Aeronautics, September 1909

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of the world

Representing the



Makers of the Finest and Strongest Balloon Cloth Ever Produced

Constructor of the United States Government Balloon No. 10 in which Captain Charles De Forrest Chandler, U.S.A., and Mr. J. C. McCoy, won the Lahm Cup for Distance

MR. ALBERT C. TRIACA, Sole American and Canadian Agent

American Representative for

Carton &, Lachambre

Balloon and Airship Makers of Paris, France

Address '.

Aeronaut Leo Stevens

Box 181 Madison Square NEW YORK

What Kind of a MOTOR Do You Want?

Let us answer

1st, A reliable motor 2nd, A powerful motor 3rd, An enduring motor


Curtiss 8 cyl. Motor used in "Silver Dart"



( 1st, A motor of "freak" construction. \ 2nd, A motor of extremely light construction. [ 3rd, A motor of unproven merit.

CURTISS MOTORS ARE NOT IN THESE CLASSES. Built in All Sizes. New Models of Highest Type and Greatest Efficiency. Send for Catalogue N. CURTISS MOTORS HAVE MADE GOOD


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-Edited by-

Major B. Baden-Pawell and John H. Ledebaer


The first and leading paper in Great Britain devoted to Aviation, Aerostation, Meteorology, Aerology, Etc.



A special feature is a complete illustrated list of all Aeronautical Patents published every month

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The Aeronautical Journal

(The organ of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain)


Col. J. D. Fullerton, R. E. (ret.) , F. R. G. S., F. Z. S.

An illustrated Quarterly devoted to the Science of Dynamic Flight in all its branches. Annual Subscription : Publishing Office:

Six Shillings and Sixpence. 27 Chancery Lane, London,

Post Free England


The Aeronautical World

Illustrated Monthly—Published 1902-3 by W. E.Irish

Contains Important Information for

Experimenters in Mechanical Flight

12 Nos. Vol. 1 . $1.50 postpaid In answerin




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Aeronautic Pilot of Aero Clubs of America, France and Italy.

Aerostats. Dirigibles and Aviation Courses. Home study and Resident. Model Hall, Shop, Construction Sheds and Grounds at Morris Park Aerodrome. Write for Catalog.

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1029 N. Illinois St., INDIANAPOLIS, IND.



Builder of the CHICAGO—largest balloon in the world; the INDIANA, which remained in the air 44 hours and <25 min., the ENDURANCE RECORD for the U. S.; and the INDIANAPOLIS, which won the Handicap Race.

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Used in the U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

will last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.


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They take a tumble now and then,

These brothers brave and bold, When something in the rudder breaks.

Or wires refuse to hold. But after every swift descent

They're always game and say— "O, that was just because we much

Preferred to land that way.

If they should lose their legs and arms,

These aviators true, Would still continue their attempts

To navigate the blue. They love to soar aloft and match

The swallow in the flight. Their names are Wright because, you see,

They're nearly always right.



Published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc.

A. V. Jones, president E. L. Jones, treas.-sec.




Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Posloffice, New York, N. Y., under the Act of

March 3, 1879.

Vol. 5

September 1909

No. 3

Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.


One year, $3.00; payable always in advance.

Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order, check or registered letter. Make all remittances free of exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk.

Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, $3.50 per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to Aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.

Important.—Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure oroper credit.



ENERGY ....................... P

Hudson maxim

















in, H7-HS, 101-10L 110-120.






io<; i<>.>




The lack of active work 011 the part of Aero Clubs, the need for prize money to encourage invention and construction, etc., has brought forth the following interesting statement in a letter to Aeronautics.

" * * * is president of the * * * aero club. His letter repeats the same old story, and reveals the same condition of things that your good paper has been trying to impress upon the apathetic wealthy ones of your country. Perhaps continual dropping may wear away the stony hearted. Anyway, keep the fight going—the cause is worth it."

Xow that public interest is growing, it is certainly time that the clubs desirous of making progress should bend their efforts to en couragiug more and more work for the accomplishment of everyday flying.


Owing to lack of space we arc forced to omit in this issue the following articles : SELLERS STEP A E R () FLA X E, ASCENSIONS. ANTHONY WIRELESS DIRIGIBLE and PERFECTING THE HELICOPTER, by Paul Corn 11. These will be printed next issue.



By Hudson Maxim.

BEFORE we talk about employing high explosives in aerial warfare, and discuss the best and most practical ways and means of killing people and destroying property with them, we want to answer the question whether or not it is desirable to do this thing.

There are three very popular errors regarding modern improvements in war materials, implements and enginery, and these errors are: First, that they render warfare more murderous than it used to be; second, that their production has a brutalizing and uncivilizing influence, and, third, that human nature has changed so much lately that a meek and lowly spirit can replace gunpowder.

Every invention has been forged out of necessity, and there has been no incentive, and there can be no incentive, to invention so strong as the ever-present menace of enemies against property, life and home. The pursuit of happiness and high ideals has never been prosecuted gently and lovingly, but brusquely and strenuously, in boots and spurs.

Standing, as we do, upon the "very threshold of aerial navigation, we naturally lean a-tiptoe and peer into the future with a questioning surmise. Will the flying machine soon become a serviceable actuality, and will it ever become broadly utilitarian, or is it likely to prove a

" * * * perfidious bark, Built in the eclipse, and rigg'd with curses dark,"

whereon hope alone takes flight, or death rides arm-locked with the helmsman?

If there prove a profitable demand for flying machines, we shall unquestionably see achievement run on so fast that the sight of flying machines threading their way across the sky will soon be commonplace.

The naval and military engineer and the strategist look with wide-awake concern upon the advent of the flying machine.

While the French multitude stare wonder-eyed at the exploits of the Wright brothers, and jar the firmament with their loud bravos, the British military over the channel shudder at the French trumpetings and tremble for their sea-walled Jericho. There is in England a heart-quaking realization that the Flying Dutchman may soon become a reality. Hypersensitive British conservatism may indefinitely prevent the construction of the Calais-Dover tunnel; but

the Frenchmen cannot be prevented from tunneling the air.

Unquestionably the demand for flying machines as scouting craft in naval and military operations, and for the transportation of raiders to rip up railroads, destroy bridges, cut communications, blow up magazines and levy ransom upon communities and moneyed institutions, is bound to give the industry a very strong support; while the exacting requirements of government specifications will materially serve to develop and perfect aerial craft on safe, conservative and practical lines.

The element of danger in aerial navigation will be no deterrent to the sportsman. On the contrary, it will be an attraction. The clement of danger is half the charm to the true sportsman. Men live bigger, broader, better, healthier lives who let the old war spirit still live in strenuous, daring, manly sportsmanship.

The opening up of the sky for practical business travel will come later; but it is bound to come. Then the remote will be made near; and scorning the ground, men will take wing from business to their homes as the birds go. The flying machine industry, by contributing to land values, will grow rapidly under the impulse of reciprocal contribution. There will be on the great skyway no bad roads problem, no laws against scorching and no obnoxious constabulary harassment.

hiving machines will never be able to work wide destruction by dropping explosives from the air. Even large quantities of high explosives dropped from an aerial fleet upon battleships, coast fortifications and in the streets of large cities would not be widely destructive. ,

There is a widespread popular error about the force and destructiveness of dynamite. An anarchist once tried to blow up London Bridge with a mere handful of dynamite; and another exploded a few handfuls of dynamite in the British House of Parliament, expecting to see that mighty structure brought down in utter ruin and all Britain shaken with terror; but he succeeded in spoiling merely a few flagstones in the hall, breaking a few windows and getting himself in a bad mess.

In order to do much damage, dynamite requires confining. Large high-explosive bombs dropped into the smokestacks of war vessels or close beside them in the water might do some wicked work.

The great field for operations with high explosives carried in airships will be in the raiders' outfit. The coming aerial fleet need not bother about coast fortifications or battleships. They cannot in the least bar the way to aerial invasion, and in war it is never policy to waste effort or ammunition on what does not stand in the way of entering the territory of an enemy.

Owing to the enormous energy pent up in high explosives, they have often been looked to as a promising source of energy for driving motors and engines of different sorts; but there are insurmountable difficulties in the way of their practical employment in explosion engines, owing to the difficulty of feeding them to the engine cylinder and exploding them there, without blowing up the supply reservoir as well.

But these are not the only difficulties and objections. The expense, in any event, would be absolutely prohibitive.

1 was once asked as an expert to give an opinion on the practicability of driving an automobile with an engne actuated by fulminate of mercury, exploded in suitable quantities upon the paddles of a sort of Pelton wheel. I pronounced against the system for the following reasons: Fulminate of mercury costs several dollars a pound. It is one of the most sensitive and most dangerous of all explosives. Although very powerful as a shattering agent, it is very local in its action. It has but little expansive or propulsive force, for the reason that the volume of its products of combustion are very small.

1 showed the prospective investor that even though the impossible engine could be made to work, it would cost about $10,000 to drive an automobile with it from the Batter}- to Central Park.

There is one way, however, that an explosive material may be practically employed as a source of energy for actuating a motor.

I have made a material, containing 70 parts by weight of nitroglycerin to 30 parts of guncotton. the guncotton being dissolved and combined with the nitroglycerin, forming a dense, rubbery material. This male-rial I called motorite. The motorite is made in bars, a little over 5 ft. long and about 7 in. in diameter, and they weigh somewhat over 100 pounds.

The rate of combustion of the motorite is perfectly regular under a given pressure, being about a foot per minute under 300 pounds, and each pound of motorite will evaporate somewhat more than two pounds of water, thereby yielding more than three pounds of mixed steam and products of combustion as a motive fluid for driving turbines, for each pound of motorite burned. Starting with the apparatus cold and the water cold, it takes somewhat less than one-tenth of a second to get up steam with the safety valve or escape nozzle blowing off full blast.

The cost of driving an engine with motorite is about $2 per horse-power hour—rather expensive to be sure—and as the energy developed by motorite in a Whitehead torpedo would be about 400 horse power, it would cost at the rate of about $800 an hour to run the torpedo; but as the torpedo is required to run but a few minutes, the aetual expense per run is immaterial, costing about a quarter as much as it does to fire a 10-in. gun.

An enthusiastic newspaper reporter who once interviewed me on the subject of my system of driving torpedoes with motorite, after he had returned to his sanctum, concluded, on his own hook, that motorite would be an excellent thing for driving transatlantic liners, and he made me say so in. the newspaper next da}-. As a matter of fact, it would cost about $80,000,000 to drive the Lusitania across the ocean once with motorite at twice her present speed, which the newspaper reporter made me proclaim easy; and it would require four more Lusi-tanias to carry the fuel.


an article in "McClure's" for August under the above title, the authors, Carl Dicnst-bacli and T. R. Macmechcn, make some statements which are apparently extravagant. We naturally sought the highest expert opinion on the subject discussed. Mr. IIl'DSOX MAXIM has kindly consented to correct st me of the fantastic ideas expressed.

August 1, 1909. To the Editor of Aeronautics, 1777 Broadway,

New York City. Sir: In response to your request. 1 give it as my opinion that a more intimate acquaintance with gunnery and the use of high explosives would have enabled the writers of the article, entitled "The Aerial


"War becomes wholesale murder." is the heading of one paragraph, which goes on to s.ty that the machine gun can—well, any oin knozi's -what a machine gun, oh. -what's the use—get "McC litre's" for August. \Advg. M'g'r. McClure's: Please get our rates for read'ng notices.]

Battleship," in McClure's of August, 1909, to have avoided making some very wrong conclusions.

No doubt the writers intend to be serious and do not wish to sacrifice truth in order to appeal to the imagination. The writers have themselves been ensnared by the fanciful common opinion of the multitude that the advent of the Hying machine means the

annihilation of armies and the end of wars. Witness the following statement in the first paragraph of the said article:

"In secret trials by the German Government during March, a rapid-firing gun, capable of throwing nearly 60 1.9-inch shells a minute, was fired with entire success from the deck of the Zeppelin 1. This menus the end of armies within tlie next 10 years."

Could anything be more absurd?

Such gunfire will in future doubtless become very efficient when a Zeppelin attacks a Zeppelin, but to assume that a Zeppelin by such gunfire could end all armies in the future is the acme of absurdity. Let us assume that an airship of the size and vulnerability of the Zeppelin should approach near enough to a body of troops to make its gunfire effective. What would the troops be doing? Would they lay down their arms, disband and go home, or surrender unconditionally? Or would they shoot back? Looking from the height of a New York skyscraper, one may form something of an idea of the appearance of a body of troops as viewed from an airship. The soldiers would stand practically head-on to the line of fire and would thereby present a very much smaller target than they would standing side-on, as they do in the ordinary line of battle. It would conse-

quently take very man)' more projectiles to hit an equal number of men. But there is a 'till more important consideration than this: Whereas in the ordinary firing line a projectile will not only hit one soldier, but will often pass through several men, a very important desideratum of gunfire is that the trajectory shall be as flat as possible and thereby widen the danger zone as much as possible.

In order to bring troops within effective range, an airship must itself necessarily come within range of the troops, and as the troops will be able to provide themselves with much more powerful guns and more destructive projectiles than the airship would be able to carry, it is impossible that the airship could ever become an effective weapon against soldiers in the field. The main function of the airship will, as I have already pointed out in several newspaper and magazine articles, and in several speeches, be confined to scouting and surveying purposes, in conveying bodies of raiders with a raiders' outfit to be landed in an enemy's country to destroy bridges, rip up railroads, burn magazines and storehouses and levy ransom on moneyed institutions and communities. But the fighting, as in the past, will be done mainly on land instead of between the sky and land.


By Lieut.-Col. W. A. Glassford.

IN regard to the future of aeronautics, it that airships and flying machines are may be well to keep in view the fact vastly more suited for use as instruments of rcconnoissance in war and for sporting purposes than for any other that we can intelligently concei^e__of_at present. To compare the navigation of the air to that of water, one should bear in mind that water is about a thousand times heavier than air, and that, whatever may be the future development of aerial crafts, their tonnage, or their carrying capacity, under otherwise equal conditions, could not come within a thousandth part of that carried by ships on the sea.

As to their uses for war purposes, it may be remarked that war is carried on at present by means of materials which have much weight. High explosives are things of weight, and their efficiency as instruments of destruction depend very much upon the manner in which they are placed. In war, this material is reckoned by the thousands of tons, and the traces of its effects when used for this purpose usually leave but very little effect upon the landscape. The dropping of a bomb now and then from a balloon might cause a little fright among the

inhabitants for a time, especially if they had not yet had the experience of such a bombardment, but the more frequent such necessarily very isolated bombardments take place, the less surprise they will create, until finally their effect upon the popular nerve would not be equal to that of an ordinary thunder-storm.

For sporting purposes, a wide field is opening for aeronautics. Although the future development of aerial crafts will no doubt be much encouraged by governments on account of their possible use for recon-noitering purposes in war, it is to sport that we must look for the greatest support which will be needed in the necessary experiments for the development of aerial navigation.

In times of popular enthusiasm, where so much is written for the purpose of entertaining the public, in the manner in which the unsophisticated public wishes to be entertained, there are so many false notions mixed with quoted scientific truths that have no bearing on the matter, together with the amount of poetry usual on such occasions, that a literature is fast being created which is capable of bewildering not only the masses, but even sometimes people who reason.

AT 8 o'clock on the evening of July 3 the balloon "Philadelphia II," recently purchased by the Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society from A. Leo Stevens, east loose from the U. G. I. athletic grounds at Point Breeze.

It was a perfect night. In the West, great rolls of rose-purple clouds hung over the Schuylkill River, and hundreds of people chatted together on the green lawn and on the pOrches of the trig little clubhouse.

The balloon rose quickly, carrying its passengers, Dr. George H. Simmerman, Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge, Mr. Fred Eldridge and Miss Margueretta King Tourison.

A good breeze bore the balloon swiftly over the Delaware River, and from the basket the passengers looked out upon the city of Philadelphia, fast disappearing to nowhere. It looked like a great cloud of black velvet, upon which were countless diamonds, set in orderly row.

The tanks at the Point Breeze oil works looked like fat red mushrooms; the battleships lying at League Island like models. Although our eyes failed to see a sign of men, up from the apparently empty decks came the voices of marines, cheering us on.

Then we passed "over on the Jersey side," and the darkening twilight gathered quickly about us. The moon, first blood-red, then gold, finally turned to silver, and in its white glow we saw distinctly the neat Jersey farms mapped out beneath us.

It grew cold, as we reached an altitude of nearly 5,000 ft., but not uncomfortably so. All noise, and dust, and care seemed left below on earth, and we floated, like disembodied spirits, up there in the very heart of the lovely night.

We passed over Pittman, Clayton, Frank-linville, Malaga, Vineland, Millville, Manu-muskin, and at nearly ever)' place were greeted by shouts of "Good luck!" from the people down among the green and the litth lights, thousands of feet below. The voices which came up were most tiny, and Dr. Simmerman, who was familiar with the geography of the place, was the quickest to catch the names.

About 10:15 p. m. a streak of light, before us, yet somewhat to our left, which we had long been wondering about, resolved itself distinctly into moonlight on shimmering waves. Directly beneath us a large farm was sliding by. Beyond that lay a thick black woods.

"Where are we?" called the pilot through his megaphone.

"One mile from the ocean! Better come down!" a voice came back.

So, much against our wishes, the valve rope was pulled and the earth plunged up to meet us.

We stood on the edge of the car, holding on to the hoop above us, and although in our trackless descent we crashed into the top of that forest and went skidding some distance across the meadow, we were none the worse for the speedy scoop earthward.

All being well that ends well, we looked about to see what manner of ending this mig1 t be. The forest lay behind us; before us, a few hundred feet, the masts of small sail boats rose against the night sky; and all about us, between tufts of grass, the moon glowed in the pools of odorous water.

However, nobody seemed to feel the least bit peevish about it, and while Dr. Eldridge put away the instruments, his brother started out to explore.

Thinking we had come due south, he started north, guided by the stars. He soon came to deep water, and with ample proof about his clothing, he returned to the basket. Dr. Eldridge then went with him, only to fall in up to his neck.

By this time a stiff breeze was tossing the balloon about at a most uncomfortable rate, and mosquitoes were glutting themselves on our blood.

Finally the welcome voice of Mr. Sutton was heard from the south, and after a time he and the Eldridges managed to come together. Mr. Sutton said we were in Robin's Swamp, two miles from Eldora, Cape May County. Xcw Jersey.

X'ow we all set to work, squashing round up to our knees, to unfasten the bag and let out the gas. It was a merry chase, for that gay-minded bag, assisted by the wind, hopped us around that marsh at a lively pace.

At last, however, Dr. Simmerman ripped its neck off, and presently it lay, quite a distance from the basket, prone on the plain. Then Mr. Sutton guided us through the gluey ooze and water to his home.

There he hitched up a horse, and merrily, though with teeth chattering from the cold, we drove more than six miles to Woodbine, where, in a restftd paradise, lies the Baron dc Hirsch School of Agriculture, ami here, in the persons of Mr. Henry Geller, superintendent, and Miss Lydia Cantor, matron, reside two of the most hospitable spirits of earth.

As has been mentioned before in Aeronautics, the 'Philadelphia II" landed once before in the grounds of this institution, and its occupants were most enjoyably entertained.

This time it was 3 a. m. when we let out a war whoop under their windows, but none the less they roused out of their sleep, made us hot drinks, got extra covers and bundled

(Continued on page 119


Margueretta King Tourison.


By Harold H. Brown.

PERHAPS the first characteristic of the Cnrtiss aeroplane that strikes an observer is the finished appearance of all parts; and when it comes to an examination of the motor, the lack of "freak" features.

In the motor, lightness has been secured by the elimination of unnecessary parts rather than by lightening of all parts. The rocker arm actuating both inlet and exhaust valves is now a comparatively common form in good practice, being used on such cars as the Pope-Hartford, De Luxe and other well-known types. In fact, if it were not for the absence of exhaust piping the motor when placed alone would appear not very different from any well finished automobile motor. The oiling system, too, is very well worked out, being practically the same as is used on the Pierce Arrow and Napier cars. Using a square A-Z radiator, similar to that used on automobiles, is somewhat of a novelty. Wind resistance, however, is minimized by placing it behind the operator. The setting of the angle of the planes with the wheels on level ground is slightly upward so that the machine will automatically tend to rise when the proper speed has been attained.

In many machines the propeller is placed to revolve in undisturbed air, as, for instance, in the Wright machine, the only obstruction to the How of air to the propellers being the struts and wires in front of them. In the Curtiss machine the propeller is apparently shielded by the motor, the radiator and the body of the operator. However. Sir Hiram Maxim in his treatise "Artificial and Natural Flight" claims that under running conditions this actually increases the efficiency of a propeller. Owing to the suction produced, the air directly in the rear of'these resisting parts moving with the machine gives the propeller increased thrust. In fact, it has been claimed in marine work that screws under conditions of this sort have been known to actually have negative slip.

The use of the rear horizontal tail is pretty well discussed \>y the Aerial Experiment Association, the discussion having been recorded in "Aeronautics." It is probable that this tail has a dampening action on any sudden changes in vertical direction, thus adding to the longitudinal stability of the machine.

The methods of control conform rather to European ideas than to those of the Wright Brothers. The pushing inward and outward on the steering wheel steers up and down; turning the wheel left or right, steering as in an automobile. The correct-

ing of lateral tipping by means of the braces around the shoulders is as natural a movement as in turning a corner on a bicycle. This would seem to be a desirable feature, in that many of the movements may be now considered reflex to the majority of people who have driven an automobile or ridden a bicycle; and readily become so to almost anybody with a little practice.

Unlike the Wright machine, the speed of the motor is under the control of the operator. A small pedal operated with the left foot closes the throttle, which is normally wide open. Again, the pedal which operates the brake on the front wheel', and which is worked by the right foot, short circuits the magneto and stopping the motor as a landing is to be made.

The front wheel of the chassis is immovable. This has the advantage of added strength but in landing it might be desirable to make a turn while running on the ground to avoid small obstructions. In this case a steerable wheel would come into play nicely, as in the machines of the Aerial Experiment Association. Then, too, the machine could be steered along a circular track in making preliminary trials and in tuning up. The brake on the front wheel might be placed to better advantage on the two rear wheels of the chassis. Greater braking surface would then be had. This change could be easily made. In landing, as Curtiss does, the rear wheels strike the ground first and the brakes could begin to work immediately.

In a test of the propellers made at Morris Park, a net pull of t6o pounds was obtained, though an aluminum propeller, a duplicate, is said to have delivered to 225 pounds. On the same occasion A. M. Herring tried one of his 4 narrow-bladed propellers, of about 5 ft. diameter, which gave but 115 pounds.

The center of gravity of the machine is apparently 3 in. back from the front of the lower plane.


Main Planes—28 ft. 9 in., by 4 ft. 6 in., 4 ft. 6 in. apart, covered with Baldwin rubber-silk material. Total area of both planes 258 sq. ft. Ribs (22) spruce and ash, laminated, spaced 15 in. apart. Angle of incident measures 4 deg. t4 min.,- on the ground, though it has been stated as 7 deg. on the ground; flying at 4lA to 5 deg.

Pront Control—Double surface, 2 ft. by 6 ft. each, or 24 sq. ft. total. Pivoted horizontally 10 in. back from front edge.

Rear Control—Single horizontal and single

The Curtiss Aeroplane

vertical surface. The horizontal surface is 2 ft. 3 in. by 6 ft.; the vertical rudder. 2 ft. by 3 ft. 4 in. The horizontal rudder is pivoted S in. back from front edge.

Willi; Tips—These measure 6 ft. wide in front and 5 ft. 5 in. wide at the back. The depth is 2 ft. Operated by cables from a brace around the shoulders of the operator. Hinged at the center of the front on the outermost vertical strut and steadied by the guy wires

of the next panel toward the center going through a ring fastened to the corner of the tip at the point where the guy wires cross themselves.

Motor—Four cylinder vertical, water cooled by force pump. 3-H in. bore by 4 in. stroke. Cylinders cast iron with homogeneously welded copper jackets. Lubrication by force feed system, pump being built in the case and

{Continued on page l?0)


CLEVE Thos. Shaffer suggests the following idea for a landing skid or "shock absorber" on an aeroplane: The accompanying diagram (Fig. i) will give an idea of how to construct an efficient and easily made arrangement by merely lengthening the front struts a few inches, the use of a couple of ordinary door springs, an extra bolt and a saw.

If the struts are very light, it is advisable to double them, putting one on either side of the end horizontal cross pieces, and passing the lower bolt or pivot through bolt uprights on either side of curved skid.

Should the springs "give" their whole length, the curved piece forms a good skid, the head being curved well out of contact with the ground.

A is the skid, B the doubled spring, C a screw, D a brace, EE the main beams, F a rib, GG upright struts, FI guy wires, I end cross piece, and J a pivot holt.

In Fig. 2 is shown a combination of wheel and skid. The wheel touches the ground first, springs upward, and allows the skid to come in contact.

A guy wire tightener on sale in France is illustrated in Fig. 3.

Dr. William Greene, who is building at Morris Park, uses the device shown in Fig. 4. A piece of metal of the shape shown is placed between the end of the vertical strut and the main beams. SS are regular bieycle spokes run through the holes in the metal piece and held at the extremities by the heads of the spokes. W is a cross-section of a vertical strut. The maimer of connecting the strut to the beam was shown in the August issue.

In Fig. 5 is shown a new patented device of Bleriot. The wheels AA are mounted on rods B pivoted to verticals C. Another stay-rod is D, which works against the coiled springs F. The wheels are joined by the pivoted axle G and spring guy wires H. The curve and construction of the Antoinette wings are shown in Fig. 6.

Spruce has been found most valuable of the woods in aeroplane and airship construction, but one must have what is known as "clear" spruce. Ash is good where flexibility is required. In the Curtiss machine the ribs are of spruce and ash, laminated.

Curvature of the planes is a matter for individual experiment. Several works, however, will give valuable data on head resistance and efficiency. Short Brothers, London, who are building some Wright machines, suggest in "Flight" the use of a curve shown in Fig. 7, with the angle of incident as illustrated.

In designing the supporting surfaces, of course, a single surface is the simpler, as it requires but a single layer of cloth placed on the under side of the ribs. The ribs, however, must be covered with fabric forming a "pocket"

for the rib. In the double system a neater entrance is accomplished by the ribs being on each side of the main beam.

Water and airproof fabric is most in use for the covering of the planes, and this may now be obtained from several manufacturers in all weights.

In Fig. 8 is illustrated the Curtiss system of joining struts and beams. The tube B is split at the bottom, shaped and brazed to the metal sleeve. AA shows how the sleeve is cut and bent up so as to allow the guy-wire to be fastened.

A recent invention by a St. Louisan is a safety device for testing aeroplanes and training aviators. The inventor claims it will place on an absolutely safe basis all aeroplane tests and trial flights, and that all danger while training aviators, army officers and others who wish to acquire the art of flying will be eliminated. A company has been organized to promote the invention and to give exhibitions, train aviators and sublet privileges in different cties and sections of the country. The first exhibitions are promised to be given in St. Louis this fall during the centennial celebrations. After thorough tests and continued practice, such aviators as desire will cut loose and make flights without the safety device in the attempt to establish new records.

The device consists of a captive balloon, held by three wires or cables. The balloon is sent up 3,000 or 4,000 ft. high, and will have the usual basket in which a man operates a brake. Suspended from the basket is a strong thin wire, at the end of which is fastened the aeroplane or airship to be operated. This wire is amply strong to sustain the weight of the aeroplane, motor and the operator seated therein. Underneath the basket of the balloon, high in the air, is a pulley, over which the wire passes, and to the end of which is fastened a weight equal to the weight of the wire supporting the airship. As the airship rises, this weight, operating like a trolley on one of the cables holding the balloon captive, takes up the slack and holds the wire taut, thereby preventing entanglement or mishap.

Assume the airship is sailing around serenely too ft. from the ground and the motor gives out, or the propeller breaks, or the aeronaut loses control. Instead of being dashed to the earth, machine and all, the man seated in the basket of the balloon applies the brake, and the descent is gradual and harmless.

*Previous instalments in the April, June and August numbers.



TO arrive at the obtaining of control by mechanical means instead of by the quickness and ability of the aviator, has been worked on by many.

The Wright Brothers have applied for a patent in England covering a device of this nature which is described in our esteemed contemporary, Flight, as follows :

"Using compressed air, or other fluid pressure, as power, the action of the contrivance is controlled in one case by a pivoted vane acting under the influence of the wind; in the other case. Jry^a_ penduhjm. In both cases the controller is merely usccT to operate a three-way valve; its influence upon the manipulation of the steering gear or front control, as the case may be, essentially takes place through the agency of the relay mechanism which the opening of the valve brings into action.

"This relay mechanism consists of a kind of compressed-air engine which is linked up to the steering-gear or front control, as the case may be, by means of a connecting-rod. The engine itself is operated by a compressed-air reservoir, which would presumably be kept charged by an engine-driven pump.

"Regarding the compressed-air system as the principle, the patent covers two separate main and distinct applications of it to the same flyer. One of these systems is exclusively devoted to the automatic control of the elevator (i.e., front horizontal control), the other is likewise reserved solely for the manipulation of the rudder and for warping the main planes. Each of these systems has its own reservoir, engine, and controller, the latter apparatus being, as already mentioned, a pivoted vane in the case of the elevator-gear, and a_4iendulum in the other instance.

"As iTlusTrating the mechanical arrangement of the apparatus, we give a drawing

showing how it is supposed to be applied, according to the patent, to the operation of the elevator, which is shown at A as a pivoted flat plate, controlled by a rope, A1, from a drum or pulley, A2.

"This pulley is a member normally under the control of the driver through the agency of a lever, but embodies such features in its construction as enable it to be coupled up at will through some form of clutch to the connecting-rod of the compressed-air engine, B, which is operated from the reservoir, C, to which it is connected by the pipes, C1, C". Of these the former is in permanent communication with the lower end of the cylinder, while the latter leads to the upper end through a three-way valve, D, which is operated by the automatic movements of a horizontal vane or aeroplane, E, mounted on an arrangement of beams, E1, E=, E3, forming a parallel motion mechanism.

"The frame, E\ on which the beams themselves are pivoted, hangs from brackets, F\ mounted on an adjacent pair of the main struts, F, of the flyer, and one of its members is prolonged downwards to form a handle, E", within reach of the pilot.

"The object of this arrangement is that the pilot may himself at any time reset the course or, as it may perhaps be better described, the neutral line, which means to say that if, after having flown along a horizontal course, he wishes to ascend, the automatic mechanism may still be retained in action to govern the machine against variations from its ascending path by merely re-setting the position of the frame, E4. Since the valve, D, is itself mounted on the frame, E\ and because the beams, E1, E2, E3, are independently in equilib Hum as a whole by virtue of a balance-weight, E", it will be evident that any alteration in the position of the frame, E4, will at once affect the state of the valve, D, that is to say, it may tend to 'close it if it was open or z'ice versa. Thus, supposing that the exact connections are such that the valve being open, the elevator gets tilted for ascent, then, should the pilot wish to ascend permanently, he will move the handle, E"*, so as to open the valve a little way. This will have no effect directly upon the position of the controlling vane. E, because the balance-weight, Ee, serves to keep that horizontal irrespective of the position of the frame, E'. The change from the horizontal to an ascending flight-path, however, will automatically result in a change of the real attitude of the vane, E, to the relative wind, which will now appear to the vane to blow from above, and will thus cause it, when the wind is strong enough, to fall a little and thereby close the valve, D. This action would bring the relay mechanism into action, and so alter the angle of the elevator, until the


conditions are restored which allow the controlling vane, E, to return to its neutral position. Naturally the vane and its balance-weight are not dead beat, and consequently, if disturbed, oscillations are- set up which require time to die out, and it is thus more than likely that the normal state of affairs would be one in which the vane is constantly jogging up and down.

lateral stability.

"For regulating lateral stabilitxjLjrjen_dubun^ is used instead of a vane, the peiiduTurnHSeTiig" suitably coupled to the valve, so that any canting of the flyer from its normal level causes the valve to be opened or shut according to requirements. The pendulum hangs straight down like a plumb-bob, under the influence of gravity, and it is thus really the movements of the machine as a whole about the pendulum as a fixed point which forms the control. In practice the normal state of the pendulum control would presumably be one of more or less continuous, although possibly slight, oscillation. In the same way that it is possible with the vane control to alter the neutral line, so can the same variation be- accomplished with the pendulum, and if necessary the flyer be made to travel on a circular path indefinitely.

"The patent No. is 2913 of 1909."

In sailing for Europe, Orville Wright stated to the newspaper men : "Among other things we have been working upon several devices to obtain automatic stability. We realize that if we can make the aeroplane balance automatically in the air while in flight it will be a very important step forward. It may be possible that I will try some of the devices in Germany. At any rate 1 think we will both demonstrate the devices when I get back, if I manage to come back perfectly safe and sound.

"The device which the English have been making so much bother about is an old contrivance with which we planned to get automatic stability so far as five or six years ago. That was before anybody believed that even flying, as we have it to-day, was possible. Since then we have progressed beyond these devices. We have others which may be great improvements.

"The vane and pendulum compressed-air device is very simple. It can be adjusted to any machine in a very few minutes and theoretically works out very well. I may try it abroad. We have used it before, but I do not think that we have ever used it in connection with any big flights."


Five dirigible entries and one aeroplane are assured the contest committee of the At ro Club of St. Louis, in charge of the aerial carnival to be held at St. Louis, Oe-tcber 4 to 9. The committee expects to receive other entries, and is making a special effort, with prospects of success, to have one of the Wright flyers in the aeroplane competition, and possibly Glenn H. Curtiss, who by that time will have returned from abroad.

Besides the regular dirigible contest for two prizes of $1,000 and $500 each, a three-cornered race has been arranged between Roy A. Knabenshue, Lincoln Beachey and Capt. Thomas S. Baldwin. All three have declared their intention to participate. W. J. Smith of St. Louis is getting his dirigible, "East St. Louis," into commission again to

practice for the contest in which he is entered. John A. Riggs, of Hot Springs, Ark., has entered a new dirigible, which he claims to be the largest in America, the "American Eagle." He states that he will endeavor to sail his craft from Hot Springs to St. Louis before the air carnival takes place.

H. A. Robinson, the only St. Louisan with bright prospects for speed}' aeroplane success, has entered his monoplane, just assembled. The apparatus is so similar to a Bleriot 'plane that it wotdd be hard to tell the difference in small photographs. Mr. Robinson spent some time abroad last year studying European practice, and has made a number of successful flying models, lie will try out his craft on a five-acre farm about 40 miles from St. Louis during September.

Pittsburgh is to have an aero carnival in October, and it is promised to be the largest held in this country.

Air. S. Andrews of New Durham, N. J.,

has built a gliding machine and tried it out "with perfect success." It contains 160 sq. ft. of lifting surface, monoplane type, weighing 30 pounds. The spread is 22 ft. 2 in.


THF Wright Brothers completed the assembling and adjusting of their aeroplane at Ft. Myer, Virginia, on June 28. Since then Orville Wright has made 23 flights, varying in length of time from 15 seconds to 1 hour, 12 minutes, and 40 seconds. These preliminary flights were for the purpose of tuning up the machine preparatory to the official trials.

On July 27 at 5:36 p. m. the first of the official trials of the Wright aeroplane was made before the Aeronautical Board of the Signal Corps appointed by the Chief Signal Officer of the Army to observe these trials.

i hour, 12 minutes.

On this day Orville Wright, with Lieutenant F. P. Lahm, Signal Corps, as a passenger, made the world record flight of 1 hour, 12 minutes, and 40 seconds. He thus fulfilled the endurance test which calls for a flight of one hour with a passenger during which time the flying machine must remain continuously in the air without landing and return to the starting point and land without any damage that would prevent it immediately starting upon another flight.

The speed trial was to have taken place on July 28, but the weather conditions being unfavorable it was postponed. The Wright Brothers were then granted an extension of three days in which to complete this trial.

On July 30 was successfully made the second of the two official test flights, the 10-mile crosscountry trip.

The course was five miles each way from Ft. Myer to Shuter's Hill, near Alexandria, Va. Lieut. B. D. F"oulois was the passenger on this occasion. The elapsed time of the flight was 14 minutes, 40 seconds, but the official time is regarded as less than this as the turn around the balloon at Shuter's Hill is deducted.

results of speki) tkst.

Speed from Ft. Myer to Alexandria end of the course, 37.735 miles per hour; speed from Alexandria end to Ft. Myer, 47.431 miles per hour; average speed, 42.583 miles.

The contract price for the machine, at a speed of 40 miles, was $25,000, with a bonus of 10 per cent, for each additional mile per hour. Thus, the Brothers Wright received the sum of $30,000 for "just a few sticks, a motor and some canvas."

conditions of contract.

On Dec. 23, 1907, the Chief Signal Officer invited bids from the public for a gasless flyer cajiable of meeting the following requirements :

Bidders must submit drawings and statements of speed, weight, surface, motive power, etc., and the machine must be capable of being assembled and put in operating condition in about an hour. The machine must be able to carry two persons of a combined weight of 350 pounds and sufficient fuel for a flight of 125 miles and have a speed of 40 miles in still air. An endurance flight of an hour must be made, returning to start without any damage which would prevent immediately starting upon another flight, and make a speed showing of more than five miles against and with the wind. (See Jan. 1908 "Aeronautics" for full details.)

The machine has not, however, been definitely turned over to the Signal Corps, as the part of the contract calling for the instruction of two persons in its operation has not yet been completed.

On one occasion, the day before the official duration flight, the aeroplane was started without using the weight, though it was used in both the official trials.

the c'uoss-countrv flight.

It is a rough bit of country for falling purposes between Fort Myer and Alexandria; largely covered with half grown oak trees and little of it cultivated, roads few and far between and houses not frequent. The same thought, unexpressed, was in the minds of all who waited. What if the engine gave out or the complicated machinery balked at some point or other? The flyer would likely enough be forced to descend amid tree tops or on rough slopes. After the machine got out of sight on its outward trip the minutes seemed to pass slowly.

Suddenly a boy yelled out at the top of his lungs: "There she is!" Every one looked, straining his eyes, though every one was not as keen-sighted as the boy. But in another minute everyone could see—so rapidly were they coming. There was the flyer, headed

9 2

wright just leaving the rail

Photo by H. H. Brown

home, going as fast as a locomotive straight through the air and, for the moment, as steadily as an old gray horse.

The steadiness, however, was rather an illusion. For suddenly the watchers had the shock of the day. Down, quickly and unexpectedly, went the aeroplane. It was now less than two miles away, perhaps hardly over a mile. But it sank and was seemingly covered over by the waste of tree tops, just as a small boat in wild water sometimes seems to be covered over by the waves.

To the general relief, the tlyer reappeared just as the little boat usually does. It had been submerged for perhaps half a minute. Xow it was seen, flying low, and climbing, climbing to get back to a comfortable altitude in the air. 'There was a confused murmur, a sort of expression of relief, in crowd-language.

What had happened? It was explained later. There is a deepish valley, just south of the gradual hill that reaches its top at Fort Myer. The wind as it had been blowing-curved down into the bowl of the little valley, following the conformation of its bottom, and so was caused a downward air current. The machine rode downhill in the air, as certainly as if it had been an automobile down below with a defective brake. Fortunately there had to he a rising air current mounting the opposite slope. By its help and with hard climbing the tlyer won its way steadily up to the finishing point.

"i feel sure," said Orville Wright, "that had i continued at the same height at which i crossed the half way hill, or continued climb ing instead of gradually descending, 1 would have gained at least two miles an hour in my speed average.

"I turned Shuter Hill too close to .he ground and this compelled me to cliinl up

again to clear the higher ridge between Alexandria and Fort Myer. This used up power which might better have been employed for propulsion."

up 450 to 500 feet.

Mr. Wright was asked the greatest altitude he attained and replied that over the hill at Four Mile Run he had sailed at a height of 450 or 500 ft.

Wilbur Wright to Instruct Army Officers.

Washington, 1). C, August 4.—The flights for training the officers of the Signal Corps, Lieutenants Lahm and Foulois, will probably be made at College Park, Md., about 10 miles from Washington. Wilbur Wright will be the instructor and Orville will stop by here for a day or two before he sails for Germany. A field is to be leased by the Signal Corps at College Park as a training grounds. It is much larger than the Fort Myer aerodrome, and contains 160 acres of ground.

Storm Damages Dirigible.

The new 540 cubic metre balloon ordered by the Signal Corps in May has been delivered at Fort Myer, Virginia. This balloon is to replace Signal Corps Balloon No. 12, which was destroyed in an ascension from Fort Omaha. XTeb., May 12, 1009.

Ten gas cylinders have been delivered at Fort Omaha, \Teb., for use in making shipments of hydrogen in connection with aero nautical work.

Lieutenants Bamberger, Winter and Dickinson and 12 men of the aeronautical detachment, with Dirigible No. 1, reported at To-


ledo, O., for the military tournament held there during the week beginning July 5. On the evening of July 2 a storm broke over the camp, which caused the balloon tent to collapse and damaged the dirigible to such an extent that no nights were possible during the tournament. The dirigible and equipment, also the officers in charge and aeronautical detachment, were ordered back-to Fort Omaha, Neb., at the close of the tournament. The dirigible is now being repaired at that post.

Herring Contract Now Cancelled.

The contract with A. M. Herring was, on his request, extended to August 1 and then cancelled, although Herring desired more time. The reason assigned for the refusal to grant more time was that the money from which the aeroplane was to be paid for belongs to the Board of Ordnance and Fortifications, which has an annual appropriation for experimental purposes, and set aside about $50,000 for the Signal Corps aeronautical plans. The bond was not forfeited, the government having sustained no financial loss through his failure to carry out his contract.

General Allen is planning to issue new specifications for a heavier-than-air machine later in the year. The new specifications are to be based on the results of the various aero events throughout the world during the summer and fall.

Orville Wright Off For Europe.

New York, Aug. 10.—Orville Wright sailed this morning on the Kronprincessin Cecilie. He will stop in England a short while. While there he expects to run down for brief visits to Shell Beach, where Short Bros, are building six Wright machines.

From England he will go to Germany, where he will make some flights under the auspices of the "Lokal Anzeiger," a leading German paper. Other flights will be made under the auspices of the company which has bought the Wright rights in Germany.

When asked about this company, Mr. Wright said : "This company is capitalized at $150,000 in American money, and at its head is Capt. von Kehler, formerly of the

German Army. We have sold our patent rights in Germany to this concern, and hold some stock in it ourselves. There are a great number of scientific and financial men interested in the company, and not a few are friends of the Kaiser, although I do not know whether he is directly interested in it himself."

It was suggested that some, rash individual had declared lately that the Wright Brothers would have to take a back seat in flying in the future in view of the recent successes abroad. Mr. Wright merely smiled and said:

"We consider that our machine is the best in the world. We have reached the stage where we are not trying for record flights any more, but what we are constantly striving for is to make our aeroplane of practical use to the general public.

"This can only be done by increasing the fuel supply and making the engines as reliable as the steam engine so that after once starting it it will not stop until the operator desires to cease flying. At the present time we can carry enough fuel to support one man in the air for 25 hours, or if traveling at the rate of 40 miles an hour enough to carry him a distance of 1,000 miles.

"I am sure that we hold the record for speed at the present time. According to official figures abroad the best speed in an aeroplane has been 38 miles an hour over a marked course, while at Washington recently we made against time a record of 50 miles an hour on the level with a diagonal wind and 42^ miles an hour across country. The reason that we can do this is because our surfaces are arranged so as to give the highest possible efficiency. However, I shall attempt no record flights abroad or speed tests, as we have gotten beyond that, and desire now to fulfill our contracts and aim for reliability and durability."

"As to monoplanes," he went on, "they undoubtedly increase the speed by reducing the surface, but they lose much more in other respects. And let me tell you this: There never was a machine that would rise from the ground abroad until our plans became known abroad. All the monoplanes which have made successful flights abroad in recent years have been practically built upon the original Wright plans filed in Europe about 1903."


World's Duration Record.—Roger Sommers, August. 1909, at Mourmelon-le-Grand, 2 hrs. 27 mins.

World's Tivo-Man Duration Record.—Orville "Wright, Ft. Myer, July 27, 1909, 1 hr. 12 mins., with Lieut. Benjri3.^E-o«4ois.

World's Passenger Record.—Louis Bleriot on June 12, 1909, carried Andre Founder and Santos Dumont in the "Bleriot XII."

First English Channel Crossing.—Louis Bleriot on July 25, 1909, in the "Bleriot XI," from Calais to Dover, 31 miles in 40 minutes.


World's Height Record.—M. Paulhan, on July 18, 1909, in a Voisin biplane flew to 394 ft. at Auvours, France.

World's Duration Record for Monoplane.— Hubert Latham on June 5, 1909, in the "Antoinette IV," 1 hr. 7 mins.

World's Longest Cross-Country Flight.— Louis Bleriot, on July 13, 1909, from Etampes (France) to Artenay, 41.2 kiloms., in 44 mins. in *he "Bleriot XI." r

u ^( ^ j' p ***** 0

WHILE the specifications of an applica of the claims, and even the validity tion for patent may affiect the scope of the grant itself, the claims as finally allowed by the Patent Office form the backbone of the patent, figuratively speaking.

In describing an invention many things must be considered. For one thing, the description should not be longer than necessary. It must set forth the precise invention for which a patent is solicited, and explain the principle thereof, and the best mode in which the applicant has contemplated applying that principle, in such a manner as to distinguish it from other inventions. In case of a mere improvement, the specification must particularly point out the parts to which the improvement relate, and must in explicit language distinguish between what is old and what is claimed as new. The subject matter should be confined to the specific improvement and such parts as necessarily co-operate with it. The invention should be so described that the courts, in case of a contest, are able to properly construe the claims. Most patents of importance sooner or later are "thrashed out" in the courts. It is there where the final test as to the exact rights of an inventor takes place. The mere fact that an invention is patented, comparatively speaking, is of no more consequence than "the right to defend yourself as compared with "zvinniiuj the fiylit." Of course, so long as your patent is not challenged, you possess the sole rights as granted on the face of your patent. If your invention is of little or no value, no one will interfere with these privileges, but as soon as the value of your device becomes known, you might just as well make up your mind that the hour of battle is at hand. It is then that the strong patent comes to the front. The cost of obtaining the patent grant is a mere trifle as compared with the cost of litigation in the courts, which may involve thousands of dollars. The omission of a single word in a claim, the placing of a comma may decide a suit one way or the other, but fundamentally it will be each claim considered separately that will either stand or fall before the onslaught of the enemy's legal talent.

A well prepared specification makes it much easier for the examiner to distinguish what is new from what is old, and thereby makes it much easier to obtain a good patent. Two or more independent inventions cannot be claimed in one application, but where several distinct inventions are dependent upon each other and mutually contribute to produce a single result they may be claimed in one application. A reservation for a future application of subject matter disclosed but not claimed in

a pending application, but which subject matter might be claimed therein, is not permitted. It is not unusual for two things to look alike, and still be essentially different in the results obtained. A very little change apparently often results in a most valuable invention.

"It is these niceties and distinctions that test the ability of the attorney, and determine whether a valuable invention is to be well, or poorly protected, or entirely lost to the inventor." These are the exact words of one of our leading patent attorneys, and no words were ever more true. A patent may have but one claim, and still be of greater strength and value than a patent ending with fifty claims. It is not the number or length of the claims that count. It is their scope which is of importance and the shorter and more concise and exact in its terms, due consideration being given to fullness and clearness, the stronger a claim is apt to be. Broad claims may, and usually do, cover different constructions, but it is well to also fortify a patent with claims of less scope, because should the broad claims be declared invalid by reason of anticipation or for some other reasons, the lesser claims might still give proper protection. These statements are sufficient for the wise to realize that there is more to the practice of a tjood patent attorney than there appears on the face of it. To cover the subject ot patents in the way it should be presented in order to give the layman a clear idea of its field, would take considerable space and fill quite a volume.

"As soon as the application is filed in the Patent Office, the applicant is protected against the grant, without his knowledge, of a patent for the same thing to another person," writes one of our New York attorneys, and while this statement is not absolutely true, still it may be found to work out in that way. To obtain an allowance of claims usually takes several months. The attorney is called upon to meet objections and references cited by the Examiner in charge of the division to which an application has been sent. The nature of the objection often depends on the care with which the application has been prepared. An amendment to the claims is usually necessary, and much care and skill and argument are required on part of the attorney to secure to the inventor all the rights to which he is entitled. In one of the guides to inventors, a firm of Patent Attorneys use this language: "The attorney's argument may raise new oh jections on the part of the Examiner, and sometimes new references to patents arc found which have to again be met by the attorney. This is repeated until the attorney secures everything his client is _ entitled to, and he should not stop until this is accom-


By F. O. Andreae.

plished, and when there is no further objection the application is allowed." I use their statement, because it cites not my own individual opinion, but the wisdom of years of experience, to which I can only acquiesce.

Certain applications have preference over all other new cases at every period of their examination. Applications wherein the inventions are deemed of peculiar importance to some branch of the public service and applications which appear to interfere with other applications previously considered and found u> be allowable, or which it is demanded shall he placed in interference with an unexpired patent or patents. In every case, the attorney should keep in close touch with his client, and frequently consult him as to the best means to conserve his interests.

A model is not required and not permitted except in rare instances of complicated machinery, and then must meet very rigid rules as to size and construction.

It would be quite useless for me to go into details of permissable amendments and the subject of interferences, or appeals, as the space allotted to me is limited, but I might say that changes in the drawings or specifications, and all additions thereto, must conform to at least one of them as it was at the time of the filing of the application. In other words, additional points of invention or changes in the invention itself, cannot be injected into cases that have been filed. A

new application is required in such cases. All amendments correcting inaccuracies of description are allowed. In every amendment the exact word or words to be stricken out or inserted in the application must be specified and the precise point indicated where the erasure or insertion is to be made. All such amendments must be on sheets of paper separate from the papers previously filed, and written on but one side of the paper. Amendments will not be permitted after the notice of allowance. The Commissioner of Patents cannot recall a patent once issued. Sometimes, however, it happens that two applicants are claiming substantially the same invention. As two patents cannot be granted on two co-pending applications for the same invention, it is necessary to determine who is the prior inventor. This is done by what is known as interference procedures. The claims of the application must have been found patentable before the interference is declared. "There are so many intricacies and questions to be considered in such a proceeding that it should not be undertaken by anyone not thoroughly familiar with Patent Office practice and the taking of testimony." Appeals from decision of the Examiner to the hoard, and from there to the Commissioner in person, and finally to the courts bring us to still more complicated discussions, and each individual case must be treated on its own merits.


The first big cash prize in America for aviation open to all is the $10,000 purse of the Denver Post. This sum is divided into two parts as follows:

the free for all.

Five thousand dollars in gold for the first aviator to make a successful flight from a point in or near Denver, in a "heavier-tban-air flying machine." Distance of flight to be twenty miles, and then return to the original starting point. This offer open to aviators of the world.

for western inventors.

Five thousand dollars in gold to the first Western man to invent a "heavier-than-air" machine that will make a successful flight from a point in or near Denver. Distance of flight ten miles, and return to original starting point. This offer confined to inventors living in Colorado, Wyoming, Xew Mexico, Montana, Utah. Idaho, Nevada, the Panhandle of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska or the Dakotas.

conditions of contest.

All flights will be held under the conditions that control the government tests of "heavier-than-air" machines, except as to distance.

Denver, with its grassy plains, affords tin usually favorable conditions for successful experiments in aviation. Offer open till Jan. 1. 1910.

other american cash prizes.

Aeronautics.—Four prizes of $50 each to the first four aviators not having before made 500 meters in flight who during 1909 make this distance.

C. F. Bishop.—Four prizes of $250 each to the first four aviators who during 1909 make a kilometer. Other conditions same as above.

F. S. Lahm.—$250 to the first aviator to fly 1 mile out of Canton, O.

New Trophy Offered.

Frank S. Doubleday of Doubleday, Page & Co., publishers of various magazines and books, has decided to offer a trophy of value to encourage competitive sport. This trophy will probably be open to both airships and flying machines, though, as we have argued before, it is difficult to see how the flying machine can properly compete against the airship, and vice versa. The difference in the field of usefulness, range of action, speed, etc., make such a competition a little absurd.



Three More Machines About Ready.

Activity continues at the Morris Park grounds of The Aeronautic Society, despite the Kimball and Shneider wrecks.

Dr. Greene is going along slowly with his big biplane and Shneider is well along on his second machine. The framework of the main planes is finished, the central part of the structure where the meter goes is nearly completed and another 30 days will see renewed trials, no doubt. He has purchased an Elbridge motor and results of this new motor for aviation purposes are awaited with interest.

The biplane of George A. Lawrence has slowly evolved itself into a complete machine and this will be ready for the motor in a few days.

F. Raiche has nearly completed a biplane of about the size of the Curtiss machine, resembling it very much, though some modifications have been made. Instead of supporting the front control by two bamboo rods, only one is used, the necessary staying being done by wires. Charles M. Grout is rebuilding an automobile motor for use in this machine, and trials should be had by the time this issue is in the mail.

E. R. Ernst has built a big structure, exactly like a canvas box, open at the bottom, with two large holes in each side in which propellers rotate in a vertical plane. These are intended to draw the air in with great force against the top side of the box. exhausting it at the bottom. Mr. Ernst will soon be' confronted with a very concrete awakening, that is, if he gets his motor in and tries it.

Octave Jean has been operating his machine with a small 2-cylinder motor. He depends for lift and propelling force on the revolution of rectangular frames inclosing feathering blades.

The Lindsay biplane is still awaiting a motor.

R. E. Scott had another trial out of his unique glider following his successful towed flights on the day of the second exhibition, but on this occasion it was wrecked in flight.

The usual weekly meetings of the Societ\ have been held each Thursday night at the Automobile Club and have been attended by the characteristically large number.

Though Mr. Kimball promised to rebuild, no signs of a start are apparent.

Dr. Walden is installing the Society's motor in his combination Langley biplane and is practically ready for trials.

The Raiche Aeroplane.

The details of construction are as follows: It is 33 ft. in width, and is 28 ft. 6 in. from front to rear rudder.

Each main plane is in 3 sections supported by 20 struts. The intermediate section is doubly reinforced by heavier struts, and rests on a square frame of oak 6 ft. x 6 ft. Under this frame in the rear is a truss of ^-in. steel tubing, 6 ft. in width. To this truss are attached 26-in. motor-cycle wheels with specially constructed hubs 8 in. in width. At the center and below this truss is attached a spruce keel running 9 ft. 10 in. to forward wheel and attached thereto. The runners of the main planes are 3 ft. 6 in. apart: the ribs are 4 ft. 6 in. and 4 ft. 10 in. in length, with a curve of about 4 in., brass tipped and make the planes escalloped in the rear. At each end of the main planes and midway between are stability planes 2 ft. x 6 ft.

The front rudder is of special design, supported on each side by a single length of bamboo, and piano wire. It consists of two horizontal planes 2 ft. x 6 ft., a center section of 18 in. having a peculiar curve to assist in rising quickly: a vertical diamond shape plane is placed between these planes. 2 ft. x

3 ft. The rear rudder has a single horizontal plane adjustible to any angle. 2 ft. x 6 ft.: a vertical plane intersects the horizontal planes and guides the aeroplane in flight and on ground. All the controls are by fine cable with an automobile steering wheel working on a drum. The propeller is a Bleriot model.

The motor is especially made. 28-32 h. p.

4 cyl., turning over 1,400 r.p.m.: copper jacketed, water cooled, designed by Chas. Crout, and weights 130 pounds. The machine work

The Beach-Willard Monoplane with the Wings Off

and trimmings are from H. Von Hadlyn, Xew York City.

The weight of aeroplane complete for flight with aviator is about 497 pounds. Mr. Raiche has a prospective order for a similar machine which is to be completed within 30 days.

Biggest American Airship.

John A. Riggs and Joel T. Rice, of Hot Springs, Ark., will build at Morris Park a bigger airship than is in existence in this country. This will be about 100 feet long. After obtaining bids from all the American balloon builders it was decided to give the order to A. Leo Stevens, and construction work has already started.

Trial of Beach-Willard Monoplane.

On August 1st and 2nd, trials were made of the Pieach-Willard monoplane, minus the main

supporting surfaces. The engine ran at only 600 r. p. m., and the big two-bladed propeller ran at half this speed, being so geared. At a speed of 300 r. p. m. the propeller showed on a scale a thrust of 325 pounds.

At an estimated speed of 25 miles an hour, the rear surfaces lifted the tail and rear wheel off the ground. At the moment this occurred, of course, it was impossible to steer the machine on the track. Circuits of the track were made at a lesser speed, but on the last the engine speeded up itself, the rear lifted, and before the motor could be shut off, the machine ran into a fence, damaging the former somewhat. The rear vertical rudder will now be changed to the rear end of the framework.

A detailed description of the machine was given in the July number of Aeronautics.

A Westerner's Way.—It is infrequent that in the East that we always give credit where it is due. Leo Stevens has been one of the foremost in promoting ballooning, but his endeavors have often been attributed to mere business foresight. It remained for the city of Dayton to put on record a tangible bit of appreciation in an editorial in the Dayton "Journal."

"The gratitude of Dayton is surely due Mr. A. Leo Stevens, the intrepid balloonist, who made the ascension with a party of friends Friday and the story of whose successful flight was carried in the "Journal's" news columns Saturday morning. The ascension was perfect, the voyage was delightful, the experience exhilarating, while the descent was most successful.

"Mr. Stevens came to Dayton at his own expense and without a penny of compensation brought his balloon into the program and gave one of the most brilliant and interesting events of the long line in connection with the celebration. He did this to aid in honoring Dayton's sons, his friends, the famous epoch-makers in aeronautics. He did this to pay due deference to the historical importance of the occasion. He did it from pure love of science and interest in his profession. In doing so he showed himself devoid of professional jealousy, and a devotee to pure friendship.

"For all this Mr. Stevens is to be heartily commended and a liberal share of the honor of the great occasion should be awarded to him cheerfully and ungrudgingly."


By Prof. Calvin M. Woodward

(continued moil last issi'i:)

If a certain horse-power with a certain arrangement of propellers will drive an airship 10 miles per hour, it will require S times as many horse-power to drive it 20 miles per hour.* This does not mean that the motor must make eight times as many revolutions per second, but the increased work of one revolution multiplied by the increased number of revolutions would involve just eight times as much mechanical work.

5. Discussion of [XI].

Given //', C, R, and r for a Given Ship and Motor, What Speed can it Attain in a Still Atmosphere?

K(CV/i,j)* CttR2 - +--i ."»ՠ 3 / 5 .


6. Another Formula for F When We Know the Value P,, for a Particular Velocity Fi, with a Given Ship with a Given Motor and Propellers:—

From [IX] we have

p y- Py

- - = or P = —. Vs

Py IV Fi2

Substituting this value of P in [VII1] we have

U>y fUWYy 22\

■+ — ) F3 15/

whence V3

5r>or,2\ Fir 550F,2//'






The utility of this formula may be shown by substituting known values for Py, Fi, r, and //'. Thus, suppose Pi is known to be 650 lbs. when

* It will be seen later that a propeller fitted to a certain speed of the ship and to the pressure p upon the yielding air, is not properly fitted to a different speed and a different backward pressure. It should also be remembered that while the value of the ratlins may be the same, the pitch of the helieoidal blades should be changed.

Fi = 15 (miles per hour), then [XIV] gives for a 85.5 horse-power motor and a propeller area, .1 = 200 sq.ft. = 7T (8.1)2

V3 =

(550) (15)* [00]




whence V = 13.3 nearly.

That is to say, a complete mechanism consisting of propellers and a GO horse-power motor, which when anchored can produce a thrust of 050 fbs.—that being the thrust required when a certain air-ship is moving 15 miles per hour— can actually drive that air-ship only 13.3 miles per hour, unless the limit of GO horse-power is exceeded.t

7. Numerical Results.

The following table is of value in estimating the power required with propellers of various sizes for pulling or lifting different amounts when the frame is anchoreil in still air. The propellers are supposed to be ideally perfect in design and construction, and no allowance is made for cross currents and for friction.


- pull lift in lbs.

i— radius of equivalent propeller in ft.

A total area of all propellers in sq. ft.

// horsepower required.

1 1



















5 . S







31 I. 12





59 .5





t Throughout this paper I mean by one "horse-power" .550 foot-lbs. of real "work" per second. I make no use of a so-called "nominal horse-power."




President: Professor Willis L». Moore. Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wm. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.


8. Numerical Applications ok Formula [VIII].

P /UWP 22 Y< 550 \ r 15

550 V ' ,1 + 15 P means the resistance of still air to the nmtiim of an air-ship, moving V miles per hour, determined by experiment or calculated by means of formula [IX].






r feet

.4 sq.






:;i i


5 .5 ■!









X 1

20( i

85 .5




:u i


14 .51




'M 1


150 5





n i


The above six eases apply to six different airships. The third is approximately that of Air. Wellnian, judging from the data he has published.

9. In the discussions of this paper, I have made no attempt to approximate the loss of energy due to friction in the mechanism, or to the friction of the air upon the blades; or that due to defective design; or to the impact of the propeller current upon the frame-work, its contents and connections.

Neither have I allowed for the energy spent fruitlessly upon diverging currents of air. To prevent, or rather to utilize such currents, I propose a short and thin enclosing cylinder for each propeller, with a slightly-flaring forward end.

I am preparing to experiment upon "lifting" fans (with vertical shafts) of various radii and various numbers of blades, and with enclosing cylinders of various lengths.*

Meanwhile, my formula? are published in the hope that others may find the best designs for the entire mechanism, and the several coefficients of efficiency.

10. Characteristics of the Ideal Propeller.

1. The radius must be as large as is pract icable.

2. The blade surfaces must be parts of right helicoids (i. e. like the bearing surfaces of a square-threaded screw).

3. Every blade must run to the central hub with full depth.

4. The "pitch" of the screw surface must be determined by the speed of rotation of the shaft and the velocity of the air through the propeller.

i In a_ recent number of "Motor" (London), Mr. Rankin Kennedy says: "It would be a simple matter to prove by calculation that the power required of a propeller to sustain one pound weight in the air is 0 03 R.H.P. In any case, theoretically, 0.03 B.lt.P. must be allowed for every pound weight to be lifted." Mr. Kennedy then goes on to say, that it would take only 12 H.P. to lift or sustain 400 lbs.! The statement is dangerously loose. It would be true only on condition that the effective area of the propeller be also increased 400 times! With the same propeller, it would take 240 horse-power to lift his 400 pounds! See Formula [X].

For Example: suppose the air-ship frame be anchored, and that the required thrust, or pull, of the propeller is 100 lbs., and the radius of the propeller be 8 ft.

Then A

201 P


100 201

-y v


20 nearly.

That is, the backward current of air passing the propeller must be 20 ft. per second. If T be the revolutions per second and s the pitch of the screw we have Ts = v — 20 in the case assumed.

As T is generally known for a motor doing its maximum work we have



If T be f, we have the pitch = 5 feet, if the ship is anchored.

If now the air-ship is moving 15 miles per houi, we have v' - - 22, so that the air passes the propeller at the rate of 20 + 22 ft. per second.

Hence the pitch of the helieoidal blades must be

s = pitch =

v + c'


= _ = |f)t feet.

If there are six blades, the depth of each should be 1.75 ft., or 21 inches, and each should subtend a circular are of (*>0°.

The general formula for the pitch of the propeller of an air-ship is


10 22F

/ VP + 1.5~ T

in which F is the speed of the ship (in still air) in miles per hour; P is the resistance to the ship's motion (or the thrust of the propeller); r is the radius of the propeller; and T is the number of revolutions of the propeller per second.

All helieoidal surfaces should be as accurate and as smooth as possible, on both sides of the blades.

It seems reasonable that the number and axial depth of the blades should be such that no air would pass the propeller without being directly acted upon by the propeller, in other words the projection of all the blades on a plane normal to the axis should make a complete circle. That is however a matter to be experimented upon.

It is hardly necessary to add that if there are two or more propellers, the pitch of the blades p + v' .

should in every ease be - in which the values

of T and v may not be the same for all propellers.

While the ideally perfect propeller should be suited to a given set of conditions, it is reasonable to adopt as the given conditions those which obtain when the motor is making its regular working maximum effort.

* I learn from my friend, Dr. Octave Chanute, that experiments with enclosing cylinders have been made in Europe, but I have no access to their results.

AERONAUTICS September, ipop



52-Minute Flight in Aeronautic Society's Machine.

w1llard making success of learning.

AFTER the second exhibition of The Aeronautic Society at Morris Park, the Curtiss aeroplane contracted for by the Society was taken to Long Island. Mr. Curtiss wanted to get some practice before going abroad to meet Bleriot, Latham and the other crack aviators of Europe in the Rbeims contests, and he felt that the Morris Park grounds of the Society were too small.

Then, too, he had to teach two aviators appointed by the Society and the Hempstead Plains were deemed ideal to teach the young idea how to fly.

The balance of the contract price, $5,000, was finally made up by individual members of the Society, and the machine formally turned over to the Society. It was expected that the exhibitions at Morris Park would provide funds for the acquirement of the aeroplane and establish the long looked for but as yet unaccomplished experiment fund. In order to repay the subscribers to the purchase price of the aeroplane, the Society has leased the machine to a company composed of many of the contributors, which company will place the aeroplane on exhibition and make flights with it at various parts of the country.

Mr. Curtiss began flying, after the reassembling of the machine in a tent at Mineola, on July 13, making two short flights and one of 2 min. 26 sec. On the 14th he made one of about 5 min. On the second flight the propeller was found to be loose, through a defective bolt, and a landing was made. The following day two flights were made, the dense fog making a long flight inadvisable. As soon as the fog lifted, one flight of 15 min. was made.

On July 16 he made the first really "long" flight. After a 12-min. spin, he stayed up for 31 min.

flight fdr scientific american trop11v.

On July 17, Curtiss made official flights for the Scientific American Trophy and the President's Prize of the Aero Club of America.

Charles M. Manly, the Official Observer of the Aero Club of America laid out a triangular course measuring 1.311 miles around. The President's Prize was competed for first. The distance flown in competition for this, was t.35 mile, which was covered in 2 min. 30 sec

After making the first circuit in competition for the President's Prize, Curtiss started again and made 19 more rounds of the course, covering a total official distance of 25.002 miles in the official elapsed time of 52 min.

30 sec. The actual distance travelled was some greater than this, taking into account the turns; and this, of course, would increase the average speed which officially was 28.68 miles per hour. The average height was 20 ft. with a maximum of 40 ft. The weather was ideal at the start. There was a calm for the first five rounds. A light breeze sprang up then and gradually increased, till eventually while he was making a turn only a few feet above the ground the wind blew him roughly down. This is the longest flight that has been made by anyone in America besides the Wright Brothers.

The President's Prize, which Curtiss won, amounts to $250, being the first of four offered by the President of the Aero Club of America to the first four aviators who, during 1909, cover a kilometer. The competitor, of course, must not have made that distance in the same machine previous to competition.

Curtiss In Flight At Mineola

The Scientific American Cup is offered to the aviator who make the greatest distance during the year 1909, with a minimum of 25 kilometers. This cup, however, will not be awarded to those who do not make formal entry, so that if the Wrights should stay up a week, they will have no more chance for the cup than the unfortunates who have to stay on the ground.

williams, pu1ml, smashes machine.

After a short flight by himself. Curtiss started in to teach the two men selected by the Aeronautic Society, Alexander Williams and C. F. Willard. After a toss-up for place,

Willard got in and made a successful flight of several hundred yards. Curtiss then flew the machine back to the start.

Williams' turn was next—and last. He got in the seat, the machine was started and quickly left the ground. Then it began to shoot rapidly upward and heel over. The few witnesses present seeing Williams apparently limp in the seat, began to get started on a run to the place where they saw the machine would probably fall. And sure enough it did. The front control struck the ground first and the: aeroplane fell bottomside up, with the engine still running. Williams was rushed to the Mineola hospital where it was found he had a broken arm and thumb.

The machine was pretty well done up and it was necessary to wait for a new front rudder, a few sticks, a propeller, etc., from the Hammondsport factory. "Never again," said Williams on regaining consciousness.

It was not till the night of Tuesday, Aug. 3, that the machine was in flying order again and Curtiss made several short flights. The following morning it was planned that Willard take his second lesson as on Thursday Curtiss was to leave for Europe.

After journeying on to Mineola in the midnight hours, the dawn found a breeze blowing, and though the machine was brought out, no flights were made. Rain followed the wind and next morning, Thursday the. 5th, flight was again impossible. Curtiss left for his steamer very disappointed for he had taken down a 12-gallon gasolene tank and had the hope of setting a world's record before leaving.

willard teaches himself.

On the 7th, Willard made four fine little flights and on the 8th, five more. Chas. F. Willard is quite well known as an automobile expert and race driver. At one time he had a large machine shop where the F. I. A. T. place now is on Broadway and has driven in big races abroad.

On the 9th Willard continued trials, spending most of his time in practicing turns and landings. Practice flights will continue until the first engagement.

Curtiss Sails for Europe.

Glenn FI. Curtiss sailed on La Savoie, with "Slim" Schriver, to represent America in the international flying machine contests at Rheims during the last week of August.

On the same steamer went an exact duplicate of the aeroplane bought by The Aeronautic Society, with the exception that it has 30 in. less spread and is fitted with a more powerful motor, about which there is much secrecy. Some say it has four cylinders, some say eight; employes of the Curtiss plant shut up like clams when the motor is mentioned.

Fntry has been made by Curtiss in the Gordon-Bennett Aviation race over a 10-kilometer course, twice around. The fastest time takes down $5,000 in cash to the aviator and a $2,500 cup to his home club. There are still other contests for a purse totaling $40,000.

Willard Doing Great.

Mineola, Aug. 13.—This morning Chas. F. Willard, who is learning to operate the Aeronautic Society's aeroplane, made a magnificent flight. Unfortunately it was not officially timed, and therefore may not be officially recognized as a record. Starting from Mineola he flew across to Garden City, there turned to the left and made for Meadow Brook, turned again to the left and passed by Westbury, and from there went on to Hicksville, where he turned and made for home. When about two miles from his starting point he heard something go suddenly wrong with the engine. He immediately shut off and glided to the ground. At the moment he was about 150 ft. in the air. But he had both the machine and his nerves under perfect control, and effected a perfect landing. Examination of the motor showed him that the cam shaft driving the magneto was broken. He was in the air 19 min. 30 sec, and the distance covered across country was about 12 miles. It had been Mr. Willard's intention to continue his trip from Hicksville to Hempstead, to Floral Park, and New Hyde Park before alighting, and so to break the world's record for cross-country flight. The achievement was remarkable, seeing that this was only Willard's twenty-first trip in the air. During his voyage he passed over the telegraph wires five times, crossed eight roads, the Motor Parkway at three different points, several clumps of trees and two gangs of Italian navvies working on the extension of the parkway. On account of the roughness of the surface of the plains the machine was carried back to Mineola on a wagon.

On the night of the nth Willard made two short flights and was just on his way when a bolt broke. Fie borrowed one from an automobile and then flew a short distance in the dark.

Yesterday morning two fine trips were made lasting about five minutes each. The machine was well out of sight and bearing over the hazy plains. He flew over the automobiles present, the trees and houses bordering the grounds. On the third trial the wire to the rear rudder broke and the machine steered sharply around. Willard was quick and made a good landing on some rough ground.

It is curious to note the aeroplanes cropping up all over the country, in backyards, woodsheds, barns and outhouses. Nearly every boy in the country is building a glider and the books telling how to make them, published by Aeronautics, are nearly exhausted already. Almost every large city has its embryonic flyers. What all these will amount to is a question. They say every barefoot boy is a future President.

Howard Colby, brother of Ex-Senator Colby, of New Jersey, is anxious to buy a Wright aeroplane. E. S. F. Randolph, of Westfield, N. J., is another applicant for the privilege.

Testing Thrust on the Curtiss Machine — The Three to the Rear Are Noting the Pull On A Spring Balance

The Langley Machine on Exhibition.

The officials of the Smithsonian Institution and the National Museum at Washington take great pride in the collection of models and contrivances relating to aerostatics and aerodynamics, which are in possession of the joint institution. Charles D. Walcott, the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, and who is a member of the Aero Club of Washington, is taking a personal interest in the plans for enlarging and giving prominence to the exhibits relating to aeronautics.

The Langley machine, the "Buzzard," which was wrecked in the unfortunate attempt to launch it from the houseboat used during the experiments made by Professor Langley on the Potomac River, has never been placed on public view. This has been largely because of the criticism that was made of Professor Langley and because of the sentiment attached to his work, he having been secretary of the institution at the time he conducted his experiments. Now that the public has awakened to the full realization of the practicability of dynamic flight and is better able to give Professor Langley the credit which should have been his before his death, Mr. Wolcott intends to place on view the large machine, which has been rebuilt.

George C. Maynard, assistant curator of the National Museum, will have direct charge of arranging the aeronautical exhibit in the new building as soon as it is ready for occupane}'. R. L. Reed, who did the mechanical work for Professor Langley, still guards the "Buzzard," which is stored in the old workshop where Langley did most of his work. This shop stands in the rear of the Smithsonian Institution, and is full of interest. The walls are literally covered with models of propellers—each of a different design and intended to indicate the most efficient type for flying-machine work.

Photographs of the various models used by Langley, showing them in flight, adorn the walls of the old workshop. A boomerang and other contrivances used by the famous scientist in his efforts to conquer the air are there as testimony of the thoroughness with which he pursued his investigations. Parts of the framework which have never been used lie about on the floor. Most of them are hollowed spruce, strengthened with metal bands at intervals, making an extremely light and yet strong material for building the machine. Hollowed steel tubes were also used, and these are remarkable for their lightness and strength.

In the shop, displayed in marked contrast, but not nearly as interesting, is the basket and machinery of the dirigible balloon brought to this country by Sautos-Dtunont. This was donated to the institution by the Aero Club of America, and

was placed in the shop because the present building of the institution does not afford space for placing it on exhibit there.

The three power-driven models successfully flown by Professor Langley are now on public exhibition in the museum. One is a gasoline motor driven machine, while the other two are steam-power aeroplanes. They were the first successful power-driven, heavier-than-air flying-machine models. The Manly motor, built especially for Langley's "aerodrome," is also on exhibition.

One of Lilienthal's two-winged glidng machines, a model of Hargrave's compressed-air flying machine, which made a flight of 319 ft., and Stringfellow's aeroplane model, which was exhibited in the Crystal Palace, London, in 1856, and the engine of which was remarkable for that period, are also on view at the museum.

Octave Chanute will present the institution with one of his gliders, and the Wrights intend to make a working model of their aeroplane especially for exhibit in the Museum. It is also understood that Dr. Alexander Graham Bell is to donate some of his tetrahedral kites as an example of that method of constructing supporting surfaces.


Petawawa Camp, Ontario, Aug. 6.—The Baddeck No. 1, built by the Canadian Aerodrome Co., the first aeroplane built entirely in Canada, is ready and will soon make flights in charge of Messrs. McCttrdy and Baldwin. Military experts from various parts of Canada will witness the tests. If it is a success the aeroplane may be, as has been announced in these columns before, taken to England. . ,

Silver Dart Damaged.

Ottawa, Out., August 2.—The "Silver Dart," with which J. A. D. McCurdy made many successfid flights at Baddeck last winter, was partly wrecked to-day at Petewawa Military Camp, where trial flights were in progress.

The aeroplane had made four successful short flights. On landing from the fourth trip, the machine struck a knoll, ricochetting and striking again with such force as to wreck the wings and controlling apparatus.

The "Silver Dart" was the fourth machine built by the Aerial Experiment Association, and the most successful. The longest flight was one of 20 miles.

Smidley Monoplane Completed.

John H. Smidley of Bridgeport, Ct, has been building his machine in Washington, and it is now ready for experiments. A Duryea motor has been shipped.

The present machine, of man-carrying size, has a bamboo framework, wth supporting planes of light canvas, painted with a rubber solution to render them impervious.

The spread of the main plane is 32 ft., with a depth of 5 ft. The rear plane is 17 ft. spread and is bow shaped.

The whole machine, including the motor, weighs but 225 pounds. It runs on four small wheels at the bottom of the frame. The designer says it will rise in a run of 50 ft. on an average smooth grass field.

There are several rather unusual features about the machine. The main frame contains a rectangular box of bamboo and is so split that it will contain the' propeller practically in the center of the machine.

The propeller is of built-up wood, 8 ft. 6 in. in diameter, with an increasing pitch from the tip (if the blades to the center. It has but two blades, though some of the models with which Air. Smidley has experimented have three.

The propeller is so placed that the center of thrust will be on a line with the surface of the monoplane. This, he says, will do a\v;iy with the torque that would otherwise

come from having a single propeller so large. It will run at a maximum speed of 600 revolutions.

The controlling planes consist of two horizontal rudders placed in front, not superposed, as in the Wright machine, but side by side. Raising one of them will turn the machine to the left; raising the other turns it to the right. Roth raised or lowered elevates or depresses the whole machine.

The rudders are worked from a single lever, which, the designer says, is a decided advantage, as things happen in the air too quickly for an aviator to be bothered with much mechanism.

The machine carries about a pound to the square foot of surface. The designer has some ideas of his own about the curve of lifting surfaces, and will try putting the maximum curve at rear of planes instead of at entering edge. He is also trying a knife-edge entering.


IN 1907 the international balloon race started from St. Louis. For a while the interest in ballooning was large, but it was not deep. It was a kind of interest that regarded the sport of ballooning as a thing apart—something for men who were willing to risk their lives. Nowadays things are different and even the uninitiated of the more than half a million people of St. Louis begin to see aeronautics in a different light.

Not so very long ago a balloon passed over the city after starting from the gas works. The comment was much the same as people make when they see a hot-air balloonist or a parachute jumper sailing high overhead. But the other day six men, in a racing balloon that traveled low—sometimes it seemed very close to the roofs of high buildings— drew thousands from their desks downtown. These spectators watched the balloon with a new interest and something like appreciation. I warrant you that a large percentage of these people envied the men in the air.

This all has to do with the truly remarkable advances in aerial sport that have been made in St. Louis within less than a year. In six days, recently, four ascensions were made and fourteen passengers carried. Three women—the first ever to ascend from St. Louis in gas balloons—went up with FI. Eugene Floneywell one day, and two days later another woman ascended, a deux, with John Berry. Then followed quickly the cries of the women left behind, cries that begged for ballooning. At least a dozen women are scheduled to make balloon trips soon and a woman's balloon club is forming.

It was thought rather unusual several months ago that five men should ascend together in one balloon basket, but Honeywell,

who piloted the party, soon set a new mark by carrying six. Just to show that even this was not remarkable, he did it again and again, until now the thing is quite commonplace.

Speaking of organizations, the Aero Club of St. Louis is now only one of the clubs here, although, of course, the only recognized one. Besides, the South Side Aero Club has organized with 350 members, it is claimed, and a number of them have already made ascensions. Others are ticketed to go soon.

It has always been a lamentable fact—to all but the newspaper cartoonists—that L. I). Dozier, president of the Aero Club of St. Louis, has never made an ascension'. Now Mayor Kreismann, of St. Louis, has in a way challenged the Aero Club president to go, saying that he, the mayor, will try it, if the Aero Club head will go with him.

St. Louis now has three licensed balloon pilots—Albert Bond Lambert, who holds cards in the Aero Club of America, Aero Club de France and the Aero Club of St. Louis; H. E. Honeywell and John Berry. S. Louis Von Phul has made nearly all of his ascensions to qualify for a license which he expects to earn before the aerial tournament of St. Louis in October. There are three other men who hope to have the license by that time so that they may compete in the balloon races, to be held under the rules of the International Aeronautic Federation.

These carnival events are open to the world, some $12,000 having been appropriated for the purpose, with every indication of that amount being raised to $20,000 before the events take place. The balloon race will occur October 4, and on the same day there

will be a minor race for 40,000 cu. ft. balloons. On October 9 there will be a dirigible contest, .the winner to be the "dig" which makes the greatest speed over a given course. For aeroplanes on the day following, the test will be one of endurance, the prize going to the "plane" remaining aloft for the longest period. Besides, there will be other interesting air events.

The Aero Club of St. Louis has provided itself with private ascensions grounds in a desirable locality, where, in the near future, all of the ascensions of the club balloons "St. Louis Xo. 3" and "Missouri," and others that members may purchase, will take place. The grounds are surrounded by a fence and will

later be provided with a grand stand and a second enclosure. By fall there will be taps from the gas main on the grounds for 12 balloons; it is possible to make accommodations to inflate 18 envelopes at one time. At present there are three taps.

The officers of the Aero Club of St. Loujs are L. D. Dozier, president; D. R. Francis, vice-president; D. C. Xugent, vice-president; G. H. Walker, vice-president; A. B. Lambert, honorary secretary; H. N. Davis, treasurer. The names are those of the most prominent St. Louisans. The club is solicitous of entries throughout the world. Particulars and information desired will be forwarded upon application to the honorary secretary, 2100 Locust Street, St. Louis, Mo.


By H. A. oMeixner

THE opening of the international aeronautic exhibition took place under very unfavorable weather conditions. The public has been waiting for the arrival of the Parseval airship, but the rain and wind prevented it from coming. It is now being shipped by rail.

On July 30 the Zeppelin II arrived here from Friedrichshafen. This airship now belongs to the German government and will stay in Frankfort only two days. On August 2 it will start for Cologne, where it is to be stationed. The third Zeppelin will come to Frankfort at the end of August, remaining for a couple of weeks.

The shed for the Zeppelin HI is now under construction, the framework being of wood, covered with canvas. The other sheds, housing the captive kite balloon, system Parseval-Sigsfeld, built by the Riedinger balloon factory; the mushroom balloon of Gans-Rodeck, and the Parseval and Clouth airships are all of the same construction. The two latter airships arrived by rail two days ago and are not yet ready ■ for ascensions.

The flying grounds are removed from the exhibition grounds. There is a "take-off" hill for gliders but it is not well situated, as experiments are only possible when the wind blows from the southwest. Most of those gliders shown are of the "Chanute type." The arrangement consists of a large platform built upon the top of a sharp declivity, and sand or earth has been filled in so as to make a gradual descent.

The exhibits which have been brought together give a fair view of the present state of aeronautics. There are about a hundred

models of flying machines, most of which show how not to fly.

At the entrance to the hall is a full-sized machine, shaped like a bird. At the ends of the wings are pivoted blades to represent the feathers. To date no one has tried the machine. There are many freaks of this kind.

There are only two man-carrying machines here up to the present: a Farman and a Wright machine, both well known so that it is not necessary to give a description of them. One of the original gliders used by Lilien-thal has been loaned by the museum of Munich. It is a birdlike structure and shows signs of considerable wear and tear.

The middle of the hall is filled with the balloon Preussen, which holds the record for height.

Several high angle guns are exhibited by Krupp and the Rheinische Metalwarenfabrik. The devices for bringing down balloons and aeroplanes seem to show that the means of destroying an aerial fleet are better developed than the art of building motor balloons and aeroplanes.

At Mannheim has been started the largest airship of the world, constructed by Prof. Schutte, of Danzig. The capacity of this huge dirigible balloon will be 4000 cubic meters more than the Zeppelin. The gasolene motors will develop from 500 to 600 h. p. The speed is estimated at from 50 to 60 kilometers an hour. The framework is wood, covered with balloon cloth. The gas bags are made of goldbeaters skin. The floor space necessary for the shed to house it will measure 60 by 130 meters.

1. the shaffer glider an instanl before an accident due to breaking of both wing lips and fronl rudder control lever. 2. shows machine at start of flight in which high elevation was reached. 3. wolf-becher gliding chute.

For their experiments in gliding, Messrs. Wolf and Becher of Fitchburg, Cal., have built an inclined railway down which a car holding the glider runs and gives initial impetus. The start is 50 ft. high. On the first attempt the heavy car in some manner caught fast to the machine and the glide terminated but a few feet from the end of the chute. The automatic fore and aft equilibrium device was, consequently, not tried.

A successful test for lift is reported of Messrs. Arnold and Hiniker's 12-ft. model helicopter-aeroplane-dirigible. Power is delivered to the propellers by a flexible shaft from a stationary electric motor.

J. Zenon Posadas of the Pacific Aero Club will shortly try out his double-decker fitted with a Peugeot motor.

Charles C. Bradley, V. P. of the Pacific Club, has started work on a large-size double-decker.

L. C. Van Riper and J. E. Morharclt of Pasadena deserve plenty of credit for patience in their aeroplane work.

L. S. Dorland of San Francisco is at work on a helicopter of novel design. There are

eight propellers of 12 blades each, 24 inches in diameter, revolving in a casing with individual wells for each propeller. When completed the machine will weigh about 500 pounds. The motor is a Curtiss S-cylinder, 40 horse power.

At the Portola celebration in October it is possible that the Pacific Aero Club will take charge of aeronautic events, the Portola people to put up the purses.

Capt. P. A. Van Tassel, of California, has disposed of the balloon "United States' which broke away from its moorings July 4 and was recovered, and has just completed a fine new one built on the block system of 40,000 cu. ft. He expects to pilot a number of ascensions in the near future. On Aug. 22 he is scheduled to make an ascent, taking as passengers Miss Geneve Shaffer, sister of the Pacific Aero Club's secretary, and Prof. Jos. Hidalgo of the same club.

Mr. A. C. Pillsbury, of the Pacific Aero Club, has purchased the tiny balloon "Fairy" from Roy Knabeushue, and expects to make some ascents soon. He has built a special camera for taking photos while aloft.

Since Charlemagne Sirch of Los Angeles announced last year the principal features of his hot-air dirigible, Sweden has produced an apparatus using heated air for buoyancy, and one or two others have been claimed. It may be of interest to note that Mr. Sirch endeavored to have the War Department change its specifications to cover the use of heated air as well as hydrogen gas.

The Alaska-Ynkon-Pacific Exposition at Seattle has offered $25,000 for a contest between Bleriot and the Wrights.

Among the latest aspirants for aeronautic fame is Dr. Davenport Kerrison, of Jacksonville, Fla. Mr. Kerrison has been for many years a close student of the flight of birds, and thinks, if his theories work out in practice, that he has brought the art of flight a step or two nearer to success. He has just completed a working model on a scale of one inch to the foot. The full sized machine will measure 37 ft. in length exclusive of the horizontal control, which extends 16 ft. and the forward horizontal control which shifts forward about 4 ft., taking an upward angle as it does so. The horizontal and forward controls are operated with one lever and act simultaneously. There is another which Mr. Kerrison thinks is an important improvement involved in his machine, the particulars of which he will not divulge until he has applied it to a practical test.


New Organizations Spring up From Detroit to Denver as Result of Tour; One Coming in Nebraska.

A string of aero clubs reaching from Detroit to Denver is one of the results of tin (Hidden automobile endurance run which ended at Kansas City late Friday night.

It is said by those who have returned from the trip, of whom Charles J. (Hidden is one, that aeronautics has made great advances in the West because of the efforts made by the promoter of the endurance run to arouse an interest in the subject.

The first club was organized at Detroit, and was named the Aero Club of Michigan. After that the Aero Club of Minnesota was formed at Minneapolis, the Aero Club of Colorado at Denver and the Aero Club of Kansas City at the latter place.

While i" Denver Mr. Clidden was the guest of C. P. Allen, treasurer of the Denver Motor club; his son, Dr. E. F. Dean, and Cordon L. Wands, secretary of the club. Mr. Clidden suggested the idea of an aero club, and after the close of the dinner the following membership had been secured: Cordon L. Wands. C. P. Allen, L. D. Mosier, F. L. MacFarland. W. H. Sharpley, M. D.; W. M. Johnston. Harold Brinker, Edward F. Dean, M. D.; Sam F. Dutton, W. W. Barnett, Maurice Letts. George E. Cartwright, Carl W. Ilurlbert, Thomas F. Daly, William F. Allen, R. R. Blair, M. D.: L. E. Allmon, Morris Mayer. Major L. E. Campbell, Frank Burt and William D. Nash.

The members of the new club are so thoroughly enthused over the proposition that they have already arranged for a balloon ascension Sunday afternoon at the White City through Mr. Burt, the manager of Lakeside, who is one of the members of the new club. The ascension will be in charge of G. L. Wands and Wayne Abbott, who will work together in giving the members instructions in handling a balloon and getting it ready for an ascension.

"Now what we want," said Mr. Wands, "is someone to offer an attractive prize to the first pilot who crosses the continental divide, which has never been done, but which can be accomplished easily with the proper-sized balloon, and the sooner an offer is made the sooner it will be done."

Mr. Clidden has promised those interested in aeronautics in Nebraska that he will under-

take to start them in the right direction when he returns to Omaha.

to arrange for long flight.

Mr. Clidden contemplates making the trip within the next few weeks, when he will endeavor to complete arrangements for the flight from Omaha to Boston. These were begun wdiile he was absent on the. automobile run, and it was practically decided that the start will be made from Fort Omaha.

In speaking of the matter last night Mr. Clidden said that he and H. Helm Clayton had previously considered this flight. While at Omaha Mr. Clidden discussed the matter with Lieut.-Col. W. A. Classford and Lieut. Ware, both of whom evinced great interest in the proposed trial.

The Aero Club of Vermont has been organized at Rutland, Vt. Charles T. Fair-field, publisher of the Rutland News, is the president, and George S. Haley, secretary-treasurer. Though the club is in its veriest infancy, a meeting will be called at an early date to complete the organization, elect officers from other cities in Vermont and to receive members. Mr. Fairfield is the first Vermonter to take a balloon trip.

The Aero Club of Kansas City is another club formed by Mr. Clidden on his Western tour. Looks like a "trust." Hurrah for Charles T. Gliddeu! We ought to have a few more like enthusiasts and there would be a little more activity.

The Aero Club of Minnesota has been organized in Minneapolis with John F. Wilcox president.

The Aero Club of Michigan, in Detroit, was started during Mr. Glidden's Western tour, with William E. Metzger at its head. About 50 members have come in so far and a meeting will be called probably about September t.

The Aero Club of Colorado was born July 24 at Denver, with Gordon L. Wands, secretary. These new Western clubs being started just at the time the Clidden tour is touring, it looks suspiciously like Charles J. Clidden has something to do with all this commotion.

The club will purchase a 75,000 or 100,000ft. balloon in the very near future, and is figuring with two parties for an aeroplane. Mr. Wands made several ascensions in a 40,000-ft. balloon, but found it too small, on account of the fact that at an altitude of 5,820 ft. to start with and as they are very anxious to cross the continental divide, it was thought better to have a fairly good-sized balloon.

Dr. J. M. Gibbous, St. Lawrence Park, Thousand Islands, X. V., is forming an aero club, to be limited to the members of the motor boat club. Fifty members have already given a start to the movement.

The South St. Louis Aero Club has been

organized at the grounds of M. A. Heimann, Fourteenth and Rutger Sts.

The officers are Charles W. Nugent, president; Charles F. Wenneker, first vice-president; Sheridan Webster, second vice-president; William Fox, third vice-president; William Fox, secretary, and Henry Nuen, secretary.

The executive committee consist of George Fehl, Eugene Ringler, C. C. Nichols, David McArthur, M. A. Heimann, Andrew Drew, Louis Shelke, J. Oheim, J. J. Parker, Vital Garesche, Herman Shapiro and John Berry.

A publicity committee, consisting of George Belcher, M. A. Heimann and H. C. Nuen, was appointed.

The International Aeroplane Club of Dayton, O., has grown to over 500 members. The charter list closed July 28, and the club is to be incorporated within the next few days.

The Aero Club of America is still uncertain as to the location of its grounds, to be somewhere on Hempstead Plains. Committees have from time to time visited the Plains for the purpose of selection, but have come to no definite decision. ^-J)

The Edwardsville Aero Club is about to be formed at Edwardsville, AIo>, by Dr. Geo. C. Sehwarz, who has offered the use of grounds for ascensions and a hydrogen plant is suggested.

The Phila. Aeronautical Recreation Society.

-—On July 13th a "cup party'' was given at the home of Miss Margaret Tourison, the winner of the Eldridge-Simmerman Cup. Miss Tourison made a trip of 51 miles on July 3rd. All the members of the society who were in the balloon at the time the cup was on were present. Mrs. Lockington, the previous holder, made a pretty speech, telling how it was such a "painful pleasure" to part with the cup. The assemblage then supped from the cup a very rare vintage, preceding a dainty collation presided over by Miss Tourison.

On Saturday, Aug. 14. a complimentary ascension is being given to the officers of the Baron de llirsch School at Woodbine, N. J., Henry William Gellor and Miss Lydia Cantor, by Dr. Thomas Edwin Eldridge and Dr. Geo. H. Simmerman, president and vice-president of the P. A. R. S. Upon two different occasions during the past season boys from the Hirsch school have received balloon parties of the society, and because of the generous reception given them Mr. Gellor and Miss Cantor are the biviied guests, as public recognition of the society's appreciation. Mr. Gellor has been made an honorary member and Miss Cantor an active member. The ladies of the society will present Miss Cantor with an appropriate souvenir. Dr. Eldridge ami Dr. Simmerman will jointly look after the guests during the trip.

The International Dayton Aeroplane"^ Club

had an extremely interesting meeting in their permanent quarters on the evening of July 28. About 125 were present, 122 applications for membership were received, bringing the membership list above 500.

The Committee on Constitution and Ply-Laws submitted a draft which, after a general discussion, was approved and adopted.

Mr. G. Harris Gorman, vice-president of the Davis Sewing Machine Co. and a member of the club, gave a very interesting address.

Dr. L. E. Custer, who some time ago was granted a patent for a steering device which can be utilized either on submarine torpedoes or other craft, or on dirigible balloons, by means of what is commonly known as the Marconi wireless system, exhibited a working model of the device and demonstrated the value of utilizing the "Hertz" ether waves for accomplishing this. His address throughout was intensely interesting, and the discussions which followed it clearly demonstrated the vast possibilities of this, as yet unexplored field.

Mr. Howard L. Burba, of the Dayton Journal, gave a most interesting talk of his experience in his recent balloon trip by night, in the balloon "Hoosier," in company with Col. McClellan, editor of the Dayton Journal, Capt. B. F. Wendler, G. W. Shroyer, and Pilot-Capt. Bumbaugh, during which he set up in type a short account of their trip and printed a miniature edition, which was distributed from the balloon along their route.

An interesting episode was that towards morning the air became so heavy and damp, and the lowering temperature so reduced the buoyancy of the balloon that they were forced to throw overboard all available ballast until there was nothing left but the toy printing press and the type. Burba tenaciously held on to the press, but finally permitted them to throw out the form and all the type, when the balloon rose sufficiently to clear the bills which they were approaching. Many other amusing incidents were related.

The president authorized the chairman of the balloon committee to extend an invitation to Capt. Bumbaugh of Indianapolis to deliver an address at the August meeting, on "How to Judge Distances from the Balloon." Other speakers will also contribute to the program at that time.

The officers have received definite assurances of the delivery of an aeroplane from the representative of the Messrs. Wright; the one now in the course of completion will be shipped to the sou of General Alger.

Motor Boats to Chase Balloon.

The Colonial Yacht Club is sending out invitations to all the yacht clubs within a hundred miles of New York to take part in a balloon chase. A. Leo Stevens will pilot one of his balloons from the gas plant at 155th Street, and at the moment of leaving all the clubs will be notified by telegraph. A silver cup will be awarded to the member of a yacht club who first arrives at the balloon on its landing and hands a specially provided card to the pilot of the balloon.

Any means may be taken to catch up, whether by auto, boat, or on foot. Thirty members have already entered their names as "hounds." Landing will not be made when water is sighted, but the aeronauts will continue on, assured of the assistance of the manj' motor boats which will be waiting or following.

This will prove an exciting event, and motor boats all around New York are getting their batteries recharged and everything shipshape for the event, which takes place the second week of September.

Smithsonian's Aero Bibliography.

Washington, D. C, Aug. 9.—A Bibliography of Aeronautics has been prepared by Air. Paul Brockett, assistant librarian of the Smithsonian Institution, which goes to press during the present week. This bibliography has been prepared in order to make available the material in the aeronautical literature at the Institution. Special effort has been made to make it as complete as possible, and it includes papers in all languages and has about 16,000 references. In addition to the citations made from available publications in Washington, bibliographies and lists of various kinds have been consulted. No special attention has been paid to securing titles of fiction, poems, music and the drama based on the subject, nor have newspaper clippings been included. The dictionary form of arrangement has been used, and while a classification of aeronautical literature has not been attempted, there are ample cross-references for such subjects as may prove of interest to the investigator pursuing any particular line of work. The date of the publication cannot now be given, but the printing will be done as speedily as possible.

To Double a Motor's Horsepower.

Of particular interest to those building is the news that there will soon be on the market a remarkable motor, especially adapted to aeronautics. Hugo C. Gibson, an automobile engineer, has devised and patented a system for doubling the possible maximum horse power developed by a normal four-cycle engine so as to produce a greater mean effective pressure at a high speed of revolution. Thus, a "regular" 25-horse power motor would be developing twice that power at the same weight.

This motor will soon be brought out by the Requa-Coles Co., 206 Broadway, New York, of which Air. Gibson is consulting engineer.

New Patent Decision.

An interesting decision is rendered by Commissioner of Patents Moore, under date of June 25, 1909, in the matter of a pending application for patent of R. M. Viniello for an airship. The primary examiner rejected the claims on the ground that the device sought to be covered is inoperative and required a demonstration of operativeness, which should have been complied with within a year; instead of which applicant files an argument to show operativeness and utility, which was held irresponsive by examiner and accordingly application was regarded as abandoned.

Commissioner's present decision restores application to pending files and directs examiner to give full action on the merits of the case, so that all questions involved can be appealed to the next higher court — namely, examiner-in-chief—and not consider the points piecemeal in such manner that applicant would have no right of appeal in any disputed point.

Goodale Repeats N. Y. Performance Over Newark.

During his engagement at Newark, Frank W. Goodale made another sensational airship trip over the streets of a city, this time over Broad St., Newark. The success of the trip was marred, unluckily, by the forced landing on account of the gasoline tank working loose.

From Submarine To Airship.

Christopher J. Lake, of Bridgeport, father of Capt. Simon Lake, inventor of the Lake submarine boat, is at work on an apparatus of his own design and has secured an option from Stephen C. Osborne, owner of Hippodrome park, where the new flying machine is to be built and tested. Several men are now at work there to carry out the ideas of Mr. Lake, but their work is enshrouded in complete mystery, no one being privileged to give out any information in regard to it.

The Highest Balloon Ascension in America.

In correcting a recent statement made in a Xew York newspaper. Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch stated: "The late Professor H. A. llazen of the United States Signal Service, with three companions, rose from St. Louis to a height of 15,400 ft. in the year 1887. Professor Hazen was a trained meteorologist, and his calculation of the height attained is no doubt more trustworthy than a simple reading of the aneroid barometer, which usually requires a negative correction to be applied to the scale of feet, on account of the temperature of the air.

Patent List.

Lafayette J. Brown, Oaklyn, X. J., No. 926,804, July 6, 1909. Flying machine of the helicopter type. Two propellers rotating on vertical axes provided at top of a vertical frame, are composed of rims secured to hubs by spokes ami the blades consist of air-tight fabric to act as aeroplanes as well as propellers.

Percival V. Wadleigh, Needles, Cab, No. 926,913, July 6. 1909. Flying machine consisting of combined orthopter and aeroplane. The body is provided at each side with pivoted wings composed of hinged slides or shutters which "feather" on the up stroke.

Matthew B. Sellers. Baltimore. Md., No. 927,289. July 6, 1909. Flying machine. More properly an aeroplane composed of a plurality of superposed planes in step-form, each in advance of the next lower one. The rear edges are constructed to tilt for regulation and control.

John Seiler, Union Hill. N. J., No. 927,605, July 13, 1909. Aeroplane consisting of cylindrical open frame work provided with planes stretched at various points and angles on the frame.

Ludwig Ruppin. Lancaster, Pa., No. 927,815, July 13. 1909. Aerial device combining a tiansversely corrugated member acting as a plane. A counterbalancing" weight at one side of the center of gravity and a rudder blade at the other side of said center.

Simon Lake, Bridgeport, Conn., No. 928,524, July 20, 1909. Airship. Gas bag designated a

hollow body section. Aeroplanes supported thereby and propellers arranged upon each side. Elevating rudders arranged both front and rear of the propellers. Vertical rudders at rear of body section. Means provided for controlling positions of all rudders. Car section, as usual, below.

Frank H. Newell, Terry, Mont., No. 928,687. July 20, 1909. "Aeroplane airship." Details of construction not clear from claims and illustration in Patent Office Gazette. Apparently a combination of aeroplane with airship, the principal novelty of which is the application of wings having larger concave curvature at inner portion and smaller convex curvature at outer end.

Oscar Heeren, Paris, 929,217, July 27. Aeroplane. The characteristic features are a supporting plane consisting of two outer wings or planes extending from a central axis on which they oscillate to change the angle of incidence. Two smaller inner wings fill the space near the center which is open in the outer wings. Inner wings operated separately and operated by articulated arms.

Charles J. Berthel, Pinetown, N. C. 929.37S. July 27. Airship consisting of an open ended tube provided with lateral wings extending therefrom at each side. A propeller is provided at each end of the tube; vertical and horizontal rudders at each extremity.

Francisco Fronz, Gorizia, Austria, 929,298, July 27. Paddle wheel, particularly for use on airships. Consists of paddles caused to feather by means of a stationary pivot to which they are attached eccentrically disposed with respect to the pivot of rotation.

Anton A. Zalondek, Oklahoma, Okla., 929,302, July 27. Flying machine of the orthopter type, comprising front and rear wings consisting of a series of blades caused to open on the up stroke and close on the down. Intermediate of the wing sections is an aeroplane surface.


The Bostel Airship Co. of Cleveland, capital, $25,000. Incorporators: Carl Bostel, Frank E. Dellenbaugh, Allen Diemer, John \Y. Farley and Thomas S. Fleming.

The Scientific Aeroplane and Airship Co., New York; capital, $50,000. Incorporators: 11. C. Beach, \Y. A. Hayes, 11. C. Evans.

F. 1. A. T. Co. of Poughkeepsie; capital, $2,000,000. Incorporators: E. R. Hollander, Joseph A. Strauss, Albert E. Scbaaf, S. K. Lichtenstein. William F. Ashley, Henry M. Wise and Hcurie Neuhauer.

Aeronautic Exhibition Co. of XTew York; capital. $7,000. Incorporators: Thomas A. II ill, C. F. Blackmore, Lee S. Burridge.

N. Y. Aerial Mfg. & Navigation Co., Brooklyn. Cap.. $25,000. Incorporators: G. E. Tinker, J. W. Hughes and F\ FYancis.


Trade Notes.

marine motors for aeronautics.

In a hunt for suitable and low-priced motors for flying machines, inventors have turned to the 2-cyclc marine engine people. The latest instance of this is in connection with the El-bridge Engine Co., of Rochester, N. Y., who have never considered their engines in connection with aeronautics until they began receiving inquiries from inventors. During the past few weeks, their factory has been visited by several people, and in each instance the result of the visit was the placing with them of an order for an engine to be used in aeronautical work.

u. & h. magnetos on new antoinette motors.

Voison Freres, of France, builders of the famous "Farman" aeroplanes, have just completed and delivered two more machines, propelled by eight-cylinder Antoinette motors of 55 h. p., the propeller being attached directly to the crank shaft, and using a special, eight-cylinder U. & H. high tension master magneto for ignition. The magnetos themselves weigh only about six kilograms each, or 13.2 pounds, the total weight of the motor being only about 265 pounds. The first meter of this light type fitted with the U. & II. master magneto gave entire satisfaction, and led to the ordering of a second magneto.

It is said that the Wright Brothers while abroad carefully examined the U. & II. high tension magneto system used on these motors, and it is expected that they will have occasion to use one of these magnetos very shortly in their experiments, a magneto of this style now being on the way to this country for this very purpose.

The new motors present marked difference in design from the Antoinette creations of previous years. The cylinder and head containing the valves are cast separately and in two pieces, it being found an advantage to use this construction, as it made machining easier and a considerable degree of lightness obtained. The new motor departs radically from the former design, in that the cylinder and valve chamber form a single piece, which makes for an entire absence of joints in the construction. This piece is of steel, but owing to the difficulty of securing a light steel casting, which would have uniform wall thickness, a drop forging is employed. The cylinder is machined inside and cut. The valves are placed one above the other in the chamber, the inlet valve being automatic and the exhaust valve mechanically operated from a single cam-shaft located in the top of the crank-case between the cylinders. The exhaust pipe extends upward, while the inlet pipes are simply short vertical elbows to each of which a small copper tube is attached, extending to one or the other of the plunger pumps, which serve to inject the fuel to the portion of the cylinders over the inlet valve, in this maimer dispensing with a carburetor. These pumps are operated by variable throw eccentrics, and the stroke can be varied by a

simple control wheel. The speed of the motor and amount of gas inspired can be changed by varying the fuel supply. The water jackets are of copper, and in the separate head construction are mechanically applied, while with the single piece cylinder they are deposited by electrolysis, there being no joints.


A. Leo Stevens has sold to E. B. Weston, Dayton, O., a 56,000 cu. ft. balloon to be named the "Delight," after Air. Weston's daughter. Delivery is promised about August 20.


"Dear Sir:

"In )'our last issue it is reported that owing to the lateness of the train which brought the Wright Brothers to London on the occasion of their last visit, there was no one present to give them an official welcome.

"As this would look as though we in the Aero Club did not take much interest in the arrival of such distinguished men, I would like to point out that the report is incorrect and that several members of the committee of the Aero Club were present to welcome Messrs. Wright at Charing Cross station on their arrival, and also to bid them farewell on their departure from Waterloo station.

"Yours truly,

(Signed) "THE HON. C. S. ROLLS."

Encouraged by the success with the Williams helicopter, recorded last month, Messrs. Berliner and Williams will build, though separately, a new apparatus, which is expected to actually fly. It is suggested that a successful helicopter must be a compromise, based purely on empirical experiments, and very little on mathematical theories, which can only be applied after full development of the practical machine.

The aeroplane which is being built for E. L. Thomas of Buffalo on designs of George Francis Myers of Hammondsport is about finished. It was erroneously stated last month that this" machine was for E. R. Thomas.

William Van Sleet, of Pittsfield, Mass., who has made more than 35 balloon ascensions since he started in two years ago, is reported a> building an aeroplane.

Mr. W. L. Marr of the Buick Motor Co. is building an aeroplane and a special motor.


New World's Duration Record—Flies With 10 h. p. Motor Record Cross Country Flight—Farman, Tissandier and Paulhan Make New Records in Over Hour Flights—New French-Dirigible on Long Trip—Zeppelin I Again in the Air—Record Month in Aviation—French Aviation Meets Drawing Crowds at Juvisy, Vichy and Douai—Many Bleriot Machines Ordered—Australian Prize Fund.


The Australian Minister of Defense has put up a prize of $25,000 for an Australian made aeroplane suitable for purposes of military defence. The Australian Aerial League is to add a further $25,000.


Cody has made some slight alterations in his controls, and on July 20th succeeded in making a flight of four miles over the Laffan Plains. He has, however, not entirely overcome the great tendency of his machine to undulation.

Baron de Forest has offered a prize of $20,000 for the first British-made machine that crosses the Ailauije. C M 1" 1 ^

Sir W. Hartley has put up $5,000 for the first flight from Manchester to Liverpool.

S. F. Edge, of the Xapier Motor Co. and Xapier motor boat, in each of which a few years ago he figured as one of the pioneers of daredevil driving, has offered to build the English nation a satisfactory airship for a guarantee of $60,000 to cover out-of-pocket expenses.

One of the largest "polytechnics" in London, the Northampton Institute, in Clerken-well, has entered aeronautics on its calendar. Beginning with its next session, which opens in September, it will commence a four years' course.

ft is proposed to establish a school of flight at Portsmouth which is a great naval and military centre. One of the most active spirits in the movement is Patrick V. Alexander, one of the best known patrons of aeronautics in the world.

A. V. Roe has been able to make some 300-yard flights on Lea Marshes with a 10 h. p. J. A. P. motor, driving a 7 ft. 4 in. propeller.


Tn competition for the cup which Hon. C. S. Rolls offered, six balloons entered, at Hurling-ham, July 17, as "hounds," Mr. Rolls using his "Imp" as the hare, piloting himself. Three of the competing balloons were owned by ladies. After two hours and ten minutes of travelling Mr. Rolls brought his balloon down, followed quickly by Mrs. Assheton Harbord's "Valkyrie." pilot C. F. Pollock, 70 yards away. A. M. Singer did a little better with his "Satellite," landing within 12 yards of the hare balloon, thus winning the cup as the nearest hound.



Louis Bleriot.—After returning to Paris from Douai, where we left him last month, he fiew the "XI" at fssy on June 30th, going to Douai again on July 2 to win a prize with the "XII." On the 3rd he flew 5 kms., and then made one of 47 min. 17 sec, covering 47.27 kms., further flying stopped by motor trouble.

On the 4th at Juvisy, in the "XT," he was well on his way to a new monoplane record when the gas gave out after flying for 50 min. and 5 sec.


On July 13th, early in the morning, Bleriot started at Etampes on an officially observed cross country flight for the Prix de Voyage of the Aero Club of France, the conditions of which allowed an intermediate landing. Starting at 4.44 a. 111., he flew over trees, wires, railroad train and villages to a voluntary landing near Barmainville at 5.40. The officials started him off again after a little wait. Toury was the next place passed, then Chateau-Gail-lard, Dambron, Artenay to the selected spot at Chevilly, near Orleans. The distance figured 41.2 kms.. and the net time 44 min. 30 sec.

By this flight Bleriot won $1,000 as pilot. $800 as constructor, Anzani $600 as maker of ergine, and Chauviere $400 as builder of the propeller. Half of the money has been paid and the other half becomes available if the record is not beaten before January 1 next. After the flight, it took but 35 minutes to dismantle the machine and start it on its way to the Bleriot factory.

in a speed trial at Douai on the 18th, his best time was 2 min. 29 sec. for 2 kms., while on the 8th he was able to make it in 2 min. flat.

Bleriot has undertaken to build 36 machines on order by November 1, at $-\ooo each. Al fred Leblanc gets the first.

i hour 23 min'utes for FARM \.\.

ji airy farman has jumped to the fore again, beating all his previous reJords in an


i hr. 23 min. flight at Chalons on July 19, late in the afternoon. On the 21st he took up M. Cockburn, the Englishman whom he is teaching to operate the flyer he has purchased from Farman, for 3 kms. The total weight of the occupants of the machine, with gas, was 206 kilos., for the 50 sq. m. of surface. The power is 50 horse. On the 22nd Farman made a 15 minute cross country flight, and Cockburn got so he could fly for 11 kms. Then on the 29th he flew 22x/2 min.

roger sommers now at the top—makes new world record.

Roficr Sounners, the latest in the field, began his trials at Chalons on July 3rd with three good flights of 2-3 kms. in a circle with his Farman machine. The next day he increased bis time to 30 mins. After flights of 15 and 19 mins. on the 13th, and 27 and 12 mins. on the 15th, 30 mins. on the 17th. he flew for 1 hr. 4 mins. on the 18th. More flights up to 18 mins. on the 20th, while on the 22nd he jumped to 1 hr. 5'/ mins., followed by one of 38 mins. On the 2$th he beat Farman himself by flying 1 hr. 23 mins. 30 sec.

On August 7th Sommer wrested from Wilbur Wright the laurels gained in his record flight of 2 hrs. 20 min. on December 31 last, by flying 2 hrs. 27 min. 15 sec. The moon was still shining when he started on his early morning flight.

When he had been up two hours there was a demonstration by the few spectators who had gathered. Soon he equaled the Wright record, but he made no move to descend until his superiority was beyond dispute. When at last the machine touched the ground at a quarter to six he was seized and carried off the field in triumph, stiff with cold and fatigue, but otherwise none the worse for his exploit.

Sommers took his seat in an aeroplane for the first time on July 3. Since then he has been flying daily on the Chalons moors, gradually increasing his distance. He first came into prominence July 27, when he made a flight of 1 hr. 23 min. 30 sec; this at once ranked him among the most prominent aviators. On August (i he remained in the air

1 hr. 50 min. 30 sec. August 4, his thirty-secoud birthday, he celebrated with a flight of

2 hrs. and 10 sec. This is "going sum."

On the 8th, after a short flight, he stopped the motor too soon and landed roughly, damaging the machine.

That he is almost a thorough master of his machine is shown by the fact that on one occasion he made a moonlight flight of ten minutes with Chinese lanterns hanging from the corners of his aeroplane, and a cross country flight.

The meet in;/ at J'ichy, with $6,000 offered in prizes. July 18-25, proved rather a fiasco, and ended in disaster through a terrific storm which blew over the grand stand and damaged several machines. During the week the only aviators who met with any success were Tissandier and PauHiau. Tissanclier on a Wright took the Grand Prix de Vichy with 20 km. in 23 min. 29 sec. The race across the

River Allier on the 21st resulted in a close contest between Tissandier and Paulhan. the latter doing the 2.5 km. across the river and back in 5 min. 1 sec, beating Tissandier by only 2-5 of a sec. During one of Paulhan's attempts at crossing the stream something went wrong while over the water; but he managed to alight on an island. In the prize for the greatest aggregate of time in the air, Tissandier, with a total of 1 hr. 23 min., beat Paulhan by less than 2 min. P'or the fastest time over a circuit of 1.666 km., Tissandier won in 1 min. 52 sec, beating Paulhan by 27 sec.

Delagrange has been taking lessons at Juvisy from Count Lambert on the Wright machine, after the latter's return from exhibition flights in Holland. Delagrange talks of attempting to fly the Wright across the Channel.

M. Demancst was out at Chalons on July 9 in the "Antoinette IV," and on the nth made a couple of flights of 16 min. duration each. In the second one a sudden gust of wind struck him heavily down, and the machine was much damaged.

three in a voisin biplane.

Beginning with short flights the end of June. 011 July 3, fcU. Jean Gobron, at Chalons, made at once a sensational performance and a novel record in his Voisin machine. He took up two passengers together, one of whom was a lady. They were lime. Colliex and d'Almeida. The trip lasted 5 min., and was at a height of about 5 m.

On July 9th Gobron won one of the Aero Club de France 500 m. prizes, flying 5 minutes. On the nth he increased his time to 10 min. On July 13th he was up at Chalons 7 min. in a 20 km. breeze. He was entered for the events at Rheims, and will at least put tip a good showing against Bleriot in the passenger-carrying contest.

Paulhan.—In France more encouragement is given short flights than in America, it appears. For instance, Louis Paulhan, formerly one of the mechanics of the "Ville de Paris," who is flying a Voisin fitted with a 7 cylinder 80 h. p. Gnome motor, made many flights before he attempted to stay up any length of time, yet his flights were duly chronicled as great successes. At Dottai, July 10th, he managed 2 kms., and on the 13th ran up to 15 min., repeating this the following day. On the 15th he added his contribution to the sensational

one hour seventeen minutes.

flights of the month by remaining continuously at a comparatively good height for 1 hr. 17 min.. 19 sec, over an official distance of 47 kms. On the 18th he beat Wright's height record (110 m.), clearing by a wide margin a balloonette at 120 m. altitude. The next day he added a cross-country flight to his accomplishments, covering 20 kms. in 22 min., from Douai to St. Nicholas, making an intermediate stop about a kilometer out to adjust the carbureter. On the return from St. Nicholas the wind freshened and the motor began giving trouble. The landing was rough, in a barb wire fence, damaging the machine somewhat. Paulhan in his Voisin and Bleriot in his

monoplane had a little brush at Douai, Bleriot doing best for the kilometer in i min. 9 sec., Paulhan doing it in 1 min. 37 sec.

"Dc Rue" (Capt. Ferber). at the July 4th meet at Juvisy, captured the second of the La Gatinerie prizes of $500 for a 3 km. flight at Juvisy; the first was won by Bleriot. De Rue made the 3 km. in 3 min. 47 sec. which was 12 sec. better than Bleriot's time. Other events were a hot air ascent and towed flights. It is now an open secret that the name of De Rue covers the identity of Capt. Ferber. The captain has been practising with a 50 h. p. Voisin during the past months, but has made only short jumps. After making short flights at Douai, he went to Belfort, continuing short flights.

There are apparently some enthusiasts in France who, however, hesitate at the high speed of the aeroplane. One of them has anonymously given a prize of $200 to the Aero Club for the production of a low speed machine.

The Ligue National Aerienne, which has control of the Weiller $200 for the defeat of Wilbur Wright's height record, has decided that competitors must clear a balloonette anchored at a height of no m.

During military mam en vers at Longchamps, July 14. the dirigibles "Ville de Nancy" and "Republique," advancing from opposite directions, took part in the mameuvers.

A long trip was made by the "Ville de Nancy" from Paris to Nancy on the 16th-18th. One descent was made on account of a damaged propeller. Another forced descent was made to reinflate with hydrogen. During the last stage of the journey 175 miles were made in 5VS hours.

The 'A'ille de Nancy" was constructed by the Societe Astra. The volume is 3.300 cu. m., 10 m. in diam., 55 m. long. A 1.000 cu. m. balloonette is provided, and there are in the rear the four appendages as in the Clement-Bayard, of which this new ship is practically a duplicate. The motor is a Bavard-Clement, 115 h. p., driving a Chauviere "Integral" propeller in the front end of the tubular frame.

After arriving at Nancy practice ascents were continued.

The new French military dirigible, "Col. Renard," began its trials July 14 at Meaux.

The Aeronautique Club de France has organized monthly gliding competitions, using its school's glider.

During October the Aero Club de France will organize an event at the Juvisy flight course, with $1,000 in prizes.

The "Republique" made a 130 mile journey from Chalais-AIeudon on August 4, lasting six hours.

At Issy, on the 2lst„ Founder, in his Voisin. made six flights ofabout o kins. each. Capt. Rurgeat in his Antoinette made some short flights.

The same dav GnTiex_made a circuit of the course in his Voism.

The School of the Ligue Nationale, at Juvisy, has not yet produced any aviator of mark* but it looks as if M. Gaudart, one of

the latest students to be heard from, will do well. After quite a few lessons he managed to circle the track three times, and that in a wind so gusty it eventually blew him down. By August 1 he improved so he could fly 7 min. for the benefit of Bleriot. vCTVz, u- u-' < -Alfred Leblanc, the famous balloonist, has begun trials with his Bleriot. a copv of the "XI."

Count de Cournet, whose first experience with the Delagrange machine was recorded last month, has now got acquainted with his Voisin biplane, and was about to circle the Juvisy course with ease.


A company with a capital of $250,000 has been formed on Frankfort-on-Maiu under the auspices of the Disconto Gesellshaft of Berlin to work the new patents of the Dellwik-Fleischer Hydrogen Co., and it is believed that hydrogen of 99 per cent, purity will be produced at a price of 4 cents per cubic metre by the new plant which this concern will put upon the market.

The military "Zeppelin I" is now completely repaired after the accident mentioned last month, and on July 3 the trip was continued to Aletz. Count Zeppelin issued a statement calling attention to the fact that, the ship being now nearly four vears old, the covering is not now entirely waterproof, though it has until of late withstood heavy showers. Ascents were then made at Aletz. The Zeppelin I. the old "III" of 1907, modified and elongated, is the fifth airship built by Zeppelin. The count has been negotiating with the Prussian railroad administration for a working arrangement between his proposed airship passenger lines and he suggests that the depots should be enlarged so as to afford shelter for the dirigibles. . L

On its third attempt to reach Colognerfrom Frankfort the Zeppelin II was successful, and arrived on August 5. after having been delayed by unfavorable weather. The big airship left Frankfort, cheered by a crowd of 50,000 people. Its progress was reported by telegraph as it sailed down the Rhine. At Limburg, Xeu-weid. Remageu and Bonn great throngs as sembled to watch it. As it approached Cologne, however, it ran into a thick fog and went off its course some ten miles to the southwest. At Dueren it got its bearings again and headed straight for the city. After circling the tower of Cologne cathedral it made a safe landing at Bickendorf, a suburb. The distance between Frankfort and Cologne in a straight line is no miles, but the airship covered considerably more than this. Its average speed must hav been about 25 miles an hour.

The Zeppelin II flew from Friedrichshafen to Frankfort on Julv 31, a distance of j'> miles, with Count Zeppelin himself at the helm. On August 2 it made its attempt to reach Cologne, but when within 30 mile> of its destination was forced back by strong head winds. On August 3 the ship wuit bur a short distance when two of its propeller dades came off.

The Zeppelin II has been acquired by the War Department, and is to be stationed at Cologne.

Berlin, Aug. 5.—The military dirigible "Gross II" returned here at three o'clock this afternoon after a flight to Halle and return. The distance, 217 miles, was covered Hr~"!t5 "hours and 40 minutes.


M. Lefevre has been experimenting at The Hague with a Wright bought in France. His longest flight so far has been 3.5 km.


L. Calderara has, on the advice of his doctor, given up flying. He suffers from some heart trouble. But before giving up he made a flight of 40 m. in the Wright machine during the first week of July, and showed that m.ther his accident nor his weak heart affected Ins nerve and skill.

A new dirigible has had its first trials. It is 130 ft. long, 78 ft. diam., and the speed is^ stated as 30 m. p. b. a» . . ~> 1


The dates July 19, 25 and 27 will ever remain monuments of progress, for on these days attempts were made to fly across a large body of water, one of them resulting in complete success.

Three aviators had been waiting on the French shore of the English Channel for a favorable moment to fly to England. There was Hubert Latham, a newcomer in the public eye, with his Antoinette IV monoplane installed at Sangatte, near Calais; Count Lambert, in his Wright biplane at Wissant; and Louis Bleriot, in his own monoplane at Les Baraqucs, near Calais.

The French government had placed fast torpedo destroyers in the Channel ready to follow the aviators at any moment, and the Marconi Co. had established wireless communication between Sangatte and a hotel in Dover.

The attempt for the Daily Mail's $5,000 prize was made by Latham on the 19th, and resulted in a splendid non-success. After man}' days of weary waiting, the weather was at last propitious. At 6._|8 a. m. the start was made, running down the slope at Blanc Nez. After going six or eight miles the engine began misfiring, and at last stopped altogether. At the moment of its stopping Latham was a thousand feet high, but he glided safely down to a wet "landing," the machine striking the water at good speed and floating. In the interval before the boats reached him, perfectly dry, Latham calmly lit a cigarette and fixed himself for a wait. The machine was later hoisted on a tug and the return made to Calais. The same evening Latham left fo'" Paris to get another machine, the 100 h. p. "Antoinette VII." and the next night it was on its way. The new machine is identical, except for its slightly increased surface.

uleriot's wonderful feat. On the morning of July 25th Louis Bleriot flew across the English Channel from Calais to Dover, England, in his monoplane, and won the $5,000 prize. The distance is about 31

miles, and he was in the air thirty-seven minutes. The flight was accomplished without incident, and apparently with the greatest ease.

Bleriot left the Terminus Hotel, at Calais, at three o'clock in the morning and drove out in an automobile to Baraques, where his aeroplane was housed. As the weather seemed favorable, he notified the torpedo boat which the French government had assigned to him, and began preparations for the flight. The aeroplane, which is Bleriot's eleventh, was found in good condition; the motor ran smoothly and powerfully. At four o'clock he mounted his seat and made a short trial flight of a quarter of an hour, landing near the edge of the cliffs. There he waited for the sun to rise. The weather was foggy, so that the coast of England could not be seen, and there was a light southwest breeze.

At 4.30 Bleriot, clad in a khaki suit with a close-fitting cap, again climbed into the car. Anzani. the designer of the motor, himself cranked it, and at 4.35 the aeroplane shot into the air. Bleriot rose rapidly to clear the telegraph wires strung along the edge of the cliff, and sailed out over the water at an elevation of about 250 feet.

The torpedo boat put on full steam and headed for Dover, but Bleriot, making over forty miles an hour, quickly passed it. In his own story, printed in the London Daily Mail, he says that after flying for about ten minutes the chalk cliffs on both sides and the torpedo boat were completely lost in the fog, and as he had no compass he was compelled to let the aeroplane take its own course. As a consequence the wind took him out of his way, and when the English coast became visible he made out Dover Castle far to the west. He had to turn the machine almost at right angles. Now, too, the air currents set up by the cliffs began to be troublesome. This was by far the most difficult part of the trip.

However, be reached safely a green meadow two miles east of Dover, which had been marked with a big French flag as a suitable

landing" place. A sudden wind whirled the machine around, and Bleriot shut off the motor and descended sharply from a height of sixty-five feet. He struck the ground with a severe bump, breaking the propeller, but without harm to himself. Two Frenchmen who had been expecting his arrival were the first to welcome him and to help him from the machine. An automobile quickly took him to Dover, where the torpedo boat, with his wife on board, had just hove in sight. lime. Bleriot came ashore in a small boat, and Uncouple were heartily cheered.

A guard of police was necessary to protect the aeroplane from souvenir hunters, who would quickly have wrecked it and carried away the last fragment. " As it was, the wings were covered with autographs. Soon the enterprising city officials erected a tent over r<" and charged sixpence admission

Bleriot and his aeroplane reached London on the 26th, the aeroplane to go on exhibition and the aviator to receive the £1,000 prize of the Daily Mail which he won by his flight. The prize was awarded at a luncheon at the Savoy, and Mr. Haldane, the Secretary for War, was the principal speaker. The Aero Club has decided to present M. Bleriot with a gold medal similar to that which it conferred on the Wrights. M. Bleriot received his honors modestly, and managed to stammer "Thank you" in English.

The manufacturers, of course, come in for their share of the honors. Anzani motor, Continental cloth, Bowden wire control.


Hubert Latham, whose gallant attempt to cross the Channel prepared the way for Bler-iot's successful trip, was caught napping, liter-

ally as well as figuratively, and lost by a few minutes his chance to tie with Bleriot for the Daily Mail prize. The two aviators had agreed that if both made the flight the same day they would divide the prize, regardless of which was actually the first to touch English soil. When on the morning of the 25th he found that Bleriot had actually started, he j/$ made a desperate attempt to follow, but the risiiiP' wjiid conipellgdhbri to descend. De swallowed his disappointment as be"st he could, and when the news of Bleriot's landing was flashed across to Calais he sent back the message: "Hearty congratulations. I hope to follow you soon."'

True to his word, Latham made a second trial on July 27, and moreover announced his intention of continuing straight on to London if he succeeded in crossing the Chan nel. A great crowd gathered on the cliffs and roofs of Dover when the wireless announced that he had left Calais. Presently those with glasses made out a black spot in the sky, approaching rapidly. Tt was Latham, and he seemed headed straight for the landing place that had been prepared for him. The ships in the harbor set up a terrific din with their whistles. But suddenly the machine faltered, recovered for a moment, then settled swiftly down on the water, still two miles from its goal. Instantly the sea was alive with all sorts of craft to the rescue. The aviator was picked up, wet through and with a cut caused by his goggles breaking. The cause of the failure was the motor, which stopped for no apparent reason.

The aeroplane easily floated, though a little down at the head. The following day it was towed to Calais and hoisted out by cranes.


Hon. James M. Beck, former Asst. Atty. Gen. of the U. S., Chairman of the Aeronautic Committee of the Hudson Fulton Celebration Commission, has returned from Europe where he has been negotiating for flights in New York by the most prominent foreign aviators. MM. Bleriot, Delagrange and Latham are willing to come provided satisfactory financial inducements are offered.

While Mr. Beck was abroad, Mr. Hammer, the Secretary of the Committee, has been industrious and has secured Curtiss' signature to a contract. Then, too, the Wrights, while no promise has been made by them and though they have turned down every request and proposition for flights here thus far, it is believed, look with favor upon the request of the Commission and if not interfering too much with their own plans, will consent to take part.

In the proposed plan, the Wrights and Curtiss will not enter into competition at all but make purely exhibition flights. They may.

however, elect to enter the international competition which is proposed.

Chas. F. Willard will, by that time, be making long flights and can be considered as another big feature. It is not at all unlikely that such flights as are made will be somewhat sensational.

Dr. Julian P. Thomas is working on a marine "windwagon" of greater power than the one he had at Morris Park which made 30 miles an hour. This will be used in the naval pageant.

Tt is expected that a number of American dirigibles will take part. The expense con nected with the securing of any of the great foreign airships was found too great.

The aeronautical features of the celebration will, with one exception — the New York World's N. Y.-Albany flight, which is under the control of that paper and the Aero Club of. America—be in charge of the commission itself and all aero organizations re asked to co-operate towards making the affair a success.


The Bleriot XI has been changed eonsiflerably since the description given in the March issue The surface lias been increased and the motive power changed from the It. K. I'. .'!.">. Its characteristics arc as follows :

I'hinrx.—'Vho spread of the machine is ֊.").:;s ft. with I 50.5 sij. ft. surface. When first built it had but I'M) s(|. ft. The wings arc composed of single inenibers, independently detachable from the chassis, set at a slight dihedral angle. The main cross beams measure, in cross section, about " by թ\ ins., and the ribs, about \\ in. cross section, are spaced 7 in. apart on these beams. Some of these ribs, however, are strips of aluminum reinforced in front by a strip of wood. The main rib on each side next the chassis is of wood, built up in channel section. From the front and rear edges, which are both sharp, the maximum thickness between tile upper and lower surfaces is about ins. The covering, top and bottom, is

Continental fabric. The planes are capable of being warped and the angle of attack is stated at 7 deg.

Frame.—The ash and poplar frame is square in cross section and measures about !!."> ft. in length. It is braced with wood struts and piano wire ties. It weighs 45 lbs. and will bear f'.C.u lbs. in the center without bending. The pilot sits inside the frame .inst at the rear edge of the main surface. lie rests his back against a leather strap, while his feel are placed on a pivoted cross piece which operates the vertical rudder. Vertically in front of the aviator is the lever for warping the wings and controlling the wing tips at the rear end. This lever occupies the left hand, while the right is free lo control the throttle and spark levers, or to increase the pressure in the oil tank by pressing a rubber bulb. A two

wheeled chassis supports the front part of the apparatus and the rear part rests on a single wheel of smaller diameter.

The two front wheels are mounted on castor brackets. The chassis to which these wheels are attached consists of two tubular steel columns

braced together with two w.....leu beams, on one

of which the front end of the whole frame rests. This beam is fastened to the heads of the columns by a steel strap so arranged that the frame rests in a kind of cradle. The upper beam is merely a strut between the two columns. A clever combination of springs and rubber hands take all the shock in lauding.

Sltibilitii Device. In the rear are the four horizontal stabilizing planes. The center ones, of about 17 s<|. ft. surface, are fixed. At the outer edge of each of these is a movable tip operated in conjunction with the warping of the wiugs by means of the lever and gear especially invented by Bleriot. Thirteen feet from the rear edge of the main plane there is a vertical rudder, of about 4 V. si|. ft. surface. These rear planes drive1 the aeroplane up or down in place of the usual front horizontal rudder.

Motor.—Anzani. 3 cyl.. air cooled. 422-2~> h. p.. weight 1.'!'2 lbs., controlled by Bowden wire. It lias auxiliary exhaust ports. It drives a Chau-viere "Integral" directly connected propeller at 1,350 r. p. m.

Propeller.—Two bladed. wood. C.N ft. diam.. L'.71> ft. pitch, pull about *-!20 lbs. at full speed. Chau-viere claims 00-07 per cent, efficiency for this propeller.

Totals.—Length L'C.iM ft., weight with pilot and gas for .'! hrs.. Clio lbs. The machine lifts 4.:!S lbs. per sq. ft., and the weight carried per unit of power is ."><ՠlbs. It flies at 34 in. p. h. One authority gives the weight with pilot and fuel as 715 lbs., 4N4 lbs. for the machine alone.





Specific Gravity 3 20 Tension, - 44,000 lbs. to sq. in. Compression, 126,000 lbs. to sq. in. Transverse, 87,000 " .Torsion. - 60.000 '

Send for test bar or a pattern for sample casting


19 Rapelye Street BROOKLYN, N. Y


{Continued from page 85)

us into beds—just about the time the first birds were beginning to sing.

After breakfast (later in the morning), Air. Geller, about twenty of the young men students, some guests of Air. Geller's, Aliss Cantor, the Suttons and the "balloon people" went to the swamp to see about the health of the balloon.

Here we spent the da}*, and here Miss Cantor spread a delightful and delectable lunch. Imagine being seated on life preservers, in the middle of a swamp, feeding on fried chicken and ice cream.

It was lots of fun watching the men struggle round. "Follow me!" commanded Mr. Geller, and he straightway fell in up to his waist.

Toward evening man}- hands and willing hearts had the entire outfit off the swamp. We drove back to the school, where we were most excellently entertained during the evening and the next morning, and about i l :,;o on July 5 we said our good-byes.

They tell me I am to have the Eldridge-Simmermau cup for long-distance ballooning by women out of Philadelphia. After such a delightful adventure, this seems like getting the penny and the cake.

F. J. Cornick, of Grand Haven, Alich., ha^ about completed a glider.

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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 120


(Continued from page. 87)

operated from the cam shaft, the oil being fed through the hollow cam shaft to the main bearings thence to the crank, and connecting rod bearings, the overflow from the case returning to a separate reservoir underneath the engine, from where it is again pumped through the system. The crank cast* is of, aluminum alloy, McAdamite, and the^ shafts' arc of vanadium steel. The pistons and connecting rods are of aluminum alloy. Valves both in head actuated by a single push rod and cam. Weight, including oil and water pumps, is 85 pounds. Ignition is by Bosch magneto, weighing \2l/2 pounds. Power developed, 25 h. p. at 1,300 r.p.m., with a maximum speed of 1,800 to 2,000. Weight of complete power plant, motor, radiator, magneto, oil and water pumps, about 192 pounds. The shaft of the motor coincides with a line drawn from the pivot of the front control to that of the rear; 2 ft. 3 in. above rear beam.

Propeller—Wood, 6 ft. diam., 7 in. wide at extremity, 4 in. at the center; pitch 17-18 deg. Direct connected on engine shaft.

Framing—Principally clear Oregon spruce, though bamboo is used as shown in drawings ; fish-shaped spars. Distance front to rear struts, 42 in.

IVeight—Total weight, with operator, 550 pounds.

®f)e Aeronautic S>octetp


Join Now at the Opening of the Season.


WORKSHOPS—Where members may WEEKLY MEETINGS — Held at the construct their machines without club house of the Automobile

charge for space or facilities. Club of America, at which

valuable discussions take place,

MOTORS —With which members and every assistance and en-

may make their initial trials at the couragement given.

cost only of gasoline and care. T „^ T„ ,, , -

y LECTURES — Well known scientists

SHEDS —In which members may tell things worth knowing.

house their machines, rent free. LIBRARY —Including a complete

t t7 , file of all aeronautical patents.

GROUNDS—Where members may try

out their machines, learn the art EXPERIMENT FUND—A fund is of flying, and make flights. forming for the work of investi-

gation and experiment.

Exhibitions—To which all mem- „ , ., ,

i i j r i զnbsp;CATAPULT — Apparatus provided

bers are admitted free, and in 1F F

which they have splendid oppor- fo,r ^"'"S "rop anes that are

tunities to make their inventions wheel-less or for gliders.

known either in model or full GLIDING MOUND—For the practice

scale. and exercise of gliding.

Twenty-one Members of the Society are ?iow building Machines.





Morris Park, Weslchester, N. Y.

I desire lo become a member of the Aeronautic Sociely. If elected I agree to pay the membership fee of $10 per year, and lo abide by the Rules of the Sociely.


Profession or Occupation............................

Dale..................1909. Address................................

HI The



Magneto !

and F. S. Ball Bearings

Used on Voisin Aeroplane, 8 cyl. Antoinette Motor, driven by Latham.

Bowden wire for controls


Sole Importers, Times Building, New York

New York Chocolates


Most Suitable for Aeronauts or those requiring a Non-Rulky Sustaining- Food Office, 150-154 CHAMBERS STREET, NEW YORK


Under this heading we publish each month a list of such rare and out-of-print books as can be secured. The demand at the present time for rare aeronautical works is great, and it is usually not possible to obtain more than one copy at a time of any one work.

TRAVELS IN SPACE (Valentine & Tomlinson), introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim; many illusts. 8vo., cloth, London, 1902............................... $4.00

ASTRA CASTRA (Hatton Turner), many illusts., royal 4tp., boards with leather back, uncut, London, 1865... $10.00

TRAVELS IN THE AIR (James Glaish-er, Flammarion, Tissaudier, etc.), 125 illusts., royal 8vo., cloth, London, 1871 $6.00

AERIAL WORLD (G. Hartwig), 8 plates, map, many woodcuts, 8vo., cloth, N. Y., 1875......................... $4.00

Same, new ed., same illusts., London, 1892 ............................... $4.50

DOMINION OF THE AIR (Rev. J. M. Bacon), 24 plates, 8vo., cloth, London, 1904 ............................... $2.00

DONALDSON & GRIM WOOD, A True Account of Their Last Balloon Voyage and Tragic Death in Lake Michigan, thin, 121110., wrappers, illust., Philadelphia, 1875 (very scarce) ............................ $300

THIRTY YEARS IN THE CLOUDS, with Observations on Thunder and Lightning, Formation of Rain, Hail, Snow, etc. (John Wise), 8vo., pamphlet, 1870.....$5.00

Aerial Developmert Company

€fl This company is organized for the purpose of exploiting all business connected with aerial transportation, including the patenting of new devices, the purchase and sale of patents and patented apparatus, the establishment of laboratories for original research, the building of manufacturing plants for the construction of all types of flying machines and motors, the promotion of exhibitions, races, prize competitions. 1^ Models and experimental work of all kinds to order.

Cj Materials and appliances used in aerial transportation offered for sale.

<!1 Estimates furnished for the construction and trial tests of all classes of aeronautical work. <I Write for prospectus.

45 West 34th Street, New York.






A ERIAL WARFARE, by R. P. Hearne, with an introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim. First systematic popular account of progress made by the countries of the world in aeronautics. 57 views of airships and aeroplanes: Wright, Farman, Delagrange, Bleriot, Ferber, Zeppelin, Patrie, Republique, &c. Profusely illustrated. $2 06 postpaid.

]\/r OEDEBECK'S HANDBOOK, by Major H. W. L. Moedebeck and O. Chanute. The only handbook of aeronautics in English. All phases of aerial travel fully covered. Invaluable for the beginner and a ready reference for the aeronautical engineer. Data on screws,-pressure, ballooning, physics, etc. Illustrated. $3.25.

PROBLEM OF FLIGHT, by Herbert Chatley.

Especially written for engineers. Outline of contents : Problem of Flight, Essential Principles, the Helix, the Aeroplane. Aviplanes, Dirigible Balloons, Form and Fittings of the Airship. Appendix furnishes much instructive information. 61 illustrations. Price, $3.50.

VVTAR IN THE AIR, by H. G. Wells. The greatest fiction story in recent years. Unfolds a breathless story of aerial battle and adventure, a triumph of scientific imagination, possibly not beyond the realm of actuality. Illustrated. $1.50.

^STRA CASTRA, by Hatton Turnor.

This rarest aeronautical work in existence can be supplied to a few first inquiries at $15-All in perfect condition.

AERONAUTICAL ANNUAL, by James Means. For years 1S95, 1896 and 1897. Extremely rare. Illustrated.

$1.50 each.

"DALLOONING AS A SPORT, by Major B. Baden Powell. A handbook of ballooning and guide for the amateur. Full instructions for the equipment and management of a balloon. Illustrated.

Price $1.10.

"NJAVIGATING THE AIR, by members of the Aero Club of America. Interesting record of ideas and experiences of 24 distinguished men. Contributors: Wright Bros., Chanute, Pickering, Rotcli, Zahm, Stevens, Herring and others. 300 Pages, 32 Illustrations. 95

My Airships (Santos Dumont). Illustrated. Crown 8vo., cloth..................

Resistance of Air and the Question of Flying (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated. 12mo., 42 pp., paper.......................................................

Flight Velocity (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated. 45 pp., 12mo., paper............

Flying Machines, Past, Present and Future (A. W. Marshall and H. Greenly). Illustrated .................................................................

Paradoxes of Nature and Science (W. Hampson). Illustrated. Two chapters on balloons as airships and bird flight. Svo., cloth, N. Y., 1907...................

Airships Past and Present, by Captain A. Hildebrandt; translated by W. H. Story. Large Svo., cloth, profusely ill. Latest hook on motor aerostation..........

Aerial Flight: Aerodynamics (F. W. Lanchester). Large Svo., cloth, illustrated, 442 pp. Most complete work on the subject; just out......................

How to Make a Glider


8-pHRe illustrated pamphlet giving full details for the construction of a bi-surface glider, with diagrams and exaet measurements. Every expeiimentor should have this valuable treatise. Price, 12 Cents (Post Free).

AERONAUTICS J777 Broadway, New York

Artificial and Natural Flight

By SIR HIRAM MAXIM. With 95 lllus.

cloth, illus., S vo., $1.75 net

A concise history and description of the development of flying machines. Description of his own experimental work. Explaining the machinery and methods which enable him to arrive at certain conclusions. Fully describes the work of other successful inventors. Chapter on dirigible balloons.

"AERONAUTICS," 1777 Broadway. NEW YORK

FOR SALE—Two complete captive balloon outfits, consisting of gas bag, net, valve, and car for 4 persons, controlled by motor windlass with clutch and brake, besides patent portable hydrogen gas works for inflation.

ALSO—One-man gas balloon ; one-man airship, 7 h. p. motor and gas works. Write for prices, inclosing stamp.

Balloon Race


October 4th, 1909

Limited to 80,000 cubic feet capacity. Open to pilots of the Aero Club of America and its affiliated clubs.

First Prize $600, or Cup

Second Prize $400, or Cup

Third Prize $300, or Cup

Fourth Prize $200, or Cup

Fifth Prize $100, or Cup

Endurance Prize


SAME AFTERNOON Race for balloons, limited to 40,000 cubic feet

First Prize, St. Louis Centennial Cup Second Prize, Cup

Gas will be furnished free ^ For further particulars write to

to all contestants the Aero Club of St. Louis




"University City" ("Yankee") "St. Louis No. 3"

Championship of America Third Place


In first national balloon race of The Aero Club of America, Indianapolis, June 5th.

<J The longest voyage by a licensed pilot in the United States, in 1908, was made with the 2200 cubic meter "Yankee"—461 miles with two stops — a remarkable performance; 800 pounds ballast aboard when landing.



<J The greatest balloon trip of 1908— 850 miles in competition — made by the 2000 cubic meter balloon, "Fielding-San Antonio." Four American and two Foreign makes defeated by wide margin.



. Honeywell Piloting Party of St. Louis Aero Club Millionaires. Note Sand Box A Great Convenience to any Pilot



q HONEYWELL CONSTRUCTION utilizes the latest and best materials —varnished or rubberized envelope with French-type valve, and Italian hemp or linen nettings. Cars equipped for comfort and convenience - light and durable..........


H. E. HONEYWELL, Director

3958 Cottage Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.