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THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERIAL NAVIGATION
¡i ULY, 1908 prick, t\v::nty-five cents
The Auto=Meter Is Believed
Talk about speed indicators that are believed—that have figured largely in famous events/ Here are a feiv right off the reel—just jotted down from memory/ The reviewing of big motor events is nothing more or less than a history of the successful career of the Auto-Meter
Glidden Tour, 1906, 38 Warners used; All other makes, 23.
Memorial Day Races, Denver, 1906. Thomas "40" won 1st; Stevens-Duryea 2nd; both Warner-equipped.
Mudlark, 1906, from New York to Daytona, Warner-equipped; big tour afterward.
Memorial Day, 1906, non-stop run, New York-Boston-Springfield; Knox Waterless made record, Warner-equipped.
Franklin car, San Francisco-New York, 4,500 mile run, August, 1906; Warner-equipped. Percy Megargle with Reo Mountaineer, across continent and back, 12,000 ^!i~s, 1906, W^-i,,-/^. v " «.rner-equippe^.
military message Run, Chicago-New York, June, 1906, Buick car, Warner Auto-Meter. Military Run, New York-San Francisco. Aug., 1906, a Warner was used.
Red Cloud, Olds, trans-çontinental run.
1907, Warner-equipped. Glidde'u Tour, 1907, 75 cars started, 53 used Warners; 21 used all other makes.
Detroit Reliability Run, 1907, winner
used Warner. New York-Chicago Sealed Bonnet Contest, winner Warner-equipped. Long Island Economy Run, Frayer-Miller, winner, was Warner-equipped. In New York-Paris Race only speed indicator in the run is a Warner Auto-Meter. ^A^t-^0
Ralph Owen, driver ^
bought a Warr of Mudlark> 1908( offered Mt for thjg car though
.^W'" * -uother as a gift.
/.nning Haynes car in Chicago Reliability Race, December, 1908, was Warner-equipped. Charles J*. Glidden has piled up 42,367 miles in 35 countries with a Warner Auto-Meter
The fire departments of the following cities use the Auto-Meter: New York, Boston, Detroit, Chicago, Denver, Joplin, Mo., and Seattle, Wash.
All the reliable maps of the country have been laid out with Auto-Meters: The Blue Book, White's Route Books, all Canadian maps, Michael's Pictorial maps, all Glidden Tour courses, King's maps, Brlarcliff Course, etc.
Nearly all the automobile makers of the country use the Auto-Meter to test their cars before leaving the factory.
The e. R. Thomas Motor Co. and the Olds Motor Car Co., furnish the Warner as part of th* regular equipment.
Warner Instrument Co
197 Wheeler Avenue
published monthly by
Ernest LaRue Jones, Editor and Owner Thoroughfare Building, 1777 Broadway, New York, U. S. A.
■ ol. III - V July, 1908 - y i _ l^oy No. i
Aeronautics is issued ou the 20th of each mouth. It furnishes the latest aud most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics. Contributious are solicited.
SUBSCRIPTION RATES. One year, $3.00; payable always in advance.
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Important.—Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure proper credit.
AERO CLUBS AND PRIZE FUNDS.
E have persistently argued the value of cash prizes for the encouragement of endeavors in the art but, as everyone knows, without success. The Aero Club of America tried to secure funds and
wrote about fifty letters to fifty wealthy members with no result. We have heard nothing of the Meaus-Chauute-Bell-Rotch $25,000 fund. The newspapers have printed appeals to no avail. Men of Europe are competing among themselves for the privilege of giving prizes and we have— $100 in one prize.
This is the Great American Shame !
Among the many papers aud journals which have commented on this shame of oars, two of these editorials are certainly well worthy of mention.
from the steam motor journal
"For what are aeronautic clubs and societies? We warrant you that if you should ask a member of an American society the question he would volunteer the information that such elubs were for the purpose of promoting the industry of dying machines and kindred arts, and yet it is a fact that no aeronautic club or society in America has ever done aii3'thing substantial for the art. Aeronautics, a New York journal, tried to get up a purse to offer to successful flying men and was unable to raise enough to pajr the printer's bill in the attempt, although ***[there is]*** New York's swell Aero Club, whose members could probably register their wealth* at upwards of $^00,000.000.
If then when offered an opportunity to foster the industry by voluntary subscription, the members rich and poor alike refuse to subscribe to the industry which they pretend to encourage, and that, too, when a manufacturer will guarantee flight, the writer suggests that the so-called aeronautic societies would better call their club by anotheJ name. \
"When the auto industry was a struggling infant the people did buy autos anq gave their orders and cash accompanying the order for the auto with no guarantee^ that it would even work, and waited the pleasure of the maker to deliver; why do not our sports now give their orders for aeroplanes with the same good grace and business judgment as in auto days of yore? If they would do so, in a few months America would have another big industry. .
"In Europe the aeronautic societies are offering rewards to their members to do even little stunts, for which an American would be ashamed to take money.
"We need not be ashamed of the American inventor. He has produced nearly all the great things and more of the small things combined than all the world for all time before.
"American manufacturers and industries have produced more money than all the gold and silver mines combined and a further factor in favor of the factory is the solid fact that a factory is a sure money maker with profit at every turn of the wheel and it is a further fact that every gold and silver dollar has cost the world over eleven dollars, and more money has been sunk in mining stocks than the combined capital of all the banks in the world, and yet for all that a good gold mine is still a sure winner. But the point I want to make is the fact that the people will throw a hundred million dollars into a mere prospect in the ground when a hundred dollars cannot be raised in a demonstrated manufacturing proposition, guaranteed at that, with no risk on the part of the investor. The Bell telephone is a case in point when the inventor begged some one to take the telephone system for $6,000, and put it on the market.
"The Westinghouse air brake was another when railroad presidents told Westing-house they had no time to talk to fools, and hundreds of other big, bigger, gold mines in the manufacturing lines."
from motor print.
"Certainly the American's reputation for prodigality of expenditure, especially where sport is concerned, has suffered by comparison, when placed side by side with that of the Frenchman, in all matters appertaining to aerial travel, transport or experiment. A recent canvass by Aeronautics among American sportsmen to procure some evidence that they did not .intend to remain forever in the last place so far as encouragement of aerial endeavor was concerned, resulted in the discovery of just twelve' individuals, the average of whose prodigality in the prize-giving line was a trifle less than $25 each. In Paris a group of French enthusiasts have offered to the Aero Club of France a trophy and prizes that are expected to encourage inventors the world over '"n trying further to perfect machines for mechanical flight. In the aggregate the money offered amounts to $50,000, not including a trophy valued at $1,000. These prizes will be about the most important of the many offered in various parts of the world, and the conditions laid down insure steady attempts at improvement for ten years to come, which in comparison to America's munificent offering of $300 certainly is princely.
"Some day an American * * * * * js going to step to the front and offer a prize worthy of the country and the cause. Till the appearance of such a man, however, it is up to America to keep well hidden in the background while she mourns the mistakes of her misrepresentatives in aerialism."
NEW AERONAUTIC PRIZES—ABROAD
Ernest Archdeacon has bet 2,000 francs with A. de la- Hault that no flapping wing machine will make a flight lasting 2 minutes before June 4, 1909.
M. Rene Quinton offers 10,000 francs to the first aeroplane that will, with its motor stopped, stay in the air for five minutes without descending more than 50 meters.
M. Armengaud offers $4,000 for a flight of 30 minutes.
Berlin, June 30.—A new military steerable airship designed by Major Gross, chief of the balloon corps of the army, made its first ascent at Tegel to-day. The ship is 200 feet long and is propelled by two motors of 75 h.p. each. The trial trip lasted for one hour and a half and was highly successful.
JUNE AEROPLANE FLIGHTS IN AMERICA.
Flying Machine III of the Aerial Experiment Association Wins the Scientific American
Trophy for Kilometer Flight.
On June 21 the first flights were made with the "June Bug," the third aeroplane built by the Aerial Experiment Association. This third one was constructed under the supervision of G. H. Curtiss, one of the members of the Association. (Refer to April and June numbers of this journal.)
The June Bug is somewhat different from its predecessors. It has a box tail and instead of silk, the covering is of nainsook.
Three successful flights were made in the afternoon, the first of 456 feet at 28 miles an hour. The motor was shut off by accident and the machine landed easily. The second flight was of 417 feet, at a rate of 31.5 miles per hour. The front control broke in the air at the trial and the machine descended. The third and most successful flight was 1,266 feet. The distance was made in 25 seconds, or a rate of 34 miles an hour. At no time did the machine rise above 25 feet.
On the following day flights were attempted but the heat of the sun had melted the paraffin with which the nainsook was coated and there was not enough resistance.
On the 24th a couple of short flights were made, but there was a strong lateral wind and long flights were not attempted.
curtiss winning the trophy.
(Copyrighted photograph of H. M. Benner, taken after sunset.)
Early in the morning of the 25th the aviators went to the grounds while the dew was still on the grass. The wind was blowing at 10 miles an hour. After a run of ISO feet, the aeroplane immediately rose into the air. A side wind attempted to tip the machine over but the end controls answered beautifully and the aviator, G. H. Curtiss, righted the machine instantly. This happened twice. A moment later another "wave" of air was struck which sent the machine up like a balloon, to a height of 40 feet before Mr. Curtiss could bring it down. In the meantime he had gotten out of his course a little and was obliged to land on account of the railroad track and telegraph wires.
This flight exceeded the previous one, being 2175 feet in length and occupied 41 seconds, or about 36 miles an hour.
Not the slightest trouble was had from the motor. The motive power has always been constant and in abundance. This is in marked contrast to the engines in aeroplanes abroad.
Toward evening another attempt was made. Under the guidance of Mr. Curtiss the June Bug flew 1140 yards (3420 ft.) in just 60 seconds. All that stopped the flight was the limited area of the practice ground, bounded by trees and a fence which would have interfered with the progress of the machine, traveling, as it was, at a height of from three to twenty-three feet above the ground.
It was the seventh flight of the machine and the eighth attempt of the aviator. The controls worked perfectly in every respect, the machine having to travel on the arc of a circle in order to make the distance it did in a field the size and shape of the Association's grounds.
The Aerial Experiment Association then communicated with the Aero Club of America and made application to compete for the Scientific American Trophy, offered by the Scientific American through the Aero Club for the first flight of a kilometer in a straight line^ne machine to land without injury. (See September, 1907, issue.)
After the flight of the 25th it was decided to move both operator and control ^further forward in the hope of obviating the past difficulty of "climbing."
The 26th was spent in making^these alterations. On the evening of the 27th two flights were made—one of 400 yards in 24 seconds, a speed of 34 miles per hour; and, after taking off the covering of the running gear, of 540 yards in 33 seconds, a speed of 33 miles per hour. The machine was more manageable than before, though the front control was still too weak. It was then decided to add to its surface.
On July 2, two flights were made, of 30 and 150 yards respectively, the latter at the rate of 22 miles per hour, the slowest speed recorded in any of the flights. Both flights were unsatisfactory and the machine was hard to control. It swerved and rocked badly, the reason for this being ascribed to the slow speed.
On the 3rd there occurred what threatened to be a bad accident. The machine rose very fast and lost headway and consequently control. The machine swung sharp to the left and struck the left wing and front control. This resulted in smashing the wing, control and front wheel. Repairs were quickly and easily made and the machine was ready by evening.
The previous small control was then used, as there was not sufficient time to repair the control, which was broken in this flight. This smaller control has 5 square feet less than the one which was broken. Though the result was dubious it was decided to make a trial, which proved to be most successful. The machine was in better control than ever before. When the end of the field was reached, the aviator, Mr. Curtiss, decided to try to return, but made up his mind too late, as he did not have sufficient room on this portion of the ground and had to land just before reaching a clump of trees. He was quite confident of his ability to turn if he had thought quickly enough. The idea in the start of the 'flight was merely to cover a kilometer in a straight line. The flight was most encouraging, as the last three flights had developed ՠvagaries which could not seem to be accounted for. 1300 yards were covered in 681-5 seconds, a little over 38 miles per hour. The machine landed in fine shape. Everything was all ready for the official trial on the morrow.
wins the trophy.
On July 4th, the machine earned the right to have its name inscribed on the Scientific American trophy, after making an official flight of more than 1 kilometer in a straight line.
After passing the finish flag the machine traveled for about 600 yards further and landed at the extreme edge of the field, near the railroad track. During the flight the machine cleared three fences and described the letter "S," the total distance being 2000 yards. The time for the entire flight was 1 minute 42^ seconds, the speed 39 miles per hour.
The official flight followed one of 900 yards in 56 seconds. The machine never flew better and the flight could have been lengthened at the will of the operator had he cared to rise over the trees which bounded the field, but it was not deemed wise at the pre'sent stage of the aviator's development to attempt it. Hardly a breath of air stirred during the flights.
This trial was really of the utmost importance, as it was the first official test of an aeroplane ever made in America. There are but two other machines in the world that have ever travelled further in public, Farman and Delagrange. The Wright Brothers have far outflown this in private, so that America is not so very far behind France as might be supposed.
The official flight was the 15th made by the machine, all having occurred under far more adverse conditions than those encountered by the French machines.
The exact distance in this official flight was determined by the Contest Committee of the Aero Club of America at 5090 feet. This distance was measured from where Mie machine left the ground lo the point of landing, in a straight line. The actual iistancc travelled by path was, of course, somewhat longer, 2000 yards, though being accurate enough.
The Aero Club of America was represented officially by Charles M. Manly, the only member of the Contest Committee not in Europe. Several members and officers were also present. The Scientific American was represented by Stanley Y. Beach who, with E. L. Jones, also represented The Aeronautic Society. The latter bore a letter from the Society congratulating the Aerial Experiment Association upon the good work it hafAviccomplished during the short period of its existence.
On the 5th another flight was made in the shape of a reversed "?" mark. The idea was to return to the starting point but this was not accomplished. The machine turned in a very small circle and the power was reduced in making the turn. The machine did not seem to pick up power fast enough to get up again and landed a little sideways, breaking the right wing, control and two wheels. Another thing which has been noticed, that at this particular point in the field there seems to be a cross current of air which drives the machine sideways and this may have helped to bring it down. This side current has been noticed on nearly all of the flights.
JTj-^ \,t;-»L Fvpr-n'mnnt A <<;nrin firm 1-ft <W Hnyc ]-|tf- f"- ^ P 111 111"1 -»
-home, Burnt ninugli, UL'.tl Iladiluk, Nina iji'utitfti.
H. M. Benner Photo.
june hug starting its flight-note the smoke from the engine.
the official flight.
This event will long be remembered by a thousand or more people who journeyed from all over the country to the grounds two miles from Hammondsport, N. Y.
The little half mile race track from which the flights have all taken place, surrounded by waving oats and tall grass, nestled among the softly rounded vine clad hills of this most beautiful section of the Empire State.
The sun dropped behind the sheltering hills and a soft golden light was diffused over this miniature lap of Nature. Down at one end of the little course was an inanimate yellow object, almost hid by the tall grass and oats. Suddenly the motor started with the hum of distant rifle fire, on came the machine directly to-vard us. so fast that it loomed up ahead like a monstrous apparition, we instinctively ran to the right and left to get out of its way, but there was no need for this. As it ncared it left the ground with more grace than any bird and over our heads it passed with an enormous clatter. Turning to watch it recede from sight, we saw it fade as fast as it had loomed up and it was lost to sight behind the poles of a vineyard which rudely placed itself in a position dangerous to the aviator and obstructive to sight. For a moment we stood spellbound by the wonderful scene and then we cheered. The cup which had turned an ordinary aeroplane flight into a glorious event was won and glad we were to see it won by this man Curtiss, of all. Loved by all who know him, retiring and modest, this motor-wise man who knows his motors to he almost human, has found his work and is content. Happy indeed is the man who has found himself. "3^"
(Continued on page -44V)
JUNE AEROPLANE FLIGHTS IN EUROPE.
In the last issue we left Delagrange at Rome and Farman at Ghent.
On May 30. both Delagrange and Farman beat world's records for public flights, Delagrange remaining in the air 15 minutes 26 seconds, and Farman by flying over a course of 1241 meters carrying a passenger. These double performances made in less than two years after the first flight of Santos-Dumont on October 23, 1906, proves the progress made since that date and gives us hope of a brilliant furture for aviation.
15 minutes in the air.
Early in the morning of the 30th, Delagrange was out on the Place dArmes. A light breeze was blowing. After a short run on the ground the aeroplane rose into the air and circled ten times around at a height of 4 meters to 7 meters, returning to the ground only after 15 minutes and 26 seconds had elapsed. The distance covered, taking the path, was from 13 to 14 kilometers. The official distance assigned was 12.75 kilometers and the exact time 15 minutes 264-5 seconds. In the evening, on account of the wind, but 3 or 4 circles of the course were made.
Meanwhile, Farman was practicing for the "high jump" prize at Ghent and succeeded in clearing by 2 meters a row of balloons placed 10 meters above the ground. To win the 2500 franc prize offered by the Aero Club of France he must clear 25 meters in height.
farman and archdeacon fly together.
On the same'day Farman took with him Ernest Archdeacon and at a height of 7 meters flew, the two men, a distance of 1241 meters. Besides establishing a new_ record for a flight with two people, he wins the 12,000 francs bet with Santos-Dumont and Archdeacon, made on the 10th of March against M. Charron who claimed that a flying machine would not carry two men weighing 60 kilos each for one kilometer within a year.
On May 31, with rather a strong wind blowing, Delagrange made a few short flights but the wind stopped him from attempting anything like his previous ones. In the evening, before a large crowd, Delagrange made four circles of the grounds at a height of 3 to 4 meters in 4 minutes 30 seconds. The second flight was prevented on account of the bad work of the 50 horsepower Antoinette motor. In the third flight he made five times the circle in 6 minutes at a height of 5 to 6 meters.
On the evening of the same day Farman at Ghent made two flights; one of 1400 meters in 1 minute 32 seconds, or a rate of 55 kilometers an hour; and one of 1000 meters in 1 minute 4 3-5 seconds, a speed of 56 kilometers an hour.
On June 1, Farman went to Ostend where he has found a large beach. One flight of 500 meters with a turn was accomplished in 273-5 seconds and one of 1800 meters in 1 minute 274-5 seconds. Then he made a flight of about 1200 meters but owing to the breaking of a tube he was compelled to stop.
June 2. Farman made three flights of 500, 600 and 700 meters with a turn at a height of 3 to 4 meters. The time was not taken.
June 8. Pelterie, whom we have not seen out for some time, made a short flight of 300 meters, with a wind of 6 meters a second blowing, then rose a little higher and went for 500 meters more, 800 in all. On account of the restricted ground a landing was made and the machine headed toward the starting point. Going quickly up by the time he reached the end of the grounds he was 30 meters above the ground. He flew on over the village of Toussu-le-Noble and over the apple trees. Going at the rate of 80 to 90 kilometers an hour he did not dare to keep on and started down suddenly. The hydro-pneumatic shock absorber worked well and broke the shock of landing, though the propeller and one of the wings was slightly damaged. The total length of the flight was 1200 meters, the record for a monoplane and the record height for any flying machine.
The tank will be enlarged to hold 60 litres, enough for a flight of 4 hours. The total surface of this monoplane is 17 sq. meters, the weight 350 kilos, the weight lifted being 4.2 pounds to the square foot. The meter alone, 7 cylinders 35 horsepower, represents i-ioth of this weight. A 4-bladed propeller is used.
June 9. Delagrange made his first flight at Milan, twice circling the Place d'Armes nt a height of 4 meters, landing easily. Public trials were to have been held on the nth but he could not repair the motor in time, though he did essay a flight on that day but the motor gave out at the first trial.
June 18. Before 20,000 people Delagrange made five flights, one of which lasted 5 minutes 3 seconds.
delagrange in flight.
June 22. Three flights were made by Delagrange, before 15,000 people, of about 1500 kilometers at a height of 4 meters.
another new record-17 kilometers.
In the evening Delagrange made a flight of 17 kilometers at a height varying between 2 and 7 meters, the duration of the flight was 16 minutes 30 seconds.
Bleriot was also out, in Paris, with his monoplane "Libellule" and covered 500 meters. One wing was broken in landing.
19 minutes 30 seconds in the air.
June 23. Unfortunately after covering 4 kilometers Delagrange's machine touched the ground for an instant so that it cannot be called a new record.
Bleriot, having repaired the damage to his machine, was out and in spite of a strong wind was able to make short flights. The apparatus seems to be difficult to govern and the rear planes will be increased in size.
June 28. Toward sundown Farman made attempts to win the prize of M. Monte-fiore for a flight of five minutes before the end of the month, and the prize of M. Armengaud for fifteen minutes in the air. About half a kilometer was covered. In removing his machine from Ghent the box tail was not adjusted properly.
(Continued on page 44.)
THE SPORT OF KINGS—BALLOONING. By Arnold Kruckman.
of "burr mcintosh monthly."
When you take from any sport that element of chance which makes the blood course faster and gives you the thrill born of any legitimate daring, you rob it of its
purpose. A sport which hazards nothing is no sport. When }rou skim swiftly over the landscape on the back of a high-mettled thoro-bred isn't there always present that one unpre-ventable chance that an accident will happen to its delicate ankle or that it will rear back upon you in affright for some absurd reason. And even though a multitude of things may happen while you are devouring the distance in your gloriously dashing motor-car, isn't it worth it all just to experience the exhilaration of that mad rush ? It is that same element of chance that makes yachting, sailing, —any genuine sport—appeal to all full-blooded people.
The statement which follows will probably be very startling to ninety-nine out of every hundred persons with sportsman-like instincts who read it. But it is absolutely true. Furthermore it can be demonstrated.
With a full knowledge of the sense of what I am saying I assert that there is no real sport on land or water which is so devoid of the inipreven-table chance, in other words, which is so safe as ballooning.
Contemplate for a moment the career of A. Leo. Stevens unquestionable the foremost aeronaut in America and one of the greatest in the world. He has sailed in the air for more than twenty-four years, taking with him multitudes of the best known people from all parts of America and he has never had a single untoward accident.
It is undeniable that terrible catastrophes happen to people who sail to the clouds in balloons. The newspapers almost weekly chronicle the fatal termination of ambitious flights. But if you will take the trouble to investigate you will find, almost without an exception, that accidents happen only to those who try to navigate in a balloon made by persons who are entirely ignorant of the scientific principles involved in its building and who are absolutely unskilled in handling an airship and know nothing of the hard and fast rules by which they must be sailed. Would you blame the yacht if an ignorant landsman were to come to grief in trying to sail it unaided? Or would you call the sensitive thorobred vicious and unsafe if the clumsy novice knowing nothing of the equestrian game, found his death through foolishly trying to do that for which he had not an iota of preparation? And don't you unconsciously hazard your life frequently as you speed through the night on a fast "train, as you lie sleeping in your berth? Foolhardiness is not sportsmanship. A sportsman is the highest type of man or woman possessing expert skill and knowing practically everything that is to be known about the thing that is to be done.
The sport of ballooning is a science. Or it might be better to say that the science of ballooning is a sport. It is a royal sport. It is a sport which by its very nature can only appeal to the kings and queens of man and womanhood. It makes its appeal to the healthy, wholesome, steady, cool, level-headed members of society. It takes more than the spirit of foolish dare-deviltry to become an aeronaut. The balloonist, like the sailing-master, needs brains. Plenty of brains. It takes the kind of brains that can administer the affairs of a huge business, or can govern a city or a state, or can command an army, or write a book, or compose music. It takes the kind of intellectual and physical stamina that has the good courage to do the thing that
a. leo stevens.
ordinary people would tremble even in thinking of doing. In short the successful aeronaut is made of the kind of stuff out of which they make the most perfect specimens of American humanity.
What f know about the making of a balloon. I have learned from A. Leo Stevens. And what I know about the navigations of balloons and the spirit of sportsmanship involved I have imbibed from Mr. Stevens and the numerous eminent men and women who have sailed with him. Stevens builds a balloon like an architect builds a house. First he builds it minutely—on paper. Then he actually builds it of the best available materials according to an exact science. Finally, before he is willing to trust it with his own life, or any other person's life, he tests it like a good engineer tests the mechanism he has constructed. I know that so far as it is possible, in the range of human ability, Stevens pronounces nothing safe and perfect that is not perfect. I would trust my life on any balloon Stevens places me on. And that is more than I would do upon the word of any other balloon maker and a great many makers of other things.
I do not wish to say anything derogatory about the automobile; but I would feel one hundred times safer in a balloon— if a man like Stevens had built it and a man like Stevens were navigating it. The balloon is a simple affair. It has no complex machinery. Its principles are easily grasped. But this does not preclude the utilitization of an exact science in construction. In the work of a man like this aeronaut it is based upon a life time's activity and study. To the last degree he can tell you just why he puts each stitch of thread that holds together the various templets, or squares, of the envelope. From the scaled drawing before him he can tell you exactly where each templet will be placed. He has a sound, practical, well-seasoned reason for everything he does. He can tell you exactly why this small length of twine is placed in this specific place among the thousands that make up the netting. He can tell you to a degree what a strain it must stand from above and what weight it must bear below. There isn't a thing that goes into the construction of a balloon that a man like
Stevens hasn't helped to make himself. Yes, even the gas to fill the envelope. Like every good pilot he can quickly manufacture hydrogen gas. It is significant that every Aero Club in the United States is using one of Steven's balloons. And that in spite of the fact that he has never, directly or indirectly, solicited an order for a balloon since he began making them.
In rgoi during the month of September he was the first man in the United States to make and sail a dirigible balloon. His "Pegasus" with which he outsailed Santos-Dumont's airship at Manhattan Beach cost him many thousands of dollars. It was Stevens, likewise, who was the first man to send up the Count de la Vaulx above the United States. And he directed the first American ascent of the other French aeronaut. Mons. Charles Levee. Stevens has always been notable for his promptness in assisting in every way where the legitimate interests of ballooning might be advanced.
Of course, next to the balloon that is made right you need a pilot who knows a balloon inside and outside, so to speak, to teach you how to handle it. Stevens himself is perhaps the best example of the professional aeronautical pilot in America. He holds not only a license from the Aero Club of America but before this bodv
ciias. j. gi.1dden s balloon 'boston —built by stevens.
came into existence lie held for many years, and still holds, the much coveted license of the Aero Club of France. The examinations of an air pilot by these clubs is not unlike that of a master seaman. It is immediately apparent why he has been able to train as many prominent amateurs as competent pilots in such marvelonsly short spaces of time. The only condition he insists upon in a candidate is that he have a reasonable amount of common sense. Taking these things into account, it is easy to understand how he trained the crude, raw soldiers into the present United States Army Signal Corps Ballooning Squad in one month's time.
It was Stevens who last year made the first U. S. Army free-sailing balloon. This was the balloon which at the St. Louis races won the Lahm cup under the pilotage of Capt. Chandler. And Stevens, who was in charge, established an unprecedented record at the St. Louis races by starting each balloon exactly on the second according to the programme.
the start for the lahm cup in the " SIO^al corps no. 10."
No one questions the fact that ballooning—the right kind of ballooning—has become a permanent sport. It has engaged the attention of the foremost people in the country and it has come to stay. You have but to hear Stevens mention the names of some of those whom he has taken up into the clouds. And he has more than 500 people on the waiting list who will only make their first ascension on condition that they can go with him. What is more remarkable still it has taken a great hold upon ladies. There is Mrs. Max Fleischman of Cincinnati. Mrs. Fleischman says it is the most glorious sport she has ever experienced. And there is Mrs. C. J. S. Miller of Franklin, Pa. Major Miller was one of the first to take up ballooning as a sport in the United States. After her first few ascents in an airship with Mr. Stevens, Mrs. Miller told me: "Ballooning is as much more exhilarating and stirring to motoring as motoring is superior to riding behind a horse." Mrs. E. C. Peebles of Hammonds-port. N. Y., is another lady who has made ascensions with Stevens. Mrs. Peebles tells me: "If there was nothing else in life I would consider my trips to the sky worth living for. It is glorious and I am astonished at the perfect safety there is in sailing up in a balloon. I will continue ballooning as long as my health continues; and I will regret it when I can't. I am sure if more women could make ascensions with such pilots as Mr. Stevens they would quickly overcome any dread they might have for their first trip." Mrs. H. W. Thompson of Salem, O.. has also been up with Stevens. She says: "1 have tried many sports. 1 have sailed, I have motored, I have canoed. I have ridden a horse and a bicycle, I have shot deer and I have ridden after the hounds. But 1 cannot recall in my whole life two and one half hours more happily spent than in my trip to the clouds with A. Leo Stevens. Danger? I did not think of danger. There was no reason to think of danger. To fly in the air with Mr. Stevens is to be safe—as safe as if you were sitting in the easy chair in your home. You just can't help knowing that Mr. Stevens is competent. He knows what he is doing and he takes no risks."
The development of ballooning as a sport among notable people in America is entirely due to the conscientious propaganda of Leo Stevens. He was the first man in this country to elevate it above the plane of a country fair fake and he has practically given his whole life to establishing it as a medium of giving pleasure in a safe and sane manner. He was the first to offer $100 for the arrest and conviction of the miscreants who shot at the balloon "Boston" on its initial trip. It was with him that such eminent amateur aeronauts as are mentioned below had their tastes of sky-sailing. There are among them: Messrs. J. C. McCoy of New York, Alan R. Hawley of New York, Fitzhugh Whitehouse of New York, Capt. Homer YV. Hedge of New York, Capt. Charles De Forrest Chandler, U. S. A., Mr. A. Holland Forbes, Mr. Max Fleisch-man of Cincinnati, Joseph Blondin of Albuquerque, N. M., Messrs. A. H. Morgan and Jeffrey Wade of Cleveland, O., and Mr. Charles J. Glidden of Boston, Mass.
If there were more Stevens, that is to say, if there were more aeronautical ship builders with such high ideals and such competent methods of construction and such rigid devotion to the principle of doing a thing right and in no other way than in the right way there would be more amateurs in this country and the sport would be established even more firmly than it is. .
According to the contracts awarded by the War Department for a dirigible and two gasless flying machines, the following are the dates of delivery:
Capt. T. S. Baldwin (Dirigible)..............................July 27
A. M. Herring (Flying Machine)...........................Aug. 13
Wright Brothers (Flying Machine)..........................Aug. 28
By reading the specifications, it will be noticed that the contractors are to be allowed to make three trials, which may, if they see fit, be extended over a period not to exceed one month. So far as possible, the contractors will select the days on which the trials are made, so it wilL be impossible to state exactly what dates they will take place. Naturally, it is the desire to give them thé very best weather which can be had.
In the table of May flights made by the Wright Brothers, published in the June number, we printed the last flight as lasting 7 minutes 20 seconds. It should have been 7 minutes 29 seconds.
Wilbur Wright in France.
Wilbur Wright, who has been abroad for some weeks hunting suitable grounds and superintending the finishing of some of the motors being built for the Messrs. Wright in France, has selected the race course at Le Mans, about 200 kilometers from Paris. The grounds are 300 by 800 meters in extent, inclosed on all sides by trees. The surface of the ground is quite rough but Mr. Wright thinks that landings can be made on it without damage to the machine. The French motors are duplicates of the motor sent over from America. The first flights will take place during July.
The machine for the United States Government will be sent to Fort Myer about the end of July so as to be ready for trials the early part of August, if possible.
The First Newspaper to Have an Aeronautical Department.
While some of the leading newspapers are giving considerable space to aeronautic news from day to day, the first American newspaper to devote a special department to aeronautics is the Philadelphia "Inquirer." This paper, which is recognized as one of the most influential in the country, now devotes approximately half a page each Sunday to news items and special articles relating to aerial science and sport.
Since the inauguration of the department on June 7th, the features of special interest have included a special article on aeronautic definitions by A. C. Triaca. director ot the International School of Aeronautics. New York, and an "Aero Calendar" which is a standing feature, revised and added to weekly, which gives advance information of aeronautic events. Interesting pictures of various machines, both balloons and heavier-than-air apparatus, and cablegrams giving the latest foreign news, are also features of the aeronautic page and various items of news from all parts of the country, that if hidden away in different corners of a newspaper would probably not be found by the particular reader who wishes to see them, are assembled under the one general heading. Other papers will probably take the cue from this one and establish special departments of aeronautics. This is bound to increase the popular interest and is educational as well, since accurate information on the subject is sorely needed by the general public. The Inquirer's department especially fills the latter requirement and is intelligently as well as dignifiedly edited.
AERONAUTICS IN GREAT BRITAIN.
By Our London Correspondent.
Editors Note: We regret that on account of lack of space this most valuable article had to be omitted from the June number.
London, May 7, 1908.
That the startling success achieved by Farman and Delagrange has not been without its effect on British endeavor—in theory and in practice—is witnessed by the greatly increased activity manifested in aeronautical circles during the past few months. Unfortunately, the majority of these experiments have been conducted in strict privacy, so that in but very few cases are any reliable details available. It does not yet seem to be realized over here that the most effective, in fact the only, way to further aeronautics is by way of publicity. By publicity 1 do not mean the dissemination of personal advertisement in the columns of the daily press, a process with which wc have unhappily become all too familiar, but rather the publication of results of experiment which, even if unconclusive, are of inestimable benefit to all those engaged in aeronautical work.
A few weeks ago 1 paid a visit to the works of Mm. Voisin, near Paris, where, in pleasant contrast to the impenetrable air of mystery which surrounds even the most trivial aeronautical project in this country, the whole works were immediately thrown open for my inspection. I was allowed to see everything with the utmost readiness; eveiw question was answered without reserve; every point was explained with the greatest goodwill. Secrets there were none—nor do any exist in aeronautics—save clever and thorough workmanship and a rare degree of unselfish enthusiasm. This, surely, is the best way to success.
There is no doubt, however, that in private much important work is being accomplished. Professor Huntington is constructing a full-size aeroplane with the collaboration of Lieut. J. W. Dunne. This machine has superposed sustaining surfaces, the upper one being placed above the space between the two lower ones, which are arranged in tandem. The outer rear corners of the posterior surface are bent downwards, and can be suitably inclined for steering purposes. Major Baden-Powell will shortly proceed to the trials of his aeroplane, which is of the type familiarized by the Voisins, but of smaller dimensions and lighter build. It will at first be driven by a 12-h. p. Buchet motor.
Mr. Edgar Wilson's machine—an aeroplane driven by two propellers, with four horizontal screws to counteract disturbances of stability by tumultuous winds—is in process of construction. One of the most interesting features of this machine is the control over the equilibrium which is maintained by twin gyroscopes acting in connection with the four horizontal screws.
Mr. J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon's aeroplane, which was described in a former letter, is being reconstructed. The launching carriage was found to be unsatisfactory, so that the machine now runs on wheels. Mr. A. V. Roe's aeroplane is almost read}' for its new trials. On several occasions it has been used as a kite with the operator on board: towed round the Brooklands track by a motor car, it has risen off the ground with facility at some thirty miles an hour, and proved easily controllable. But, as expected, the 8-h. p. J. A. P. motor proved to be totally insufficient, and has now been replaced by a 24-h. p. water-cooled Antoinette.
Mr. Horatio Phillips, wiiose experiments some years ago attracted much attention, has completed a new full-size aeroplane. The machine consists of four sets of superposed sustaining blades, the sets being arranged behind one another in the line of flight. Each set consists of some 50 blades—\\2 in. wide, % in. thick, witli a 2-in. space between them—constructed of wood, of stream-line section. The screw, 7 ft. in diameter, situated in front, is driven by a 20-h. p., air-cooled. 8-cylinder motor, which, at 1,200 revolutions, gives a thrust of 220 lb. (stationary). The "machine during its trials has on several occasions risen clear off the ground with the driver on board; but unfortunately adverse circumstances, notably lack of a suitable manoeuvring ground, brought the trials to a premature end; although they will be resumed within a short space of time.
Some months ago Air. Howard Wright experimented with a machine constructed to the designs of Signor Capone. The machine had a flat main sustaining plane, measuring some 30 ft. across, with a movable tail. On each side of this plane, with their axes in the line of greatest pressure, were placed two large lifting screws, whose blades had a feathering action designed to give a certain horizontal thrust in combination with their lifting effort. Two small tractor screws aided horizontal motion; all the screws were driven by a 40-h. p. Antoinette motor, which unfortunately refused with
AERONAUT LEO STEVENS
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Now that it is an assured fact that Delagrange will fly in New York City our American aviators will have to "hump'' themselves to get ready in time to eontest honors with him. It is hoped that by the time Delagrange arrives, August 20, several cash prizes will have been offered for a contest between him and our own flying men. It would be a great sight and a great aid to advancement of the art if the Wright Brothers would consent to compete, also G. H. Curtiss, and one or two others who give promise of making successful flights in the near future.
The first woman aviator, Mile, de la Poterie, made a short flight with Farman at Ghent during June. -
At the competition of flying machine models of the Aeronautiqne Club de France held in the Galerie des Machines on June 21 st, there were 46 exhibitors and some very interesting trials were made. Prizes were offered for apparatus of more than 2 kilos with motor and for apparatus without motor; for apparatus weighing less than 2 kilos witli motor and without. -
It is assured that the new Italian military dirigible, the first for the Italian Government, will be able to make trial flights shortly between Bracciano and Rome, a distance of 50 kilometers. -
The French Society of Civil Engineers has awarded Robert Esnault Pelterie their prize offered annually for what is deemed by them the best work for the year on any scientific or mechanical subject. -
Speaking of landing with his aeroplane, Farman states: "I have learned that in order to effect a satisfactory landing it is better to cut off the ignition when in the air and glide down instead of coming to ground with the propeller revolving at full speed. I have convinced myself that aeroplane practice with a motor is less dangerous than gliding with an experimental machine from sandhills."
the utmost obstinacy to work at all smoothly. In the course of the experiments, which are now terminated, the machine was on several occasions lifted off the ground; but, in spite of the most careful tests, no horizontal thrust of the lifting screws could be recorded. Plans have now been drawn up by Mr. Howard Wright for a new machine embodying the improvements suggested by the experiments.
The Aeronautical Section of the Motor Car Exhibition at the Agricultural Hall, although it suffered in many respects by comparison with the more extensive exhibition of last year, proved eminently satisfactory in so far as it showed that more serious and practical work is being done than the last exhibition led one to think. The most interesting features were an aeroplane model, constructed by Mr. D. Stanger, driven by an ij^j-h. p., 4-cylinder, petrol motor (weight complete, 8 lb.), which had already risen from the ground and performed flights extending to 200 yards; and a full-size machine designed by Mr. J. R. Porter, consisting of a cone-shaped, inverted funnel, 14 ft. high, down which the air is drawn by a large fan situated at the bottom of the cone. The machine, weighing 200 lb. and driven by a 6-h. p. motor, has not yet been tried. Finally, a beautiful little twin-cylinder, air-cooled petrol motor, designed by Mr. Leslie C. Lambert, developing 3.2 h. p. for a weight of only 15 lb., deserves unqualified praise.
The most important event of the year wall be the fourth conference of the International Aeronautical Federation which opens at the Royal United Service Institution in Whitehall on May 27 and closes on May 30. For the second day of the conference a visit has been arranged, by special permission of the War Office, to the Military Balloon Factory at Farnborongh; a banquet will be given on Mayr 29 by the Aero Club at the Ritz Hotel to the delegates attending the conference and to the competitors in the International Point-to-point Balloon Race, which is to take place the next day, and will bring the conference to a brilliant conclusion. It is expected that thirty balloons at least will start in the race, many foreign entries having already been received. Sir Thomas Lipton and Sir James Dewar have presented cups for the race. The start will be made from the grounds of the Hnrlingham Club, where a special high-pressure gas main, over a mile in length, has been laid down, rendering it possible for thirty balloons to be inflated at one time. With its mamr other advantages Hnrlingham has thus become one of the finest balloon parks in the world. The ground was inaugurated at the end of April by the ascent of the "Mascotte," which had on board the Hon. Mrs. Assheton Harbord, Hon. C. S. Rolls, Mr. John Dunville and Mr. Vere Ker-Seymer.
There remains another event to be chronicled, an event which, in so far as it is deeply significant for the future of aeronautics, demands more than cursory mention. For some time past efforts have been made to call into being a corps of aeronauts whose services could be placed at the disposal of the military authorities in time of war, to supplement the regular balloon section of the Royal Engineers. That the experience of such a body of men—trained aeronauts every one—might prove' of inestimable value is incontestable. Two associations in France, the Aeronautique-Club and the Aero-Club du Rhone, have for man}' years past conducted a school for the training in every branch of aeronautical science of a number of young men whom the experience thus acquired enables to join the various balloon batallions during their period of military service. These efforts have been crowned with the greatest success. But, in the absence of compulsory military service, the scheme could not very well be made to apply to this country; and it was felt that the formation of a corps of aeronauts attached to the volunteers was the best way of attaining the same object.
With the inauguration of the Territorial Army this has now become an established fact. On May 5 the first members of the London Balloon Company, the first aeronautical unit of the Territorial Force, were sworn in. This company will have a full strength of sixty men, who will undergo a thorough course of theoretical and practical instruction in every branch of aeronautics, at the hands of instructors selected from the regular balloon section. Two army balloons will be allotted to the company, in addition to several old balloons, material and equipment to be used for instruction in packing, transport, repairing, and so forth. More important still, this and every summer the corps will go into camp near the Military Balloon Factory at Faruborough for their practical training.
The experiment, for such it remains at the moment of writing, is due to the energy of Mr. H. E. Holtorp. It will certainly be watched with the utmost interest, nor, it is hoped, will any efforts be spared to make it a brilliant success.
All reports of the military aeroplane may be safely disregarded. The correct figures of the first dirigible even have only been given once—and that was in the British "Aeronautics." It is impossible to get any information about the forthcoming dirigible—though this is actually under construction—and just as. hopeless to get to know the least details about the aeroplane, should the latter exist anywhere but in the minds of credulous pressmen, which is more than doubtful.
THE FUTURE OF THE HELICOPTER. Paul Cornu.
Actually in France, where the problem of aviation is very well studied, the people are only interested in aeroplaneSj because until to-day these are the apparati which have given the best results; and nobody takes care to know if an apparatus of different principle, viz., the helicopter (which is not now perfected) will have later better results, because its principle is better.
The people to-day can see the aeroplanes having the best experiments, and they very easily believe that aeroplanes will be the only apparati in the future; but WE don't believe this; certainly the aeroplane for sporting interest is the apparatus most efficient, because it is not an easy matter to drive it, and the man who will be the avi-
top view cornu helicopter.
aloi will have the chance to show all his qualities; the high speed which we can obtain with these apparati will certainly delight the sportsmen.
But if we consider the practical worth of these apparati, viz., the latest object of aviation, "The practical aerial car for everybody," the helicopter offers more serious advantages compared to the other apparatus. Certainly later, of the heavier-than-air machines (when the sporting period passes away) the public will ask for an apparatus of smaller volume, of easy handling, which can start and land in all grounds, sometime in the streets.
The helicopter, I believe, can give good answers to these questions; but I do not see what result the aeroplane can have. The foremost partisans of the aeroplane are interested only in the question of the speed, and do not care about the difficulty of handling the apparatus, the special ground required for the evolutions, and that they are always obliged to go with a minimum of speed of 30 miles an hour to obtain sustention.
Certainly the speed is a very important quality in airships, but it will be better if the apparatus can go slowly and can soar without going forward. We believe that the helicopter must obtain better consideration than the people give to it in ray country, and we are very pleased to see that in the United States the idea of the helicopter is better accepted. We read with great interest the articles of Mr. Otto G. Luyties and others in "Aeronautics," and we are very pleased to have the same idea.
The experiments made by ourselves were not very much appreciated, but on scientific grounds we obtained a very important step and you can see that in the "Aero-phile." (Continued on page 20.)
THE INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL FEDERATION. London Congress.
(By Our London Correspondent).
The fourth congress of the F. A. I. was held, as reported in our last number, in London at the Royal United Service Institution on May 27, 28 and 29.
Following is a list of countries represented, with number of votes and volume in cubic meters, of gas consumed:—Austria-Hungary, 19,220, one vote; Belgium, 207,000, nine votes; France, 491,300, twelve votes; Germany, 492,614, twelve votes; Great Britain, 238,854, ten votes; Italy, 89,300, four votes; Spain, 108,345, five votes; Sweden, 9,000, one vote; Switzerland, 23,100, one vote; United States, 70,427, three votes. The United States was represented by J. C. McCoy.
The first session, on Wednesday, was preceded by a meeting of the Bureau. After the admission of Austria-Hungary, represented by the Wiener Aero Club, had been ratified, M. Besancon read his report for the preceding year.
The meeting then proceeded to consider the questions set down for discussion.
The question of maritime contests was first considered on the initiative of the Aero-Club de Belgique. The dangers of rash attempts to cross the sea have been exemplified during the past year by several accidents, and it was generally felt that some stringent rule should, as far as possible, guard against the recurrence of such attempts. The proposal moved by M. Surcouf was finally adopted: "Every competitor descending in the sea or having to call in the assistance of a passing vessel shall be disqualified.''
The question of distinguishing between amateurs and professionals was next mooted by the Società Aeronautica Italiana. In the absence of a definite proposal the matter was left unsettled. A strong feeling of the urgency of the question was manifested, especially by the German delegates. Though a somewhat delicate subject it should offer no serious difficulties in the way of regulation.
The question of the nationality of the pilots' and their assistants in an international competition was left to be decided by each club.
The Italian delegate, Capt. Castagneris, next brought forward three resolutions, .all of which were unanimously adopted, after some discussion. The first called upon the clubs organizing international contests to furnish every competitor a report of the meteorological conditions obtaining in the five preceding years during the week in which the contest was held. The second resolution pointed to the desirability of rendering all dirigible balloon and flying machine competitions international. Thirdly it was resolved to attempt to obtain purer gas and cheaper prices from gas companies and to influence chemical factories to place their superfluous hydrogen at the disposal of aeronauts.
The congress next extended its patronage to the work undertaken in Belgium in forming a universal aeronautical bibliography, a work whose immense usefulness will grow even more apparent in later years.
Several technical questions with regard to the measurement and classification of balloons in races were discussed at length, and it was finally resolved, on the proposition of Prof. Hergesell, to refer these to a new technical commission to be charged with revising the rules of the F. A. 1. This commission, whose report will be made at the next meeting, and of which F. S. Lahm is a member, was elected.
The next proposal, brought forward by the Aero-Club de Belgique, demanded that the nationality of delegates should be that of the country the}' represent, failing which, a delegate of different nationality should only be selected with the consent of his national club. This was ado.pted unanimously, except for the French delegates who abstained from voting.
The two following questions raised are of importance in so far as they referred to aviation. It was proposed by Belgium, to render the regulations governing aviation contests obligatory. Although the proposal was eventuali}' withdrawn, it gave rise to an interesting discussion in the course of which Capt. Castagneris advocated that aviation should be represented in the Federation by allotting to each country a certain number of votes corresponding to the activity it had manifested in the development of aviation. The time, however, is scarcely ripe for such an enactment. The same may be said of the following proposal, withdrawn by the French delegation before discussion, that aviation prizes should be given, not to the drivers, but to the proprietors of flying machines. It is obv ious that the effect of this proposal, had it been carried, would have been to alter the status of aviation from that of a sport to that of an industry.
The next proposal by Belgium that a pilot must obtain his certificate from his own club was adjourned to the next meeting.
It was finally resolved to extend the patronage of the F. A. I. to the aeronautical sections of international and other exhibitions, and to create a commission for settling
aeronautical terminology. The latter resolution, in particular, is a most welcome one, for the confusion in this direction is daily becoming worse confounded; but it is of the highest importance that a commission of this nature should be of the widest international character if its labors are to have any good effect whatever.
Next followed the reports of two commissions. Lieut.-Col. Moedebeck gave a summary of the work being done in connection with the aeronautical maps, and, incidentally, pointed out that Great Britain was the only country in which nothing has so far been done. It is to be hoped that this omission will be rectified at the earliest opportunity, since the work is undoubtedly of the very first importance to aeronauts of every country.
The Chevalier de Clement de Saint-Marcq then read the report of the Commission on Balloon Signals at sea, which had been prepared with the assistance of Capt. Castagneris and Capt. Kindelan. This able report proved to be of remarkable interest, and reached the following conclusions: every balloon should be compelled to carry two signals one of which must always be displayed while the balloon is floating over the sea; the first, a red flag, to denote that the balloon is in distress and desires assistance; the second, a white flag, to signify that all is well and that no assistance is desired. These flags should measure i meter in width by 2 meters in length, and shonld be suspended below the car. In this way they would be visible to the naked eye at a distance of 4 kilometers, while they would not weigh more than 2 lb. At night the only practicable method of signalling, though an inefficient one, was by means of the usual electric lamps, white to denote safety, red for distress. In order to make these signals known to ships' captains it was recommended that the assistance of the press should be invoked in each country, and furthermore that the maritime authorities in every country should be acquainted with these decisions. These recommendations were adopted by the meeting, and have now, therefore, become obligatory.
Several suggestions were also put forward. In order to prevent accidents, which are generally due to the incompetence or foolhardincss of the pilot, and deserves punishment accordingly, it was suggested that if a pilot during a competition ventures over the sea with an insufficient supply of ballast, he shall be disqualified and suspended for a number of years. In the opinion of the Commission a sufficient supply, of ballast might be considered to be 1 J/2 kilo, per 1000 cm. capacity of the balloon per kilometer of distance to the nearest shore in the line of travel. Further, a danger zone of 5 kilometers extending round every coast might be created in which no balloon could land during a contest without being disqualified. These suggestions were referred to the new technical commission.
The congress terminated with the election of the Bureau for the ensuing year.
The next conference will be held, at the invitation of the Societa Aeronautica Italiana, at Milan during October, 1909.
THE FUTURE OF THE HELICOPTER.
(Continued from page 18).
In the following table you will see compared the results of the experiments with my helicopter and the best known aeroplanes:
Helicopter Aeroplane Wright
Cornu Farman Brothers
Weight raised per H. P.......... 20 Kgs. 14 Kgs. No exact
Weight supported per sq. meter... 45 " 10 " data from
Force used to raise a man......... 12 H. P. 40 H. P. O. & W.
Speed of translation............... 12 Km. Hour 60 Km. Hour Wright.
In all the figures the helicopter is superior to the aeroplane except the speed of translation, but we dispose of only 20 h. p., and Farman 40 h. p.
On account of irregular transmission I can't use until now more than 13 h. p., and that is the reason for the little speed obtained.
Mr. O. G. Luyties tells about an oscillating system to obtain the equilibrium in the aviation apparatus: two years ago we patented a similar system.
Voisin Freres, the builders of the Farman and Delagrange aeroplanes, have just completed a model of the Delagrange-Farman aeroplane, and the Aviation Commission of the Aero Club of France has presented it to the Scientific School for Arts and Trades to be a companion of "Avion" of Ader, the ancestor of the modern aeroplanes.
At the pursuit race of the Aero Club Sud-Ouest, on the 10th, 500 small hydrogen-inflated balloons were let loose by the ladies and children. Each balloon was provided with postal cards to be sent to the club by the finders.
THE FIRST DIRIGIBLE IN AMERICA TO CARRY 3 PASSENGERS.
In the June number we told of the first flights of the Knabenshue dirigible 1908 and below are the first photographs published.
On June 11 two flights were made, one in the morning against a 4-mile wind and one in the afternoon against a 15^-mile wind and on both occasions Mr. Knabenshue states, he made a speed of 25.2 miles per hour and that there are "several little obstacles to overcome before I can go on making that speed, as a great quantity of gas leaves the ship during the flights."
On the 15th another trip was made, carrying YVm. C. Chadeayne, of the Aero Club of America, resident at Buffalo.
The bag measures 112 feet in length by 17^2 feet in diameter. The frame is 62 feet long and measures 40 inches each leg of the equilateral triangle cross-section. The parts of the frame are connected by small aluminum castings. No. 25 music wire is used for bracing. The stringers are 1inches spruce, joined by pieces of tubing bolted together.
knai!enshue dirigible in flight.
The front bearing takes all the load and for the purpose there is a ball thrust bearing and the shaft is made to run on rollers contained in this front bearing.
The shaft is 14 gauge Shelby tubing, with a reinforcement at the propeller end 6 feet long, brazed at extreme ends; and 3 feet long at driving end also brazed at extreme end. The shaft is suspended by small bronze castings turned up. From 3 lugs wires are fastened to stub steel which passes through the stringers at the point where uprights are joined by aluminum casting. These pieces of steel are threaded and^ can be drawn tight in such a manner as to line up the shaft.
The rudder is 10 feet long by 5 feet high, made of bamboo poles securely fastened together with stove pipe wire, then bound with cotton cloth and varnished with shellac. The covering is Lonsdale cambric.
Attached to the middle section of the rudder is a double set of aeroplanes which measure 15 feet long by 2>JA feet wide and when attached to rudder present a horizontal surface of 104 square feet. This is intended to prevent pitching.
The envelope is constructed of Japanese silk costing $1.50 a yard. Then there is added another layer of silk costing 65 cents a yard. Over this again is sewed pongee silk cut in ribbons 1 inch wide and spaced every 4 inches. These bands pass over the top. At the bottom of these bands are sewed pongee silk strips 14 inches wide for 4-5 the length of the bag. Then to this is sewed the suspension band, made of 4 thicknesses of pongee silk. From the points of the bag, on the under side, is a layer of silk costing 50 cents a yard and these two pieces of silk run back for 25 feet towards the middle, and to these two pieces are attached what Mr. Knabenshue calls the "hold back" bands. The bottom side of the balloon proper is a single thickness of
silk. 20 feet to the rear of the center of the balloon is attached a 24-inch neck. 8 feet to the rear of the neck is the opening through which the tube of the balloonette is inserted.
The balloonette is merely a cylinder with a capacity of 3500 cubic feet and made of silk costing 65 cents a yard.
The engine is a 4-cylinder 2-cycle water cooled pattern.. 3^-inch bore by 4-inch stroke, has a base compression of 15 lbs. and a cylinder compression of 55 lbs. A carbureter is used for each cylinder.
view showing frame and baskets.
For a radiator is used tubes 40 inches long, made of 30 gauge brass and there are 27 of these tubes. The whole system contains but 2 gallons of water, forced through the system by a rotary pump. The engine and cooling system weighs only 145 pounds. It is expected that the engine will develop 25 horsepower.
The drive shaft is direct connected and the 9-foot propeller will turn at 1000 r.p.m., it is expected.
Two wicker cars are provided to the rear of the motor, one on one side of the upper stringer of the frame and one on the other. The third occupant of the airship sits astride the frame as of yore.
July—Balloon race at Brussels on the 21st, under auspices Aero Club de Belgique. Trials of Baldwin Government dirigible balloon beginning about July 27.
August—Trials of Government flying machines: A. M. Herring's beginning about the 13th, and the Wright Brothers' about the 28th. Flying-machine contests at Spa under auspices of Aero Club de Belgique on the 9th, 16th. and 23d, for $11,100 in prizes.
September—Grand Prix Balloon Race of Aero Club of France. Aeroplane contests at Vichy.
October—Grand Prix Balloon Race, Aero Club of France, on the 4th. Distance contests and contests for objective point at Berlin on the 10th under auspices Deutscher Luftschiffer-Verband. Gordon Bennett Balloon Race, Berlin, on the nth. International aeroplane contests at Venice for $5,000 in prizes.
1909—During October, at Milan, Congress Federation Aeronautique International.
The "Journal of the Military Service Institution" for July and August contains an article on military ballooning. This paper is published bi-monthly at Governor's Island. Brigadier-General Theodore F. Rodenbough is the editor.
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MY INITIAL TRIP TO THE CLOUDS. Mrs. Cora Thompson.
I take the keenest pleasure in describing my first1 balloon ascension. I shall always look upon it as one of the greatest pleasures of my life and I feel very grateful to the Aero Club of Ohio through whose kindness I was able to gain a place in the basket.
I had looked forward to my trip with such anticipation that no ordinary sight could have satisfied me, and I was not disappointed. The beauties of the landscape from a balloon are beyond description—they must be seen to be appreciated in their fullest extent. Then, too, fear is wholly excluded. There can be nothing but pleasure connected with it. Accompanied by A. Leo Stevens, of New York, whom I believe to be the most skilful pilot in the world, and by my husband, who has had much experience in ballooning, there seemed and was nothing to fear.
1 enjoyed every moment of the trip and when the time finally came for us to land I felt greatly disappointed—the two hours spent in the balloon had sped like minutes and I am anxiously awaiting another opportunity when I can ascend in a larger balloon and with a brisker wind. I feel sure the sport has come to stay, and more so, from the number of ladies who are anxious to go.
dr. and mrs. h. w. thompson.,
At ri.45 a.m. we left Canton in the "Ohio,"' the 35.000 cubic foot balloon jrfiicli the Aero Club of Ohio purchased last year from the Stevens factory in New' York. The big bag rose slowly and drifted at very slow speed and in twenty minutes we had only covered five miles from Canton in a straight line. After passing near Massillon, we had lunch in the balloon.
Owing to the poor gas supplied by the short notice given the gas company, we did not take along much ballast and by lunch time it had all been exhausted. We soon came to Turkeyfoot Lake and, with the knowledge born of long experience, Mr. Stevens decided not to risk a crossing of the lake without ballast and made our landing just one side of the lake. We settled down, oh, so beautifully and the balloon never_ stirred after the basket touched the earth.
Sighting the balloon from Middlebranch, Dr. Corl and his wife, of that place, pursued us in an automobile and finally came up to where we-had landed. They kindly hauled us back to Canton, after we had spent an hour or more in packing up the balloon.
(Continued on page 46).
TRIALS OF DUFOUR MOTORLESS AEROPLANE.
Following up the trials of the glider of A. Q. Dufottr, mentioned in the September 1907, number of this magazine, Mr. Dufour has now completed some experiments with his third two-surface aeroplane.
This last machine measures 28 feet tip to tip, with a depth of planes of 7 feet and a distance apart of 6 feet. In the front is a guiding plane and a horizontal tail behind. The total supporting surface is about 400 square feet, the weight 120 pounds, and with the operator 160 pounds, a total of 280 pounds.
The tower from which the previous glides had been made was blown down by the wind. Then trials were made using the glider as a kite, both with and without Mr. Dufour in it. With a 50-foot rope a flight was made about 12 feet from the ground in an 18-mile breeze.
It was then towed by a 15 h.p. automobile and while running along the ground at about 12 miles an hour the operator would turn up the front plane and the glider would shoot into the air a few feet but the pressure on the planes was so great that "it would slip the auto clutch or kill the engine and the speed would die down to 5 or 6 miles."
just starting the flight-packard cars ix new use.
Later the Milwaukee Sentinel provided a 60 h.p. Packard car and on May 23rd, a good flight was made. The machine was attached to the automobile with an 80-foot rope and the car started at a good speed. After running about 50 feet, the front plane was turned up and the machine rose at an angle of 45 degrees to a height of between 35 and 40 feet and then sailed along at 20 miles an hour for nearly 1000 feet. The glider made a sudden side movement and the machine and operator landed on the ground. All the posts and lower part of the machine was smashed and Mr. Dufour struck his head and was unconscious for over half an hour. Fortunately no bones were broken but the operator was delirious until the following morning and sustained a bruised elbow and shoulder. Mr. Dufour states: ''the strange part is I do not remember anything from about two hours before the accident until about twelve or fourteen hours after it." But Mr. Dufour is going at it again as soon as he fully recovers.
July 3.—For shooting at Charles J. Glidden's balloon, Boston, while it was over Brattleboro on the evening of June 15. William Murphy to-day was sentenced to not more than two years and not less than six months at hard labor at the house of correction at Rutland. The hearing was held to-day before Judge Ernes W. Gibson in the Municipal Court. State Attorney Bacon said that Murphy's act was a wanton one and was to be compared with the mischievous turning of switches in front of trains.
For the June number we wrote letters to various ones prominent in aerostation and aviation, editors of newspapers and scientists, business men and those generally interested, asking their views as to the present state of the art, its future, criticisms or words of encouragement—just as it appeared to their individual minds. A number of these most interesting letters were necessarily omitted last month for lack of space and on account of late arrival. In the August number these valuable papers will be concluded.
PRINCE D. SCIPIONE BORGHESE, PRESIDENT SOCIETA AERONAUTICA
Your idea of a special anniversary number of your valuable magazine to mark the first milestone of practical dynamic flight is worthy of encouragement. In truth, the last year has brought aerial navigation a great step forward and its future holds the greatest promise. I wish you every success.
WILHELM KRESS, THE PIONEER OF AVIATION IN GERMANY: AUTHOR OF "AVIATIK."
the future of the aeroplane.
When I constructed my first model of an aeroplane in 1864, which could not fly on account of the spring motor being too heavy, it became clear to me that it was essential to invent a motor light enough before the problem of aviation could be solved.
In 1877 I succeeded in building a model of an aeroplane which, driven by a rubber band motor, was able to fly stable and dirigible over the heads of the spectators through the room, taking the run by itself. Since then I was convinced that the aeroplane would have a future.
After having made free flying models'of helicopters and flapping-wing machines, about thirty years ago. I knew that we might be able to carry persons through the air by the two systems mentioned above, as soon as we could have motors light enough. But the aeroplane will always be preferable to these two systems. (In my publication, "Aviatik," these three systems, as well as the different methods by which the birds fly, are accurately described.)
At present in Paris are built motors light enough for flying purposes, but until now they have not yet practical value. They are not yet reliable enough and are not able to work satisfactorily for a long time. We will be able to build a satisfactory flying apparatus in the very moment the light motor will work steadily for several hours. The aeroplane will attain its practical value when it is no more necessary to take a run. But this problem will be solved in not too long a time.
I myself designed an aeroplane which will be able to ascend from every point of the globe without a run, and to stand still in the air. It will also be able to fly as well slow as fast.
As soon as we reach this state we will have an ideal means of communication. I regret very much being too old and not wealthy enough to build an apparatus as mentioned above.
wright brothers ahead.
Messrs. Farman and Delagrange made excellent flights in France, but I believe that the Wright Brothers are ahead of them. In America there are excellent aeronautical experts. For instance, Mr. O. Chanute, who promoted the art of flying by his first-class aeronautical publication. But he may be too old to contest personally in practical experiments. Further, there is Mr. Herring, who gives fair promises for the future. Nevertheless, there are also well-experienced experts in Europe.
The first step is done, the contest begun and in a few years we may have useful "aeromobiles," which will carry passengers through the air, high above dust and dirt, above wood and green fields, and with more safety than now the motor car on the dusty roads; and the country -which is able to promote this new and beautiful means of communication will soon develop a new industry, thus procuring millions to its inhabitants.
WILBUR R. KIMBALL.
It gives me pleasure to congratulate you upon the fact that the June number of Aeronautics will be the twelfth regular issue, thus completing the full year.
With the first number of the magazine the interest in the subject did not seem to be very general, and it appeared to be a question if the time had arrived when a magazine devoted to the subject could be made successful. The fact that the first year has closed with an encouragingly large subscription list, constantly augmenting, shows that your judgment as to the field for such a magazine was not a mistake.
The extraordinary developments in the past few months seem to me to hold out the greatest promise for this art in the future. The fact that there are now not less than half a dozen types of heavier-than-air machines that will fly for considerable distances establishes the fact beyond argument that the commercial age of the flying machine has commenced, and that transportation and commerce will be affected to a continuously increasing degree.
The influence of the new art can as yet scarcely be seen in any of the various manufacturing industries, but that such influence will be very great, and stimulate many auxiliary industries is hardly to be doubted.
It seems that having turned its first year without interruption, and the now general demand for information along this line, that a successful future for the magazine is assured.
Among odd items which continually appear in various newspapers, one paper scored a "beat"' on this particular news note, which was that a 32 mile flight had been made by the Brothers Wright at Kitty Hawk.
In regard to this, a letter from Orville Wright has this to say:
"The thirty-two mile trip was made a week before we had the machine ready for trial! There are some very enterprising newspaper men! The first fake report was later confirmed by another just as great—a pretended interview with my brother at New York, several days after he had sailed for Europe."
With the engine running at its maximum of 1800 r.p.m., the tips of the propellers on the June Bug, traveling in their circular course, make 66 miles per minute.
The International School of Aeronautics has received this month a facsimile model of the Farman aeroplane built by Voisin Freres, and of the dirigible "Patrie."
One set of the balloons sent up from Pittsfield, Mass., by Professor A. Lawrence Rotch, Director of the Blue Hill Observatory and President of the Aero Club of New England, during May was recovered, it having landed at Randolph, Vermont, a hundred miles north of Pittsfield. The two instruments sent up were lost.
The nigger said: "When de boat blows up, where is I? When de train goes off de track, here I is." How about a balloon?
Charles J. Glidden, Aero Club of America and Aero Club of New England, has purchased a thousand meter balloon from A. Leo Stevens.
C. Norvin Rinek has for the past several weeks been building practically a duplicate of the Farman-Delagrange aeroplane and it now is nearly completed. A report of the trials and photographs will appear in this journal.
Baron von Hewald, the former owner of the balloon Pommern, which won the 1907 Gordon Bennett from St. Louis, died in Berlin on June 17, at the age of 48.
Thirteen ascensions were made from North Adams during May and June.
For sale—7 h.p. 2 cylinder Curtiss airship motor, with sprocket, batteries, coils, etc. John D. Pursell, 47 The Elizabeth, Chattanooga, Tenn.
Another balloon has been sold from the Stevens factory—this one of 40,000 cubic feet to A. H. Morgan, of Cleveland. It has been named the Sky Pilot. Two other balloons are on the way to two other purchasers.
The 22,000 foot balloon which Stevens recently sold to Dr. R. M. Randall, of North Adams, has been named the Greylock, after Greylock Mountain, near North Adams.
NEW AERO CLUBS.
The Aeronautic Society was formed in New York on June ioth. See particulars elsewhere in this issue.
The Aero Club of Mississippi was formed with members from Canton, Jackson and Brookhaven, Miss., with headquarters at Canton. It was at first intended to build a balloon to use in races but since organizing interest has waned and the balloon will not be built.
The San Antonio Aero Club of Texas, mentioned in the June number, has already grown to fair proportions. It was formed by Frederick J. Fielding, M.D., who was elected president. Dr. Fielding is a well-known Texan motorist, motor boat and athletic enthusiast, has won many automobile races, cups and flags in motor boat contests and is now to navigate the air.
Born in Detroit in 1865, Dr. Fielding was educated in the high schools and universities of Michigan and Iowa and took his medical degree at Keokuk Medical College in 1896. In automobile racing he has defeated the mighty Barney Oldfield and has three motor cars at the present time. Last year on Lake Winnebago he won all flags and cups in his class, owning the 25-horsepower "Fantana," the 135-horsepower "Alamo," and the 40-horsepower "La Paloma."
H. E. Honeywell of St. Louis is building for him a 70,000-cubic foot balloon, and he will, upon its completion, enter into any balloon races which may be held.
J. M. Vance is vice-president, and P. A. Newman, secretary-treasurer.
The Baltimore Aero Club was formed May 29th with E. H. Thomson, president; H. B. Smith, vice-president; E. A. Walton, secretary; T. H. Bennett, assistant secretary; Dr. Chas. C. Harris, treasurer; Arthur T. Atherholt, honorary vice-president. The Club started with twenty members.
An effort was made to have an ascension from Baltimore by A. T. Atherholt and E. H. Thomson but the gas was so poor that it was postponed and will take place in Philadelphia in the near future. Most of the ascensions of the Club will probably take place in Washington. There is much enthusiasm in the Club and they propose buying a Club balloon in the near future.
The Aero Club of California, mentioned in the June number, is entering upon active work and will hold a dirigible contest in order to stimulate interest in aeronautics.
Five machines are in process of construction in Los Angeles, three gasless and two dirigibles. The climate is ideal for experimental work. Los Angeles is practically on a level plain, twelve miles north and east of the sea and ten miles south of the great range of mountains. During eight months of the year the winds, generally mild and steady, blow from the sea. There is also much open country and no rains, except during the Winter months, so that experimenting becomes a delight and apparatus and instruments do not have to be housed over night for fear of rain or dew.
The Club has obtained from the Chutes' Park management the use of a large building, fully 125 feet long, by 90 feet wide, and 45 clear to the timbers, for the exclusive use of storing balloons and for the erection of aeroplanes by the members of the Club. This adjoins an open space large enough for ordinary experimental purposes. A special building will also be erected on the grounds to be used as the Club rooms, for offices, and also to exhibit models, plans, etc., and for the literature of the Club, and this will also be adapted for educational purposes, for lectures and the like.
The Aero Club of the Northwest, mentioned in the June number, was formed by J. Alec Sloan, the head of the sports department of the St. Paul "Daily News." Mr. Sloan was a pioneer in organizing the largest automobile meet ever held in the Northwest, and he was also the prime mover in getting for St. Paul the champion bicyclists in track meets.
Due to Mr. Sloan's efforts, St. Paul and Minneapolis now have the two famous balloons "America" and "United States," both of which were in last year's Gordon Bennett, and the latter, it will be remembered, won the first Gordon Bennett race from Paris with Lieutenant F. P. Lahm as pilot. The "America" was purchased by L. N. Scott of the Metropolitan Opera House in St. Paul, and rechristened the balloon the "America of St. Paul." "Dick" Ferris of the Ferris Stock Company took the "United States" and rechristened it the "United States of Minneapolis." Both balloons were purchased through A. Leo Stevens, New York. »
The Club comprises about forty well-known sportsmen of St. Paul, Minneapolis, and other northwestern towns. The Club holds its first meeting in St. Paul on July 18th, when a balloon race is planned.
Another monoplane, with movable planes, is reported to be building by Robert
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WISE, J. A system of Aeronautics. 1st ed. 3iop. Cloth. Philadelphia 1850. $12.00.
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It is remarkable to note, in connection with the Aerial Experiment Association, that the members thereof, when the experiments were undertaken, had never even seen gliding machines and yet with the first one constructed and with no previous experience, they accomplished glides of three hundred feet. And each member, except Dr. Bell, made an actual flight in cither the Red Wing or the White Wing on the very first trial. This surely is an accomplishment worthy of greater credit than has been given. It does seem wonderful for a totally inexperienced operator to get in an aeroplane and make a flight of over a thousand feet as did G. H. Curtiss.
A NEW AERIAL MACHIIVE
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JUNE AEROPLANE FLIGHTS IN AMERICA.
(Continued from page 7).
schedule of fl1c-hts made by the aerial experiment association.
Red Wing—2 flights—319 and 120 feet, F. W. Baldwin, operator.
White Wing—5 flights—100 feet by F. W. Baldwin, 100 and 227 feet by Lieut. T. Selfridge, 339 yards by G. H. Curtiss and 183 yards by J. A. D. McCurdy.
June Bug—16 flights—all with G. H. Curtiss as operator—152 yards in 11 seconds, 139 yds. in 9 sees., 422 yds. in 12 1-5 sees., 40 yds. in 3 sees., 100 yds. in 6 sees., 725 yds. in 41 sees., 1140 yds. in 60 sees., 400 yds. in 24 sees., 540 yds. in 33 sees., 30 yds. in 2l/2 sees., 150 yds. in 14 sees., 30 yds. in 2l/2 sees., 1300 yds. in 68 1-5 sees., 900 yds. in 56 sees., 2000 yds. in 1 min. 52^ sees., and about 1100 yds. in 1 min. 15 sees. The flights of the June Bug total 5.1 miles in 8.87 minutes. Mr. Ctirtiss has made in the two machines 5.4 miles in 9.2 minutes. The flights of the first two machines total 826 yards. -
JUNE AEROPLANE FLIGHTS IN EUROPE.
(Continued from page 9).
bleri0t wins prize in monoplane.
June 29. In the presence of the Aviation Committee of the Aero Club of France, Bleriot in his monoplane won the medal offered by the Club for a flight of 200 meters. The distance made was 600 meters in 47 seconds. This is the first official flight of a monoplane.
June 29. The Danish aviator Ellehammer, of whom we have had occasion to speak before, made 50 meters in a flight at Kiel, winning a prize of 5000 marks. Several flights have been made by him at Kiel varying from 30 to 100 meters.
CLUB NEWS. The Aeronautic Society.
On June ioth.'a call signed by Lee S. Burridge, A. C. Triaca, Leo Stevens, R. B. Whitman, D. L. Braine and Wilbur R. Kimball, having been sent out, there was held an organization meeting at Mr. Triaca's offices, 2 East 29th St., for the purpose of forming The Aeronautic Society.
Fifty responded to the call and forty at once signed membership application cards.
A Committee of Ten was appointed to complete an organization, draft by-laws, secure grounds, and do the various things incidental to carrying out the objects proposed.
This Committee worked industriously and at the next meeting, held a week later, presented a definite plan of organization, or incorporation, which plan, upon a vote of all the members present, was unanimously approved.
The plan is to secure permanent grounds where a meeting place may always be had, where sheds can be erected for the housing of the apparatus of members, and where trials of apparatus may be made.
It is also expected to have a shop where machine and other constructional or repair work can be handled without delay and with the smallest possible expense. This will be an inestimable boon to the inventor striving to build a flying machine, glider, dirigible, or any apparatus whatever.
A motor will also be provided for the free use of members in their trials. This will save the inventor the necessity of buying a motor for trials before he knows the exact kind of a motor he eventually wants.
Ever)r member will be entitled to the use of all the Society's property upon the payment of his yearly dues of $10.
In order to bring about a popular realization of the status of the art of aviation and incidentally to secure funds with which to carry on the extensive work proposed, Leon Delagrange who now holds the world's record for duration of public dynamic flights, over 19 minutes, at Rome, has been invited to make flights at some point near to New York—if possible, on the Society's grounds. This will create a greater interest in the art all over the country and will do the best work in disabusing the public mind of the "craziness of trying to fly." The public mind now is of such a character that it is impossible to secure money for a prize fund for the encouragement of efforts and the reward of successful endeavors. The magazine, Aeronautics, has tried to secure prize money, but in vain. The Aero Club of America addressed about fifty letters to some of its wealthy members and none responded. Octave Chanute, James Means, Dr. A. Graham Bell, and Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, appointed themselves a committee for the securing of a $25,000 prize fund, without success.' It is felt that something must be done to bring about a change, and exhibition flights certainly ought to do some good by proving that dynamic flight is practically solved, and by inciting the enormous inventive faculty in this great country to concentrate its efforts to perfect and develop the art under the guiding and helpful auspices of The Aeronautic Society. International contests are also proposed to take place between Delagrange and American aviators who are ready to compete, and all those expecting to be ready should send application to the secretary.
The Society now numbers upwards of eighty members and the nominal annual dues of Ten Dollars will probably be raised or an initiation fee charged after a hundred members have joined. At present the dues are absurdly low when it is considered that Ten Dollars entitles a member to the use of all the Society's property and help, besides free admission to any and all exhibitions and contests. All interested should not delay in joining The Aeronautic Society.
Membership Application Blank.
The undersigned desires to become a member of The Aeronautic Society.
Aero Club of New England.
The second dinner of the Aero Club of New England was held at the Boston City Club, Boston, Mass., on June 26th last. Many important pieces of business were transacted at the dinner and the members present also gave Mr. Chas. J. Glidden, the vice-president of the Club, a hearty welcome home from his tour of Egypt and the Holy Land. Mr. Glidden gave a very interesting talk regarding his trip and also gave much valuable information concerning his experiences in ballooning both in England and France.
The members of the Club voted unanimously to purchase the balloon "Boston," which was owned by Mr. Glidden, for the use of the Club. A committee consisting of Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch of the Blue Hill Observatory, Mr. Chas. J. Glidden and Mr. H. Helm Clayton was elected to make all the necessary arrangements concerning the purchase of the balloon, the terms under which the balloon may be procured by the members, and the committee was further empowered to make all necessary arrangements for ascensions, and the selection of a park from which ascensions may be made. Over $600.00 was reported by the committee appointed at the last meeting, as having been subscribed towards the purchase of the balloon. It was also voted at the dinner to adopt the rules and regulations now used by the Aero Club of America, prescribing the conditions under which members may qualify as pilots. These rules will be incorporated into the By-Laws of the Aero Club of New England.
It wa& also voted that subscribing members may hire the Club Balloon for the sum of $25.00 for each ascension and that the amount which any member may have subscribed towards the purchase price of the balloon, shall be credited to him. Non-subscribing members will be charged $35.00 for the use of the balloon for a single ascension. Mr. Chas. J. Glidden has the^ matter of arrangements regarding ascensions directly in his control. Members have already shown great interest in future ascensions and applications are coming in fast upon Mr. Glidden. Certificates of ascension will be issued numerically and will entitle the holder to an ascension in the order of his application for such certificate. There are several cities in the western part of Massachusetts which are being considered as proper places for an ascension park. The cities under consideration are Fitchburg, Pittsfield, Worcester, and Lowell. It was thought advisable by the members that a city or town capable of providing suitable gas at a distance of about 40 miles from Boston would be a proper place for ascensions. As most of the members live in Boston, such a place within a 40-mile radius will be more convenient for those intending to make ascensions.
The city of Worcester seems to be particularly favorable.
The arrest of the two individuals who fired rifle shots at the balloon "Boston" while Air. Glidden and Air. Leo Stevens were making their trip from North Adams, was announced at the Club dinner and the fact of their arrest was a great source of satisfaction to Club members. The matter of preventing a recurrence of this shooting was discussed by Alfred R. Shrigley, the secretary and attorney of the Club, but no definite measures were taken at this time.
Many interesting instruments used in ballooning were exhibited and explained by Professor Rotch, Mr. Chas. J. Glidden, and Mr. H. H. Clayton. Many ascensions will no doubt take place in the next few weeks by the members as they will no doubt wish to avail themselves of the fine weather at this time of the year. All members making such ascensions are required by the Club to send in a report upon blanks which are furnished by the secretary and these reports will be made part of the records of the organization.
Aero Club of America.
The Aero Club of America has offered $250 reward for information which will lead to the conviction of persons shooting at balloons or "other aerial craft." The two recent flights, mentioned under "June Ascensions," in which shots were fired have caused widespread condemnation, and it is hoped that the culprits can be brought to book.
P. Geddes Grant and Col. F. T. Leigh have been elected members.
"Members are requested to support the Club in every possible way at this time when such rapid progress is being made, so that the good work may be kept up, and one of the hest means to do this is to interest friends in the Club, as additional members means additional opportunity for advancement."
Aero Club of Ohio.
The grounds in the rear of the gas works are now about finished. A large force of men and teams has been at work for some time, grading, removing poles, wires, and a brick building.
INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.
President: Professor Willis L. Moore.
Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wm. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.
The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will be published serially in this magazine, and at the earliest date possible, bound volumes will be distributed without charge to those holding membership cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.
In accordance with the program as published in the November number, the informal addresses of the Gordon Bennett contestants and others were concluded before entering upon the printing of the formal papers and discussions.
The thirteenth paper is presented in this issue, viz: "Extension of Area of Weather Reports for Aeronauts—Lightning as an Element of Danger in Balloon Work," by Professor Alexander McAdic, of the U. S. Weather Bureau ; also the report of the balloon accident in Italy in 1907 contributed to the records of the Congress by Brigadier General James Allen, Chief Signal Office of the United States Army.
EXTENSION OF AREA OF WEATHER REPORTS FOR AERONAUTS—LIGHTNING AS AN ELEMENT OF DANGER IN BALLOON WORK. Prof. Alexander McAdie, U. S. Weather Bureau.
Meteorologists—I mean, those of us who have to do with the daily tangle of interlaced currents in the atmosphere and the wonderful play of physical processes operating between the ground and the layers of air above, salute the Aeronauts.
In them we hope to find an ally who shall bring the king into his own, that is, make man master of the atmosphere.
Believing as we do that the difference between balancing in air and balancing on ground is one of degree only, or in other words, that aerostation is not much more difficult than walking; and knowing that when man has to have a thing, he generally gets it, we see in the increasing interest in balloon work the promise of data at various elevations, the very data which we now most need, and which in the meteorologists' hands will give back a hundred fold for the benefit of all aerial navigators.
A vertical section of the atmosphere is therefore among the probabilities of our age—an age which in meteorology can be best described as the "ground map period." The synoptic weather map deals only with conditions at the surface of the earth, and while sometimes misleading or incomplete, still is the most effective tool vet devised for forecasting- and for study.
^ The present model illustrates an endeavor to extend the limits of observations. It consists essentially of a series of glass maps so arranged as to indicate in part the general eastward drift of the main air stream in our latitudes.
photograph showing instrument in use.
The present device is one which we think enlarges the area of reports; and gives to the eye of the forecaster a history of the progressive movements of "highs" and "lows," "spins" and "counter-spins" in the main air stream. It is especially valuable near the Atlantic Coast where otherwise one is apt to lose sight of disturbances passing seaward.
The object of this paper is to point out the need of further study of ionized masses of air, charged clouds, and electric strains in the air. Between charged cloud and cloud, or between cloud and earth, our electrometer readings have shown that very great potential differences may exist. "While the writer knows only of instrumental measurements of atmospheric potentials in the neighborhood of 10,000 volts, it is probable that voltages ten times greater exist.
A balloon may at any time pass between a cloud and earth and may weaken a dielectric already strained almost to the breaking point. . The line of fracture would be along this path and the passage of a spark or moderate flash might seriously injure balloon and aeronauts.
It is quite possible to design electrometric apparatus which would indicate the increasing potential and so give warning to the aeronaut.
The electric charge, however, sometimes increases very rapidly and under present conditions the aeronaut would have to act with promptness.
A Member: I would like to say that when I saw the beautiful balloon of the War Department, apparently coated with aluminum, I did not feel that such a balloon is safe unless they know what are the static conditions in the atmosphere.
Captain Chandler: I understood the Italian army has been using balloons of that type for a great many years. Although one has been struck by lightning", they claim the aluminum coating is just as safe or safer. They say the charge has a greater chance to dissipate.
Mr. Myers: Several years ago at Stratford Springs my wife made a balloon ascension and found herself between two clouds. She vibrated for three-quarters of an hour between those two clouds, without a visible discharge. The balloon both received and discharged the surface electricity. Her experience is described in a little book which she wrote at the time, and I would be pleased to send any of you a copy.
Mr. Hammer: I desire to state that at luncheon time, in talking to General Allen, he made the statement that his department had an official report from Italy regarding an aluminum coated balloon. It attracted a great deal of discussion. I would suggest General Allen send that copy of the report for the published report of this Congress. I make that as a motion.
Every year on the occasion of the Review in the Piazza d'Armi. the Specialist Brigade of Engineers takes part in it by means of a balloon ascent.
This year (1907) there was no Grand Review, owing to a number of troops being absent from Rome, but the Engineers decided to carry out their usual annual program
A balloon of 260 cubic yards, made of silk and painted with powdered aluminum, and provided with a car large enough for only one person, was filled with hydrogen on the grounds of the Aeronautic Society, situated outside of the Porta del Popolo. and then transported on a car to Ponte Milvio. While awaiting the arrival of the Sovereigns, two captive ascents were made; and after they had passed on their way to open the new National Shooting Range the balloon was lowered. Then Captain Ulivelli of the Engineers, a well-known aeronaut, entered the car, examined the direction of the wind and gave the order to let go. The balloon rose at 11.30.
The pressure was low and it would have been able to rise very high without losing
its ascensional force. The balloon rose slowly in the air. and drifted quietly towards the East. Flashes of lightning were observed in the West where a storm was brewing, while towards the East all was clear. Suddenly the wind changed and drove the balloon rapidly towards the West and Montagnola—the threatening quarter—where it speedily attained a height of 900 meters. A flash of forked lightning, a tongue of flame from the lower valve, a booming sound, an explosion and the envelope was rent open, and the balloon seemed to vanish into a descending ball of flame. A flash of lightning had set the balloon on fire. Fortunately, the envelope, torn apart, acted as a parachute.
The Captain did not lose his presence of mind, and threw out ballast as rapidly as possible; thus in some degree staying the downward flight of the burning wreck. Besides these checks, the car before striking the earth came in contact with a line of telegraph wires, and a stiff hedge, which undoubtedly prevented the Captain from being killed on the spot.
His senseless body was found lying near the still smouldering wreck.
A doctor was soon on the spot, and the unfortunate man, who had shown signs of life, was placed in an automobile and taken to the hospital, but where he died at 2.15 p. m.
In an interview. Lieutenant Cianetti, an officer attached to the balloon Company states that:
The balloon was filled with hydrogen gas, which is more dangerous than illuminating gas. but is necessary in filling a balloon of small dimensions.
The fact of being rather flabby at the starting moment could have been of no prejudice to the balloon, which was instead placed in condition to rise to a higher altitude.
A sudden flash was noticed shortly after starting, at the top of the globe and then a flash running along the eastern part of the balloon.
The hydrogen instantly exploded and the explosion was followed by a booming sound. The balloon rapidly descended with its cover in flames.
It is more admissible that the balloon was struck by lightning than to infer that a counter-stroke electric discharge might have set it on fire.
The balloon started charged with terrestrial potential and reached the clouds charged with a different potential, and when the distance became small, a discharge took place between the clouds and the upper part of the balloon on account of the said difference of potential.
The spark followed the side line of the balloon case covered with aluminum powder and surrounded by an hydrogeneous atmosphere which at that moment was flowing out of the lower valve. Thus the body of hydrogen exploded causing the flame.
The explosion took place at an altitude of 900 meters as shown by the barograph found in the car, and no one could have possibly avoided the catastrophe. Captain Ulivelli might have done well to throw the sand from the car, but most likely he had no time to think about that. (.Note—Some reports say that he did but it is questionable.)
Those who were in the locality where he fell heard him cry out and it is quite sure that at the moment, the dreadful fright caused by such a terrible fall was increased by that of becoming a. part of the blaze over his head.
Upon reaching ground the cover of the balloon was still on fire; however, more than one-half of the casing—the part that joins the upper and lower valve—was found. This part showed signs of having been burnt by an electric discharge, one of the sides had been torn and the part opposite to where the explosion had taken place was found intact together with the net, the car. the barograph, a barometer, and a topographical map.
Another similar, though not identical catastrophe, took place during March, 1906, at Civitacastellana.
The balloon, however, in this case, exploded on reaching the ground and this was due to the fact that the balloon dropped from a great height, charged with an electric potential acquired in the region of the clouds, so it exploded as soon as it touched ground.
These phenomena, however, are rare and might occur under any meteorological condition, nor should an ascension be considered as dangerous while a storm is impending, as a balloon does not draw the electricity and when it remains between sky and ground it runs no more risk than a man who may be walking through a storm.
Professor Palazzo, Director of the R. Institute of Meteorology and Geodynamics, npon being requested for his opinion on the late fatal incident, has expressed his conviction that the setting on fire of the balloon was caused by an electric discharge. He states, however, that it is not an easy question to establish how the electric discharge took place.
The balloon may have been struck by actual lightning produced by a storm cloud and which may have happened on account of the balloon being by chance on the same trajectory followed by the lightning flash; or else on account of the fact that the balloon had not had sufficient time to acquire the electric potential such as was necessary at the atmospheric point which it reached at that moment.
In other words the balloon was not yet in equilibrium with the atmospherical state through which it was then driving.
Another supposition is that at the very moment an electrical discharge was taking place in a storm cloud, another resonant discharge was produced by two metallic adjacent parts., such as in this case—the balloon's valve which is of metal.
This discharge producing a small flash might have been sufficient to set on fire some of the escaping hydrogen around the valve; hence the unavoidable setting on fire of the balloon.
Captive balloons are always conductors of electricity, and on account of the rope that joins them with the ground they become enormous lightning rods apt to receive any electric discharge, and the fact that captive balloons are conductors of electricity has been verified many times. Free balloons have been considered instead, until now, less exposed to storm discharges.
Professor Palazzo, in making this latter statement, referred to an ascension which took place at Berlin by him and the aeronaut Berson.
Their balloon at a certain moment was driving through a heavy electrical storm and Mr. Berson upon being requested for his opinion rejected the idea that the balloon might have been struck by an electric discharge.
Professor Palazzo, however, is of the opinion that when the car of a balloon is damp, it is subject to resonant discharges produced by the discharge taking place between the clouds. The catastrophe of yesterday is a clear illustration of this, as it is quite likely that the balloon before being struck by lightning had been dampened by the heavy rain which had fallen.
Professor Cleoscoper writes to the "'Tribuna'" that "the cause of the balloon being struck by lightning and burnt was the powdered aluminum contained in the paint on the outside of the skin. Balloons should not have an}- metals which are good conductors of electricity."
Lieutenant Crocco. of the Specialist Brigade, referring to Professor Cleoscoper's assertions relative to 'he cause of the late balloon catastrophe, stated that Professor Cleoscoper's considerations on the premises are rather premature and they are contradicted by facts and experience.
Powdered aluminum has been used by the Specialist Brigade for the past ten years, covering the casing of their balloons, and it is to be inferred that such proceeding would not have been resorted to unless some good reason had induced them to do so.
The balloons are made of varnished silk which is highly inflammable, and the experiments held in 1893 by MM. Boernstein and Bachin (reported in 1902 by Von Tchudi), have proven that varnished cloth becomes electrified at the least friction and the experiment was ¿0 conclusive that the German Aeronautic Society since then abolished the use of it.
The powdered aluminum has the triple advantage of
a. preventing the cloth from being electrified,
b. affording the cloth a semi-incombustibility,
c. maintaining at a low temperature the bod)- of hydrogen filling the balloon's
Numerous experiments made by the Specialist Brigade have shown the truth of the two latter advantages, while the former has been demonstrated by the late Professor Ciancani of the Meteorological Institute.
Leaving out of discussion the complex and subtle question of possible electrical action between the insulated body of a balloon and a storm cloud, it is evident that the metallic cover of aluminum (so it might be called) would but protect the body of hydrogen from any internal electrical action, forming something similar to a real Faraday case which joins the remaining metallic parts (valves) of the aerostat, and separates entirely the internal parts of the sphere.
The fact, however, (which is most important) is that the light veil of aluminum covering the cloth gives no valuable metallic qualities to the cloth, on account of the incoherence of the same powder.
Professor Ciancani of the Meteorological Institute, as a result of experiments held in this connection and in reply to the examination of the same question submitted by the Specialist Brigade some few years ago, stated that:
(Continued in August number).
DISTANCE TRAVELED BY PROF. JOHN WISE IN 1859 —809] MILES.
Articles in the St. Louis Newspapers published at that time state that Prof. Wise and his three companions ascended from Washington Square on Friday, July i, 1859, at 6:55 p.m , and Mr. Kearney of the Aero Club of St. Louis, has learned that the ascension was from the southeast corner of the square near Clark Ave. and 12th Street. The City Hall now stands in the-center of this square. The geodetic position of the southeast corner is Lat. 380 37' 32.4" and Long. 900 ii' 57".
The balloon took almost a straight course about 270 north of east and passed Pana, Ills., north of Ft. Wayne, Ind., south of Toledo and north of Port Clinton, O. at 7 a.m., over Lake Erie at a speed of 45 miles an hour, across Long Point, between Niagara Falls and Buffalo, at 12:15 p.m., over Lake Ontario abreast of Rochester and down into a most violent storm which drove it at a speed of more than 70 miles an hour across the lake and into a forest. It was soon caught in a large sycamore tree near Henderson, N. Y., at 2:20 p.m. (by Mr. La Mountain's watch which was evidently 15 minutes slow). The actual distance traveled was about 822 miles and the time was 19 hours and 40 minutes. >C\o%
Mr. Paysou F. Thompson, of Henderson, was requested/lto indicate on a map the exact spot where Prof. Wise landed. He did so and said, "There are quite a number of men living here now who went there and saw the whole thing and could tell within a few rods of where he landed/j/ The place is two miles southwest from the town, near Stony Creek and one and th'ree-quarter miles from the eastern shore of Lake Ontario. * Its geodetic position is, Lat. 430 49/4i" and Long. 760 i2/ 55" The exact distance in a straight line between these points is 809.27 miles * and is computed thus :
Let a = greater latitude, b = smaller latitude, c = difference in longitude and f = arc of a great circle between the two points, then
sin d = cos a X sin c Logarithms log. cos a(43° 49' 41") = 9.858 1889 " sin c(i3° 59/ 02") = 9 383 1851 " sin d( io° o2/ 23") = 9 241 3740 sin b -|- e — sin a -j— cos d log. sin a(43° 49/41" ) = 9.840 4176 " cos d( ro° 02/ 23") = 9.993 2983 log. sin b + e(44° 41' 25.5") = 9.847 1 193 cos f = cos d X cos c log. cos d( io° o2/ 23") = 9.993 2983 " cos e( 6° Q3/ 50.1" )= 9.997 5632 " cos f(u° 42' 46") = 9.990 6615
42' 46" = 702.7657
1' = 1.15t 553 miles.
log. 702 765' = 2.846 8101 log. 1.151 553 »iiles = 0.061 2839 log. 809.27 = 2.908 0940
Distance = 809.27 miles N
When an aeronaut can find on a good map the place where he ascends and lauds, he can measure their latitude and longitude from the map and can compute the exact length of his trip by the above method. Anyone can take a book of logarithms and pick out those which correspond with the angles or numbers used. Then nothing is done but to add or subtract them. The angle or number corresponding with this sum or difference can also be found in the book of logarithms very readily.
* Erbsloh's record in the Gordon Bennett at St. Louis was 872 25 miles ; Leblanc's was 866.87 miles.—Editor. j
I- » ՠ ~r r ' ; oV\
The new German military dirigible under construction after the semi-rigid system of Major Gross is now finished. The length is 65 meters, and the capacity 4,500 cubic meters. The Chancellor of the Empire, Prince von Buelow, was to have attended the first ascension on May 16th, but at the last moment gave it up. A strong wind prevented manoeuvring and the ascension lasted but 20 minutes, above the Lake of Tegel. The old German military balloon made an ascent of half an hour.
May 6. Omitted from the June number. N. H. Arnold, Leo Stevens and Harry J. Hewat left North Adams in the North Adams No. i. 35,000, at 1:22 p. m., landing at Quaker Springs, N. Y., at 2:55 p. m. Distance 49 miles in 1 hour 34 minutes.
May. 12. Omitted from June number. N. H. Arnold, Arthur D. Potter and James McClellan left North Adams in the North Adams No. 1. 35,000, at 11:20 a.m., landing at 11:53 at Halifax, Vt. Only two bags of ballast were taken. The balloon thrashed about in the gale for 28 minutes after being rigged before it could be released. Distance , 28 miles in 33 minutes. Average speed 50.9 miles per hour.
June 1. G. L. Bumbaugh, C. A. Coey and C. H. Leichleiter in the Chicago 110,000 cubic feet, left Quincy, Ills., at 6:05 p.m. and landed in Deuel County, S. D., about
8 miles southwest of Clear Lake, at 5 a.m. June 2. Distance 430.88 miles. Elapsed time 10 hours and 55 minutes. General direction west by northwest. Average speed 38.9 miles.
This distance has been accurately determined by taking the longitude and latitude of the exact spot of ascension and landing. By this method, given the exact spots on the Government topographic sheets, the distance can be reckoned almost to an inch. All the ballast was used.
June 5. N. H. Arnold and C. de Angeli Frua, in the North Adams No. 1, 35,000, left North Adams at 9:42 a.m. and landed in North Greenbush, N. Y., at 12:05 p.m. Distance 30 miles. Elapsed time 2 hours and 23 minutes. Speed per hour 12.5 miles.
Four rifle shots were tired at the balloon as it passed at an elevation of 1,600 feet over Poestenkill, N. Y. One shot whizzed past the ears of the aeronauts and the other pierced the balloon. Mr. Arnold paid for information leading to the identity of the one who fired the shots and obtained his name and those of witnesses. All the evidence was submitted to District Attorney Jarvis P. O'Brien who, so far, has done nothing. In marked contrast to this attitude is the efficient work of the Attorney General of Vermont who has caused the arrest of two parties in connection with the shooting at the Glidden balloon Boston.
June 6. A. Leo Stevens, Dr. and Mrs. H. W. Thompson, left Canton, Ohio, at 11:4S a.m. in the "Ohio," 35,000 eu. ft. and landed at 1.50 p.m. near Akron, Ohio. Owing to poor gas little ballast was carried, only about 186 pounds. The distance made was 16J/2 miles. This was Dr. Thompson's 87th trip. Dr. Thompson was a professional balloonist for twelve years before entering upon the practice of a physician.
June 11. N. H. Arnold. A. H. Forbes and Fred C. Chippendale left North Adams in the North Adams No. 1 at 8:23 a.m., landing at Hawley, Mass., 10:53 a.m. Distance
9 miles. Elapsed time 2 hours 21 minutes.
June 13. Samuel A. King, G. L. Mayer, J. E. Rech. D. H. Schuyler, John Parke, \V. R. Brown and F. S. McGrath left Point Breeze, Philadelphia, in the Ben Franklin, 92,000 cubic feet, at 4 p.m. and landed near New Brunswick. N. J., at 8 p.m. It was the first trip for Messrs. Mayer, Schuyler. Parke, Brown and McGrath. It was the third trip for Air. Rech and the many hundredth for Mr. King. Distance 56 miles. Elapsed time 4 hours.
June 13. Leo Stevens, A. H. Morgan and J. H. Wade, Jr., left Pittsfield on the initial trip of Mr. Morgan's new balloon "Sky Pilot," built by Stevens, 40,000 cubic feet capacity, at 11 o'clock a. m. and landed near Hinsdale, Mass., 4 hours 10 minutes later, after covering a distance of but 6 miles. Two hours were spent over Washington mountain. The greatest height was 7,500 feet.
It is to be noted that but half the quantity of sand was carried on this trip that was carried in a balloon of smaller size in a subsequent trip from another city. Pitts-field should devote her efforts to making better gas if she wishes to continue to have ascensions there.
June 14. Dr. R. M. Randall and N. H. Arnold left North Adams, Mass., on the initial trip of Dr. Randall's new balloon "Greylock." 22,000 cubic feet, at 9:50 a. 111. and landed at 10:30 at West Dover, Vt. Dr. Randall is to qualify as pilot. Distance, 22 miles. Elapsed time, 40 minutes.
June 19. A. Leo Stevens and Charles J. Glidden in the ''Boston," 1.000 cubic meters, left Pittsfield at 5 p. m.. landing at W. Dummerston. Vt., at 7 p. m. Elapsed time, 2 hours. Distance, 29 miles. Altitude, 1.750 n:e'ters.
hit by bullets.
This was the initial trip of the "Boston." Mr. Glidden's balloon just purchased from the Stevens' factory. The balloon was christened with a bottle of Poland Spring water by Miss Carolyn Crafts, the nine-year-old daughter of Superintendent Crafts of the Pittsfield gas company. Rifle practice with balloons as targets seems to be the vogue just now. At an elevation of 2,000 feet over Brattleboro the balloon was struck by two bullets one of which, however, glanced off leaving a dark streak on the oiled cloth. The marksman could not be located.
"While passing over the northwest corner of Brattleboro. Vt., we heard a rifle shot, and just a second later we heard the thud where the bullet struck the balloon. Another shot quickly followed which did no serious damage, although it struck the balloon.
"It was a frightful sensation to know that a marksman was using us for a target, and that if he hit a vital spot we would fall 2,000 feet. To our great relief he did not fire again. Strangely enough, we could not locate the marksman, nor could we see a living being anywhere below us.
"We landed easily upon a mountain 2,000 feet high and busied ourselves packing the balloon.
chased by bull—club bull dog.
"While doing this we were charged by a huge red bull. Mr. Stevens and myself raced for a stone wall which we saw across the field. Stevens is a thinner and smaller man than myself, but he didn't make any better time with that bull behind him than I did.
"To our horror we found that the stone wall was reinforced b}T several lines of catwire, but we did not stop, going over the wall and wire just in time to avoid being assisted by the horns of the brute.
"There was a thicket on the other side of the wall and it led up the mountain. We knew that there was no use going that way and we did not want to leave the balloon to the mercy of the brute. I think we were treed by the animal for from half an hour to an hour before he finally got tired and went off. Then we went back and finished packing the balloon.
"It was growing dark and we were both hungry, so we started off to find a farm-hcuse. We tramped for an hour over hill and dale and finally came to one which did net look so very inviting, but any port in a storm. We knocked at the door and a man asked us what we wanted. We told him that we were aeronauts who asked shelter for the night.
"'Fe c ff,' he shouted. 'You are tramps, and I will set the dog on you.' We couldn t persuade him to let us in, and he wouldn't tell us where to find another farmhouse. It was pitch dark by this time, and we were very hungry. However, there was nothing for it but to trust to luck. For two hours we trudged along, 1 suppose we passed many houses, but we didn't see any, and finally about 11 o'clock we reached the home of Representative W. W. Bennett of the Vermont Legislature.
"The house was in darkness and a very savage clog welcomed us, endeavoring to devour us. He meant business and tore at us until we were compelled to use clubs to keep him off. Even then he might have done serious damage had not the noise aroused Mr. Bennett, who came down and invited us in. He gave us a good supper and a comfortable bed and we were very grateful."
Both Mr. Stevens and Mr. Gliddcn immediately offered $100 each as a reward for the arrest of the marksman.
June 24. X. H. Arnold, W. C. Coughlin, and H. R. Hopkins, left North Adams in the North Adams Xo. 1, at 8:35 a. m., descent at Guilford, Vt., 10:25 a. in. Distance, 27 miles in 1 hour 50 minutes.
June 24. Dr. R. M. Randall and William Van Sleet left Xorth Adams in the "Greylock," 22,000. at 9:55 a. m., descent at Guilford, Vt., half mile beyond the Xorth Adams Xo. 1, at 11:25 a- ni- Distance, 27^2 miles.
June 25. The second voyage of the balloon "Boston," 35,000 feet, and the tenth of Charles J. Glidden that will qualify him as pilot Xo. 12 of the Aero Club of America and XTo. 1 of the Aero Club of New England, was successfully made today from XTorth Adams at 9:20 a. m., an easy landing being made on the farm of Chas. Mowry at Wil-braham Center two miles from North Wilbraham station.
Mr. Glidden was accompanied by A. Holland Forbes of Xew York who was making his fifteenth ascension.
The start from North Adams was perfect, the balloon carrying five hundred pounds of ballast. After hovering over the city a few minutes at an elevation of 1,900 feet, the Hoosic Mountain was crossed at the westerly door of the tunnel. Here the cool air sent the balloon down at the expense of considerable sand.
At an elevation of 4,000 feet, variable winds caused the balloon basket to rock not unlike a small boat in a swell—a new experience to both aeronauts. The voyage could be well called "an aerial sail among the colleges,'' for at one time the colleges of Wilbraham, Holyoke, Amherst, and Northampton, were visible and the landing made in the college town of Wilbraham. The highest elevation reached was 7,400 feet. At 11.11 the Tip Top House of Mount Holyoke was directly under the basket 6,450 feet below, to the right was Mount Tom, the city of Springfield covering about as much space as Boston Common, and the city of Holyoke. A cool breeze off Mount Holyoke caused a drop of 3,800 feet and made a landing necessary on account of loss of sand in a thirty-mile wind. The anchor failed to catch and they dragged up a small brook but did not get wet. Mountains Holyoke and Tom appeared like huge "A" tents with a heavy green covering. The sun and clouds caused much up and down movements and I still advise ascensions three hours before dark as the most ֤esirable. Elapsed time, 2 hours 35 minutes. Distance, 60 miles.
June 26. Dr. R. M. Randall and Edward F. Newton in the "Greylock" left North Adams at 9:14 a. m., landing at Stephentown, N. Y., 11:30 a. m. General direction southwest. Distance, 20 miles. Highest altitude, 9,200 feet. A cold current was encountered over Greylock Mountain which cost three bags to clear. Dr. Randall advises others to always clear the spot by at least 2,000 feet as snow and ice can be found there all the year. "It is a mean hole and it seemed as if we were dropping into an ice chest."
June 27. Alan R. Hawley, A. H. Morgan and J. H. Wade, Jr., left North Adams in the "Sky Pilot" of Mr. Morgan at 9:14 a. in., landing at Monroe Bridge at 1:15. Distance, 8 miles.
June 27. Samuel A. King, Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge. Dr. George H. Siminerman, Mrs. C. B. Kilgore. and Mrs. M. E. Lockington, left Point Breeze, Philadelphia, in the new balloon, made by King, "Philadelphia." Almost as soon as it ascended a rent appeared in the top which gradually got bigger and the balloon dropped swiftly when over the Schuylkill River. By dint of rapid throwing out of ballast the balloon landed safely in the water of the river. As the water was reached the anchor was thrown out and Mr. King fell overboard. Quickly willing hands seized the guide rope and drew the balloon to shore where the women alighted. The water was but two or three feet ■deep where the balloon struck, but had it been away from aid the balloon might have collapsed upon the aeronauts and smothered them. This was the balloon's initial ascent and was owned by the Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society.
June 30. N. II. Arnold, A. W. Vorse, and W. R. Kimball, left North Adams at 10:26 a. m. in the North Adams No. 1, and landed at 12:05 at Warwick, Mass., a distance of 42 miles. Direction, east. Altitude, 6,200 Teet. Average speed. 28.42 miles.
Let us take this occasion to say that this is the first trip made since the United States Weather Bureau issued its special ascension record blanks, on which the aeronauts tried to comply with the oft-repeated request of the Bureau. In this record the altitudes are noted every few moments but the real items of the greatest value are left blank.
It does seem that avhen the Government asks the co-operation of balloonists with a promise of a manifold return of favors, efforts should be made to assist the Bureau in its work.
AERONAUTICAL NEWS OF THE ARMY FOR JUNE.
Contract has been awarded to John Boyle & Co. for a tent to be erected at Fort Myer, Va., for housing the dirigible balloon which will be delivered about the end of July by Capt. T. S. Baldwin, after trials.
The balloon shed and building for the hydrogen generating plant that are being erected at Fort Omaha, Neb., under the direction of Capt. Chas. De Forrest Chandler, the holder of the Lahm Cup of the Aero Club of America, and the wireless tower, are nearing completion.
Lieut. B. D. Foulois, Signal Corps, now at the Signal School at Fort Leavenworth, Kans., has been assigned for duty in connection with aeronautics in Washington, to report at once.
As an instance of unprecedented speed in gas balloon construction from ready prepared, machine-varnished fabric, Mr. Carl E. Myers built, and shipped July 2nd from the balloon farm, Frankfort, N. Y., to the U. S. Weather Bureau a complete captive balloon, with net, four days from- receipt of order.
$500 for the First "Airship" to Land at Asbury Park.
Ex-Mayor James A. Bradley, of Asbury Park, has offered $500 to the owner or lessee of the "airship" that will make Asbury Park Athletic Grounds the first stop after leaving New York. The offer to remain open for eighteen months from date (June 27, 1908).
"Blue Ribbcn of Aviation Has Passed to France."
This surprising statement was recently written in an article entitled, "A New Aeroplane Record." Since when has anyone made a longer flight than our own Wright Brothers? Known feats do not have to be ''officially" viewed by any organization.
French Military Dirigible "Republique" Makes First Trial.
On June 24, the "Republique" made a few maneouvres lasting half an hour. Everything worked well. The general form is the same as the "Patrie." The extreme length is 61 meters, with the largest diameter, 10.8 meters. The total capacity is 3,700 cubic meters. In the trial flight four passengers were carried, representing 300 kilos, 100 kilos of gasolene, and 845 kilos of ballast, the total weight carried being 1,345 kilos. The gasolene tanks are large enough for a flight of 800 kilometers with eight men and ballast. The crew will consist of a commander, an assistant and two mechanics. Defects discovered in "Patrie" have been remedied in this dirigible. Special attention has been given to the car. It has been made more comfortable. The sides are vertical all around. The motor can be repaired and watched from all sides. The ventilator of the motor and of the balloonet are at the rear of the car. The ventilator of the bal-loonet can be worked by hand if the motor gives out. Gasolene is placed under pressure in a tank located under the car. There is enough gasolene to run the 65-Panhard motor twelve hours without refilling.
Balloon Racing for June.
Twelve balloons started in the Distance race of the Aero Club of France on June 11. It was won by Edouard Bachelard who landed the following day at Roermond, Holland, after making a distance of 372 kilometers in 19 hours 7 minutes.
Four balloons left Poitiers on June 14. Won by M. Briol.
The "hare and hounds" balloon race run by the Aero Club of the United Kingdom from Hurlingham on June 25th, in which eleven balloons competed, was won by the Hon. C. S. Rolls, he piloting the "hare" balloon.
Fourteen balloons started in a precision contest for balloons on the 28th. Each competitor had to state before leaving some point near which he expected to descend. Won by Rene Gasnier who landed 400 meters from the point selected.
Four balloons started from Bochum, Prussia, June 17, in a distance race under conditions of war. Two of the balloons reached Jarotschin near the Russian frontier, a distance of 450 miles in 15 hours. Another descended at Goerlitz after a trip of 350 miles. The fourth balloon failed to comply with the conditions which exacted that three persons occupy the basket of each balloon, one of whom should be landed during the course of the voyage, the balloon reascending and continuing. The trip must end in Germany.
New "Zeppelin IV" Tried.
On June 20, a preliminary ascent was made of a satisfactory character, remaining in the air some 45 minutes. The side steering device was tested but did not prove entirely right and a new one was tried on the 23d, when an ascension lasting 2*4 hours was made. The steering device worked perfectly.
Dictionary of Aeronautics.
Robert Harris Pierce, who is favorably known among lexicographers and philologists, has nearly completed a small "Dictionary of Aeronautics," including meteorological terms, with pronunciations and illustrative quotations from standard works.
This dictionary, which will sell at a moderate price, will be of inestimable value as there is already a considerable demand for such a work.
Whose is this:
"An inventor of 'heavier-than-air' flying machine, maintaining, automatically, absolutely perfect equilibrium; built on entirely different principle from the Wright Brothers or any other machine heretofore made; requires additional capital to complete machine in accordance with government specifications; over $300,000 in immediate cash prizes, in addition to the profits to be derived from the manufacture, sale and exhibition of the machine, is to be gained; the inventor having a regular income agrees to devote the amounts subscribed, as well as his own surplus, entirely to the development and perfection of the device, and to turn over the dividends on his own holdings until every investor shall have received the full return of his investment in dividends; a specially attractive proposition will be made to the subscribers to the amount required to complete the first large machine now under construction; all the claims can be demonstrated by models in flight. Address Scientific, 319 Herald."
JUST LIKE OTHER.... MOTORS — but
we leave off a hundred or so pounds of troublesome junk that is made unnecessary by the simple act of revolving the motor instead of the shaft. An inside view of the 65 h. p. Adams-Farwell Motor
2.7 lb. per h. p. (A. L. A. M. Rating)
No aeronaut or aviator can afford to overlook this proposition—These motors have been used in automobiles for ten years—We design special motor bases to fit your airship—Write for details.
THE ADAMS COMPANY, 37\\ltite Street, DUBUQUE, IOWA.
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WANTED immediately. An active Partner with Capital or Facilities, to build a Practical and Perfect Flying Machine. Entirely New, Scientific, Meteorological Solution of Natural Flight. Patentable. No Mechanical Proposition.
Address C. B. MELOTT, Care Aeronautics, 1777 Broadway, N. Y.
The Adams-Farwell Motor.
In response to a question as to whether the Adams-Farwell motor has had long tests, a motor was built in 1898 upon the same principle and this was in actual use driving an old express wagon which was remodeled so that the motor drove the front wheels.
Here is an illustration of the wagon. The car shown in the illustration marked "1899-1900" is still in the hands of a private owner. This car was built in 1899 and the photograph from which this illustration was made was taken on January 1, 1900. The car is seen climbing a long hill with snow on the ground.
The cylinders of the motors used in the first two cars were cast in one piece; that is, the three cylinders were all formed in one casting, the heads being bolted on. The company states: "We were not satisfied with the gasket that this design necessitated, and so in 1901 brought out the motor shown in electro marked '1901 to 1905.'
This 3-cylinder motor was like the first ones, except that each cylinder and cylinder-head were cast in one piece and the three cylinders were bolted together and bolted to the top and bottom flanges forming the crank case. This is the method that has been used continuously since 1901.
In 1905, the Adams people brought out their first 5-cylinder motor as shown by the electrotype marked "1905 to 1908." This motor was identically the same as the 3-cylinder motor except that the timing gears were placed outside of the crank case where they are more accessible. This change was not made, however, because of any necessity for getting at these gears frequently, but because it was desired to make the gears of Wger diameter, and it was necessary to lengthen the crank pin so that we did not have room for them inside of the crank case.
In the 3-cylinder motor the single rocker arm for each cylinder and the single cam for all cylinders is the same as now used. These motors have been controlled by variable compression ever since 1898. At one time they had a magneto with make and
break spark on the 1898 motor, but discarded this in favor of the jump spark which has been used on all of the cars since that time.
A 1909 model is now being produced having a 5-cylinder motor of 5j^-inch bore by 5-inch stroke. This will be used in a 7-passenger car and also in a 4-passenger roadster. This new model will be known as "Model Nine." This and the aeronautic motor are the latest products.
Aeronautic motors can now be furnished of 65-horsepower having five cylinders, 5^-inch bore by 5-inch stroke. This is a modification of the "Model Nine" motor.
Mr. F. O. Farwell is of the opinion that in order to make an absolutely dependable aeroplane it will be necessary to utilize gyroscopic force which heretofore has been a hindrance rather than an aid on account of the fact that aviators have not taken it into consideration at all.
The Adams Company is making some experiments along this line, which, if they turn out as expected, will probably mean that they will design another aeronautic motor which will, in fact, be two of the present 36-horsepower motors combined in one, but running in opposite directions. This, they believe, is necessary in order to make an aeroplane that will stay right side up and handle nicely in the air. They do not believe that any aeroplane with one or more fly wheels revolving in a vertical plane will ever be a perfert success.
MY INITIAL TRIP TO THE CLOUDS.
(Continued from page 24).
We arevgoing to purchase a 40,000-foot balloon from Mr. Stevens and to enter enthusiasticallyx into the sport of ballooning and do our share to make it popular. We are honorary members of the Wilkinsburg Automobile Club and carried the pennant of that club on this flight. Every year the club has a run to our country home and we will entertain 150 of them the latter part of July and, incidentally, make converts of them all to ballooning.
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This enormous increase of power on less weight " Solves the aerial problem" and with my new-true principal of aero-locomotion assures practical every day air navigation, with automatic-constant equilibrium and stability with positive control in heavier-than-air machines and in rising vertically without a running start or launching ways.
I can greatly increase the speed of dirigibles regardless of ordinary wind or weather, and relieve the stresses due to head resistance at high speed.
I can regulate speed, and hover in the air for days, or travel for days without base, and land slowly and vertically at a predetermined point within a radius of one thousand miles.
The World and principal Governments are seeking the " practical-every day airship " each striving and hoping to get it first.
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a. z. z. c/o aeronautics