronautics. Mr. Sellers' experiments were with curved surfaces and the device used more accurate than Langley's.

Other references are: A. Rateau, in "Aero-phile," Vol. 17, p. 33S, who gives variation of position of c. of p. on Hat and curved surfaces as determined by experiments; A. Goupil, in "Aero-phile," Vol. 13, p. 207, gives calculations to show how c. of p. is determined; M. de Cantelou considers position in "Etude snr l'Aviation;" Major Baden-Powell, Sci. Am. Sup., Vol. 04, p. 90; J. 1). Fullerton, "Aeronautical Journal" for July, 1S'J7 ; Joessel in "Memorial du Genie Maritime," 187U, derives above given formula; Kummer, "Berlin Akad, Abhandlung, 1S75-6.

wants propeller.

103. You will probably obtain much better results by buying a propeller with a guarantee of a certain number of pounds thrust, after having figured the amount you will need to get off the ground, from one of the advertisers in Aeronautics, than to spend your time and energy, without the proper appliances, trying to evolve something better.

wright patent vs. curtiss trouble.

104. Should the Wright patent hold good, there is no reason why Aeronautics should suffer as far as law suits on controls are concerned. Herewith is a drawing of an aeroplane control which I invented over eight years ago, and have used it successfully on small models of both mono- and biplane type. At that time I did not believe it worthy of patent, and as no patent can be had upon it now, anyone may use it without the danger of infringement. The Wright patent is based upon changing the angle of incidence, whereas in this means of control we only increase or decrease surface. It is not necessary to use all the de-

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vices, as in the drawing, upon, one machine. I put them all in the drawing to save space.

Description is as follows: Two main superposed surfaces. The uprights are pivoted so that the upper surface may be carried to either side, forward or backward, thereby changing the centre of gravity. For further transverse control the upper surface is mounted upon suitable rails so as to be exteuded beyond the position of the uprights.

Upper surface has suitable surfaces fitted between the main surface so as to increase or decrease the carrying surface of either side for transverse control. Lower surface has also slidable controls extending out so as to increase the wing spread of cither side. Between the uprights are two roller arrangements similar to a roll curtain but made with wood or wire stiffening, and may be unrolled in either of the 3 grooves as shown in drawing. The front elevator is of the roller device also, the vertical rudder in the rear is a curtain of same material as rudder controls, but does not roll it up, but simply slides from one side of the V-grooved guides of the rudder to the other, and when half way between it would guide the aeroplane straight forward. The roller curtain could be made as an appliance so it could be removed at will and used on any type of machine.


Joliet, 111.


SAN ANTONIO.—Feb. 2S, Clifford B. Harmon, pilot, and George B. Harrison, in the "New York" to Uount Mt., 10 miles from Austin, Ark., on March 1. Dist. 530 miles; altitude. 12,000 ft. Descent was made because of an approaching storm.

ST. LOUIS, March 8.—The St. Louis ballooning season opened auspiciously to-day with two ascensions, six passengers being carried in the 40,000 and SO.000 cubic foot aerostats which started.

The balloon St. Louis No. 3, piloted by S. Louis You Phul, with Miss Eva Tanguay and Horatio Bowman, Jr., of Alton, 111., aboard, landed near Turkey Hill, 111., twenty-seven miles from St. Louis, at 3 p. in., after three hours and five minutes aloft, the start being at 11.55 a. m.

The new 40.000 cubic foot balloon of H. E. Honeywell, with William F. Assman as pilot, and E. Percy Noel, acting secretary of the Aero Club, landed at Oakdale, 111., forty-five miles from the starting point, at 4.15. three hours and fifty-five minutes after the getawav at 12.20 p. m.

The 80,000 cubic foot'St. Louis No. 3 started with sixteen sacks of ballast; the half-size balloon got away with only six sacks. Mr. Assman, who piloted the new balloon, was on the third of his qualifying trips for a license, is for this reason thought to have made a remarkable showing. Honeywell stated afterwards that he believed the comparative novice would become one of the most successful of the local club's pilots. Mr. Assman'* entrance into the balloon field is considered significant for the success of St. Louis in the national elimination race to select the team for the international event, because he will make a seventh club pilot available to contest.


Herring-Burgess Aeroplane

The First Aeroplane to Fly in New England, Feb. 28th, 1910

SPECIAL FEATURES: Automatic side equilibrium, the highest grade of workmanship, tempered steel flexible joints, no turnbuekles, the most efficient surfaces and propeller ever produced.

C/Fhis machine starts by its own power without wheels, and sustains flight with a hundred-and-ninety-pound operator with less than twelve actual horse poAver. Though capable of high speed, it gets into the air with a shorter run, and at a slower—and, therefore, safer— starting and landing speed than ever before accomplished by a man-carrying machine.

It does not infringe any of the claims of the Wright patent

Built by the


Marblehead, Mass.

jelling agent


96 Massachusetts Avenue Boston, Mass.



JTj Improvements in aerostructures should be protected without delay.

^Thousands are experimenting, and your discoveries may be made and patented by others. A seemingly unimportant point to-day, may control the Aeroplane and Dirigible in the future as the Selden Patent controls the Automobile. Do not give your ideas away; protect them with solid patents.

JTTWe render an opinion as to the patentability of any invention without charge. Send us a sketch and description, photographs or

a model for immediate report.

Booklets giving full information in Patent Matters, a list of needed inventions and a history of successful patents, mailed free. AA^rite

for them.

References: U. S. Representatives.—Thistlewood, Wiley, O'C'onnell, Groff, Morrison, Sam'l Smith and others. Bruce Mfy. Co., Clean Sweep Co., Heckman Fish Trap Co., Northern Spike Co., Yankee Tweezer Co., Twentieth Century Hinge Co.


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61-Page "Inventor's Guide" and 64-Page "Proof of Fortunes

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cxpen-rrompi jervices






Vulcanized Proof Material


Forbes and Fleischman, Balloon "New York"


35 Hrs., 1 2 Mins. Forbes and Harmon, Balloon "New York"


Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial


Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial



Used in the U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

WILL last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double-walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.


Prices and samples on application

Captain Thomas S. Baldwin

Box 78, Madison Square NEW YORK



♦ M II Whiat you want is A Real Aeronautic Motor, light and yet

♦ \J strong, simple, and above all reliable. A motor, moreover, j that the average mechanic can understand and operate.

t What you do not want is a combination motor cycle, or

♦ modified automobile, engine. Lightness in these is secured only f by the sacrifice of strength and efficiency; and yet either type f is unduly heavy. We have tried both, and we know. Before + you invest, it will be worth your while to write us, and hear

♦ what we have to say.

J At an expense of several years experimenting, and many

♦ thousands of dollars outlay, we have at last perfected a high grade, t water cooled, four cycle, gasoline engine for aeronautic work.

By special method of construction, upon which we are securing

♦ patents, these motors are much stronger than the ordinary J makes, and at the same time very much lighter.

A The 40 horsepower engine weighs 3 pounds per horsepower,

♦ and the 80 horsepower only 2h pounds per horsepower:—about j£ one-half the weight per horsepower of any other adequately

♦ water cooled engine. The weight as also the quality of each f engine is guaranteed.

$ These motors are not of freakish construction, either in the

♦ number of cylinders, or in any other respect. They are of the J regular opposed type, similar to the famous Darracq aeronautic

♦ engine with which Santos Dumonts machines are equipped, J conceded by gas engineers to be the smoothest running, and

▲ nearest vibrationless type.

♦ A scarcely less important feature is the fact that our motors J are silenced (not muffled), which feature is secured without loss

♦ of power. They are, in fact, the only silent motors yet devised

♦ for aeronautic work. The importance of this feature can not be

▲ overestimated; and in connection with their strength, lightness,

♦ and reliability, places these motors in a class by themselves.

i Price: 40 H. P...................$ 700.00

+ " 80 " .................. 1,200.00

♦ Delivery: 30 days from receipt of order. ▼ Terms: 40 per cent, cash with order; balance I - — sight draft with bill of lading

A Write to us and let us send you Illustrations and description of these Wonderful Motors.

i P. S. Send for particulars and price of our REVERSIBLE AERIAL PROPELLER. Something

▲ entirely new and absolutely indispensable.



Of the Aerial Craft Exhibition held at Boston, Mass., was the

8 Cylinder 60-70 H. P.

Aviation Motor

Exhibited by its Builders, the MACHINE DEPARTMENT

Easton Cordage Company

-■- Easton, Pa.--

CThis motor of unsurpassed beauty of finish and design, together with a Voisin type aeroplane, also constructed by the same concern, occupied the center of interest and attraction throughout the whole period of the show's activities :: :: :: :: ::

The most Reliable, Powerful, and Practical Motor yet produced in America

TWO \ 8 cylinders SIZES / 4

60-70 H. P. 25-35 H. P.

weight 275 lbs. 130 "

Our motors express the ultimate achievement in engine construction, a degree of perfection which leaves nothing to be added, or desired in the way of improvement. Our motors are practical motors, complete in every detail, and the construction so thorough and sincere that the reliability which aviators demand is guaranteed as far as is humanly possible :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: ::


recognized to be the most stable, simplest to operate, and safest of all present aeroplanes in existence. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: ::

The only type machine not infringing the Wright's patents

Catalogue C will be sent on request


We Build Balloons That Win


CHICAGO CONTEST — Balloon "Fielding-San Antonio" — 9 competitors Distance and endurance trophies, also water record of the world—350 miles one trip INDIANAPOLIS CONTEST— Balloon "University City" — 6 competitors PEORIA CONTEST — Balloon "Peoria" — 3 competitors ST. LOUIS CENTENNIAL CONTEST — Balloon "St. Louis 111" first, and Balloon "Centennial" officially second for distance and endurance, 47 hrs., 4 I min.—8 competitors Balloon "St. Louis 111"—speed record of America — Lambert, pilot; Von Phul, aide JUST THINK OF IT, EVERY CONTEST IN THE LAST TWO YEARS.

Aero Club Grounds, Centennial Contest, St.'Louis, Mo.

CJ The longest voyage by a licensed pilot in the United States, in 1908, was made with the 2200 cubic meter "Yankee"—461 miles with two stops— a remarkable performance; 800 pounds ballast aboard when landing.


^ The greatest balloon trip of 1908 and 1909 850 miles in competition— made by the 2000 cubic meter balloon, "Fielding-San Antonio." Four American and two Foreign makes defeated by wide margin.

HONEYWELL, Builder and Pilot



q HONEYWELL CONSTRUCTION utilizes the latest and best materials —varnished or rubberized envelope with French-type valve, and Italian hemp or linen nettings. Cars equipped for comfort and convenience —light and durable. .........


H. E. HONEYWELL, Director

4460 Chouteau Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.

In anszvering advertisements please mention this magazine.