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THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERIAL NAVIGATION
A. Leo Stevens, Mr. and Mrs. E. C. Peebles
PRICE, TWENTY-FIVE CENTS
I^The Auto=Meter! Is Believed |
Talk about speed indicators that are believed—that have figured largely in famous events! Here are a feiv right off the reel—just jotted down from memory/ The reviewing of big motor events is nothing more or less than a history of the successful career of the Auto-Meter.
Glidden Tour, 1906, 38 Warners used; All other makes, 23.
Memorial Day Races, Denver, 1906. Thomas "40" won 1st; Stevens-Duryea 2nd; both Warner-equipped.
Mudlark, 1906, from New York to Daytona, Warner-equipped; big tour afterward.
Memorial Day, 1906, non-stop run, New York-Boston-Springfield; Knox Waterless made record, Warner-equin-ped.
Franklin car, San Francisco-New York, 4,500 mile run, August, 1906; Warner-equipped.
Percy Megargle with Reo Mountaineer, across continent and back, 12,000 miles, 1906, Warner-equipped.
Military Message Run, Chicago-New York, June, 1906, Buick car, Warner Auto-Meter.
Military Run, New York-San Francisco. Aug., 1906, a Warner was used.
Red Cloud, Olds, trans-çontinental run, 1907, Warner-equipped.
Glidden Tour, 1907, 75 cars started, 53 used Warners; 21 used all other makes.
Detroit Reliability Run, 1907, winner
used Warner. New York-Chicago Sealed Bonnet Contest, winner Warner-equipped. Long Island Economy Run, Frayer-
Miller, winner, was Warner-equipped. In New York-Paris Race only speed
indicator in the run is a Warner
Auto-Meter. Ralph Owen, driver of Mudlark, 1908,
bought a Warner for this car though
offered another as a gift.
Winning Haynes car in Chicago Reliability Race, December, 1908, was Warner-equipped.
Charles J. Glidden has piled up 42,367 miles in 35 countries with a Warner Auto-Meter
The fire departments of the following cities use the Auto-Meter: New York, Boston, Detroit, Chicago, Denver, Joplin, Mo., and Seattle, Wash,
All the reliable maps of the country have been laid out with Auto-Meters: The Blue Book, White's Route Books, all Canadian maps, Michael's Pictorial maps, all Glidden Tour courses, King's maps, Brfarcliff Course, etc.
Nearly all the automobile makers of the country use the Auto-Meter to test their cars before leaving the factory.
The E. R. Thomas Motor Co. and the Olds Motor Car Co., furnish the Warner as part of the regular equipment
Warner Instrument Co.
'77 Wheeler A venae
Beloit. - Wisconsin
published monthly by
AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS CO. Ernest LaRue Jones, Editor and Owner Thoroughfare Building, 1777 Broadway, New York, U. S. A.
Vol. II June, 1908 No. 6
Aeronautics is issued on the tenth of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics. Contributions are solicited.
SUBSCRIPTION RATES. One year, $3.00; payable always in advance.
Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order or registered letter. WE CAN NOT USE CHECKS ON LOCAL BANKS UNLESS EXCHANGE IS ADDED. Send draft on New York. Make all remittances free ol exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk.
Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, $3.50 per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to Aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.
Important.—Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure proper credit.
Furnished on application. The value of Aeronautics as an advertising medium is unquestioned.
HIS number, the twelfth, completes our first year and we take this opportunity of thanking our subscribers and advertisers for the hearty support they have given our attempt to advance aeronautics.
We found discouraging pessimists on every hand when we started a year ago, in July. They told us we were ahead of the times, that there was no demand for such a Journal and that we were doomed to failure. We have proven them in error—and for this we are glad.
The art is young indeed but a very healthy infant. The coming year holds great promise. How fast the art will progress it is wild to forecast. Centuries of experiments have been turned during almost a single year into practical flight. It only remains to develop further the machines that are making daily flights. It was a long time before we had an automobile, but when the first one arrived the ultimate perfection of the motor car took but ten years. It is possible that with the flying machine the progress will be still more rapid, for we have all the engineering knowledge of the past ten years. The explosive motor had to be invented and perfected before we could have the automobile. We have the motor now in a state of perfection and we are the gainer by that much.
The principal hindrance to advancement in the art has been lack of funds with which to carry on experiments, and the treatment the idea of flying has received at the hands of an incredulous or facetious press has created in the public mind such distrust of the possibility of flight that it has been well nigh impossible for an inventor to secure funds.
Attempts recently made to secure funds have been miserable failures. It is only within a couple of mouths that the press has seen the reality of the subject but it will take some time yet to counteract the depressing publicity of past years. What we need right now is money for the advancement of the art, offered privately to deserving inventors or as prizes. There are main* who can and will raise money to build machines if they can be shown a prize to be won on the conclusion of their work.
OUR RECENT EXPERIMENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA.
For those readers whose acquaintance with aeronautics is limited to the last few years, this account of our recent experiments in North Carolina is prefaced with a short account of our previous work.
Up to the year 1900, our interest in the subject had been confined mostly to reading and theorizing. But in the Fall of that year we began out-door experiments on the coast of North Carolina, near Kitty Hawk. Here we attempted, at first, to fly our machine as a kite; but later made some short glides on the slopes of- the Kill Devil Hill.
The gliding experiments were continued in the years 1901 and 1902. A number of flights were made of over a minute's duration. The rate of descent was reduced to an angle of 7 degrees.
The account of these experiments given by Mr. Chanute in talks before scientific societies in Europe, and in articles contributed to technical papers, created some interest. A number of persons took up experiments in France with machines built on the drawings and descriptions furnished in Mr. Chanute's articles. Among these
SCHEDULE OF FLIGHTS DURING MAY, 1908.
Velocity of Wind
8 to 12 miles an hour
20 miles an hour
16 miles an hour
S miles an hour
16 to 18 miles
14 to 16 miles
14 to 16 miles
iS to 19 miles
No record (about 15 miles)
were the well-known aviators MM. Archdeacon, Esnault-Pelterie and the Voisin Brothers, builders of the Farmau and Del grange aeroplanes. Captain Ferber had already been experimenting for some months with what he termed a "Chanute-Wright" machine.
In 1903 we added a motor to our machine, and on the 17th of December made four tlights with it. The longest of these covered a distance of 852 feet in 59 seconds against a 20 mile wind.
In 1904 we continued the experiments on a new ground near Dayton, Ohio. The longest flights of that year were two of five minutes each, covering distances of 3 miles.
Experiments were resumed in the summer of 1905 at our grounds near Dayton. Five flights were made in September and October of that year, covering distances of from 11 to 24 miles. The account of these flights, published in l'Acrophile, of Paris, in December, 1905, created a sensation in France, and many more persons took
up experiments with enthusiasm. Among these were Santos-Dumont, Delagrange, and later. Farman. The news of these flights was received by the daily press as a "clap of thunder out of a clear sky," and some discussion arose as to the truthfulness of the report. A number of persons from France, England and Germany, as well as from different parts of our own country, made trips to Dayton to make personal investigation of the matter. Though many came incredulous, not one returned in doubt.
Our recent experiments were conducted upon the grounds, near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, where we experimented in 1900, 1901, 1902 and 1903. The flyer used in these experiments was the one with which we made the flights in September and October, 1905. near Dayton, Ohio. The means of control remained the same as in those flights, but the position of the controlling levers and their directions of motion had to be altered in order to permit the operator to take a sitting position. A seat
for a passenger was added. The engine used in 1905 was replaced by a later model, one of which was exhibited at the Aero Club Show at New York in 1906. Larger gasoline reservoirs and radiators were also installed.
We undertook these experiments in order to test the carrying capacity of the machine, and to ascertain its speed with two men on board, as well as to regain familiarity in the handling of the machine after a period of almost three years without practice. No attempt was made to beat our record of distance, made in 1905.
The first flights were made over a straight course against winds of 8 to 18 miles an hour. The equilibrium of the machine proving satisfactory in these flights, we began to describe circles, returning and landing at the starting point. These flights covered distances of from 1 to 2^2 miles.
On the 14th of May a passenger was taken on board. In the first flight the motor was shut oft at the end of 29 seconds to prevent running into a sand hill, towards which the machine was started. But in a second, the machine carried the passenger and operator for a flight of three minutes and forty seconds, making a complete
circle, and landing near the starting point. The wind, measured at a height of six feet from the ground while the machine was in flight, had a velocity of 18 to 19 miles an hour. The distance traveled through the air, as registered by an anemometer attached to the machine was a little over four kilometers (2.50 miles), which indicated a speed of about 41 miles an hour. A speed as high as 44 miles an hour was reached in an earlier flight, with only one man on board.
In a later flight, on May 14th. a false movement of a controlling lever caused the machine to plunge into the ground when traveling with the wind at a speed of about 55 miles an hour. The repairs of the machine would have necessitated a delay of five or six days, and as that would have consumed more time than we had allowed for the experiments, we discontinued them for the present.
WATCHING THE WRIGHT BROTHERS FLY.
By Byron R. Newton.
(Editor's Note.—As correspondent of the New York Herald Mr. Newton witnessed the important flights made recently by the Wright Brothers in North Carolina and besides giving to the world exceptionally interesting and accurate accounts of their achievements, took the first photograph ever published of their motor aeroplane in flight.)
The month of May, 1908. will doubtless be known to future generations as the most important period in the development of aerial navigation. There may have been other months when more was accomplished in a rudimentary way, but during the middle week of Miay civilization learned that mechanical flight was at last a reality and not a mere human aspiration. The world received its first news that this dream of the ages had been realized—that Wilbur and Orville Wright of Dayton, Ohio, had surely mastered the mighty problem, and, with the sea gulls and the buzzards, were soaring about over a desolate strip of beach on the coast of North Carolina.
And, singularly, too, of the world's millions eagerly interested in the matter, there were exactly five persons there as witnesses of these magical performances—five newspaper correspondents, each of whom had regarded the Wright Brothers as little more than theorists, dreamers or fakirs, until they saw the big aeroplane mount into the air, and, clacking like a great sea bird, come circling over their heads. I went down to North Carolina a pronounced skeptic. I had no doubt that the Wrights had been very successful in experimenting with gliding machines. I did not question that they had gone a step farther with their motor driven machine, but I did not believe they had made conspicuous progress in sustained flight and T did not believe they had made a record of twenty-four miles as claimed by them.
I believe all these things now and much more. About a year ago Frank S. Lahm, the veteran aeronaut, told me he was certain the Wrights could make sixty miles an hour with favoring conditions and that the duration of their flight was measured only by the amount of fuel they carried for the motor. I was sorry to hear the old gentleman utter this statement because I felt sure fit did not believe what he said. I am convinced now that he knew perfectly well what he was talking about. On the afternoon of May 14, there is not the slightest doubt in my mind that their machine was making nearly, if not quite, that speed when it disappeared from our view and was hurled to the ground behind one of the big sand hills.
There is a vast difference between the aeroplane on paper and the aeroplane in the air. We study the drawings and photographs of these wonderful machines and imagination fashions an outline of the thing in action, but imagination cannot anticipate the sensations that come when, for the first time, one behol'ds this huge mechanical creature leap into the air and glide away with the grace of a swallow and the speed of a racing automobile. Thinking men and women of our generation have in store a great treat when they shall have the good fortune first to witness this marvel of creation.
I suppose most of us have dreamed of flying or of seeing others soaring comfortably about above familiar places and have awakened with feelings of regret that it was only a dream. When one first looks up at an aeroplane sailing in mid air, it is like waking from such a dream to find that the vision is a thrilling reality. It brings a singular exhilaration. It is different from the contemplation of any other marvel human eyes may behold in a lifetime. It awakens new emotions. It brings to one the imper-
fectly defined consciousness that another world has been opened to us. The thought comes: "Is not this great ocean of air above us to become as useful for our pleasure and our activities as the sea or the land?" We get our first real conception of the new element in which we are to perform human functions. It is not until then that we appreciate the limitless possibilities of air navigation, for, no matter how skeptical we may have been about the practical phase of flying machines, those doubts are largely dispelled when we behold a perfectly balanced craft carrying two men and its own weight of half a ton through the air just as easily as a motor boat skims the water of a placid lake. Looking at this thing, one forgets theory, forgets doubt, forgets past ages of painful effort and ridicule and turns with intense thought to the wonders of the near future.
Weather worn and decaying, the old gliding machine used ten years ago by the Wrights, is gradually disappearing under the drifting sands at Kitty Hawk Hill. It lies near their abandoned aerodrome, built for the first experiments there, so far removed from human paths that vandals and relic hunters have never disturbed it.
Some day, when the world has had time to understand the great achievements of these modest men, scientists and historians will dig up the fragments of this old gliding machine and civilization will erect a great monument there. And why not? Glance backward over the list of human achievements and see if you can find a man or group of men who have made so great a discovery as have these humble bicycle makers of Dayton. What other achievement compares with theirs! Men learned to navigate the water by slow degrees. It was a process of gradual evolution. Rapid transportation over the earth came naturally with the discovery of steam power. The telegraph and telephone and the many benefits that have accrued to civilization through the utilization of electricity were the result of years of investigation by thousands of scientists; but the discovery of mechanical flight was in reality the work of two men, wrought, miraclelike, within a brief decade, here among the sand dunes of the Atlantic coast.
This is not an unfair claim for the Wrights, because, no matter what may now be accomplished by other inventors, it is undisputed that rudimentally and progressively they worked out the great secret, perfected the gliding machine, made the first successful use of the motor, as applied to aviation, and performed hundreds of sustained flights of a mile or more long before any other aeroplane in the world had made a considerable start in the work already completed by the Ohio men.
This article, however, is not designed to deal with the technical or historical aspects of the Wrights' performances. It is intended only to relate briefly what they did between May 10 and May 15 on the Carolina beach. Scientists will soon begin to analyze their work and historians will presently delve deeply into their lives and the story of their antecedents. If there is anything in heredity doubtless we shall discover, somewhere among the Wrights' progenitors, men of great mechanical and inventive genius, because much of the success attained by Wilbur and Orville Wright may be credited to their extraordinary knowledge and skill as mechanics.
It is often asked why the Wrights selected a corner of the earth so remote from human activities and comforts, for their testing grounds. Look at a map of North Carolina and you will understand, in part. The map will indicate the inaccessibility of the place, and that was the principal thing they were after. But the map will not show the weird isolation, the primitive wildness and the oppressive solitude and loneliness of a spot so far removed from the zone of civilization. The map will show the narrow strip of beach extending for hundreds of miles between the ocean and Albemarle, Pamlico and Roanoke sounds, but it does not show the noisome swamps and jungle, the thousands of moccasins, rattlers and blacksnakes, the blinding swarms of mosquitoes, the myriads of ground ticks and jiggers, the flocks of wild turkeys and other fowl, the herds of wild hogs and cattle and the gleaming white sand mountains which have played so important a part in the Wright's famous achievements. The nearest human habitation is the little hamlet of Manteo, on Roanoke Island, ten or twelve miles distant, with Roanoke Sound lying between that spot and the sand hills.
It is a singular coincidence that on Roanoke Island another great event in the world's history took place. There, in 1585, was made the beginning of Anglo-Saxon civilization in the Western Hemisphere by the settlement of a colony of Englishmen sent across the ocean by Sir Walter Raleigh. The colony was lost and the world has never known what became of it. The forest grew up over the old fort and the greater part of the island is as silent and wild today as on the July morning that Raleigh's ships sailed into the sound. The present dwellers on the island are as ignorant of the modern world as if they lived in the depths of Africa. The sound of a steam locomotive is as unknown to them as the music of Mars. An automobile is as much a myth as Noah"s ark and the flying machine across the sound they regarded as a sea serpent yarn invented by Yankee reporters, the first strangers since the Civil War to invade their island domain. With this enviroment it may be understood how these secretive Ohio men were able for more than ten years to keep their secret from the world.
When the little band of correspondents arrived in Manteo they decided to feel out the ground by sending one of their number to ascertain if there was any change in the Wrights' policy of secrecy. It was a day's journey and a fruitless one. When the scout reached the aerodrome, nestled between Kitty Hawk and Kill Devil Hills, the Wrights were about to make a flight, but at the approach of a stranger they wheeled the aeroplane back into the building, closed the doors and advanced to meet their visitor. They were civil but very firm. "We appreciate your good intentions," they said, "but you can only do us harm. We do not want publicity of any sort. We want to go on with our experiments, but so long as there is a stranger in sight we shall not make a move. Come back a month from now and we will show you something worth telling to the world. At present, we are simply experimenting with new features of our machine."
Then one of the brothers and their assistant mechanic walked with the correspondent back to his boat and watched it far out on the sound toward Manteo.
The next morning at 4 o'clock, equipped with a guide, water and provisions we set out determined to ambush the wily inventors and observe their performance from a hiding place in the jungle. After a tedious journey over sand hills, through long vistas of pine forest and through miles of swamp and marsh land in which two of the men narrowly escaped the poisonous fangs of moccasins, we found a spot opposite the aerodrome commanding a clear view of the beach and sand hills for a distance of five miles in either direction. There for four days we lay in hiding, devoured by ticks and mosquitoes, startled occasionally by the beady eyes of a snake and at times drenched by heavy rains. But it paid. We saw what few human eyes ever before had witnessed .and had the satisfaction of telling the world about it.
Often we wondered if these men ever slept. They were at work before the sun came up. they frequently made flights in the early twilight and lamps were flickering about the aerodrome until late into the night.
The first flight we all witnessed was made early in the morning. As we crept into our hiding place we could see the doors of the aerodrome were open and the machine standing on its mono rail track outside. Three men were working about it and making frequent hurried trips to the aerodrome. Presently a man climbed into the seat while the others continued to tinker about the mechanism. Then we saw the two propellers begin to revolve and flash in the sunlight. Their sound came to us across the sand plain something like the noise of a dirigible balloon's propellers, but the clacking was more staccato and louder. The noise has been described as like that of a reaping machine and the comparison is a very good one. We were told by a mechanic who assisted the Wrights that the motor made 1,700 revolutions a minute but was geared down so that the propellers made but 700 revolutions.
For several seconds the propeller blades continued to flash in the sun, and then the machine rose obliquely into the air. At first it came directly toward us, so that we could not tell how fast it was going except that it appeared to increase rapidly in size as it approached. In the excitement of this first flight men trained to observe details under all sorts of distractions, forgot their cameras, forgot their watches, forgot everything but this aerial monster chattering over our heads. As it neared us we could plainly see the operator in his seat working at the upright levers close by his side. When it was almost squarely over us there was a movement of the forward and rear guiding planes, a slight curving of the larger planes at one end and the machine wheeled about at an angle every bit as gracefully as an eagle flying close to the ground could have done.
It appeared to be twenty-five or thirty feet from the ground and so far as we could judge by watching its shadow sweeping along the sand, was going about forty miles an hour. Certainly it was making the average speed of a railroad train.
After the first turn it drove straight toward one of the sand hills as if it were the intention of the operator to land there, but instead of coming down, there was another slight movement of the planes and the machine soared upward, skimmed over the crest of the mountain, 250 feet high, and disappeared on the opposite side. For perhaps ten seconds, we heard indistinctly the clatter of the propellers, when the machine flashed into view again, sailed along over the surf, made another easy turn and dropped into the sand about one hundred yards from the point of departure. No sooner had it touched the sand than men started from the shed with two wide-tired trucks. These were placed under the machine, the motor started and the aeroplane at once became ;» wind wagon rolling itself back to the starting track with the power of its own propellers. After each flight all the mechanism was examined in most painstaking manner, and the operator always came down when the slightest thing about the machinery was found to be working imperfectly.
When the machine was near us, in the air, we could see enough of its mechanism to indicate the recently published mechanical drawings purporting to give all details of the perfected machine, fall far short of disclosing all of its important features. There are several vital features of control by the new system of levers that the published
drawings do not show. These improvements were added very recently and used for the first time last month.
As a matter of truth, these recently published mechanical drawings have been an old story in the technical magazines for some time. Everything which is alleged to have been disclosed has been known to those interested in aerial science for several weeks. On Maj' ist the "Aerophile." the official organ of the Aero Club of France, printed all of the drawings recently produced in a Xew York newspaper, together with the specifications and descriptive matter presented by the newspaper as startling news. Even the "La France Automobile," subsequent to the publication by the "Aerophile," printed the same technical information.
During the first few flights we could not make out the meaning or function of a series of flat pipes resembling somewhat the segments of a steam radiator, set vertically and very close together near the motor. Later we learned these were the water cooling apparatus for the motor. It was discovered also by the remark of one of the Wrights, that they depend very largely upon the gyroscopic principle for their equilibrium. A visitor was expressing surprise that the machine could carry two persons, when Wilbur Wright remarked that once in the air he had no doubt that a weight of two hundred pounds could be placed on the outer end of the main planes without affecting the equilibrium of the craft.
After the first flight, we saw man}' others more remarkable. In the very next flight we were astonished to discover that two men were in the machine. At first we thought we were deceived by some optical or shadow effect, but when the aeroplane came down after making a flight of more than two miles, we plainly saw two men get out and examine the mechanism.
One thing that surprised us was its performance in the wind. With nearly every flight a fresh breeze was sweeping along the coast, usually about twenty miles an hour It appeared to be the purpose of the operators to start against the wind, but from our point we could not discover that the air currents had any appreciable effect upon the craft, either in its speed or steadiness. If anything, it moved steadier when driving against the wind. On several occasions we saw the machine sail straight away up the beach, until it was a mere speck, scarcely distinguishable from birds and other indistinct objects near the line of the horizon. During these flights the sound of the propellers would be lost altogether until the machine turned about and came back, frequently landing within a few feet of the starting point. These long flights must have covered a distance of four to six miles.
On the afternoon of May 14 when the machine was wrecked after making two circular flights of about eight miles, we learned that the Wrights had started with the purpose of making an endurance run of more than an hour, in which they expected to cover from fifty to eighty miles.
From the layman's viewpoint this last trip was the most interesting. They had just finished a very pretty short circuit of about two miles, with two men in the machine, and we expected the next one would be of similar character. The aeroplane started off in a very wide detour around three hills instead of two. and seemed to be flying a little higher than usual, ft started near the aerodrome and in completing the first circuit, came back squarely over the same spot. We expected it to come down there, but when we saw the men on the ground swing their hats and heard them shout to the aviator, we realized that a performance of unusual moment was in progress. As the machine started on its second lap, it appeared to be increasing in velocity, gradually, and at the moment it disappeared behind the sand hill its shadow was racing across the sand plain with the rapidity of the fastest express train. The motor was making more of a buzzing sound and the machine appeared to be travelling much faster than we had ever noticed before. We did not learn of the accident until several hours later.
But there was a weird, almost uncanny side to the whole thing. Those present at the international balloon races at St. Louis last October will recall the feeling that swept over the thousands of men and women when they saw dirigible balloons go spinning away over the housetops like horses in a trotting race.
There was something an hundred fold more romantic, or ultra human, just as you please to express it, about these wonderful flights there on the lonely beach, with no spectators and no applause, save that of the booming surf and the startled cries of the sea birds. Often as the machine buzzed along above the sand plains, herds of wild hogs and cattle were frightened from their grazing grounds and scurried away for the jungle, where the}' would remain for hours looking timidly out from their hiding places. Flocks of gulls and crows, screaming and chattering, darted and circled about the machine as if resentful of this unwelcome trespasser in their own and exclusive realm There was something about the scene that appealed to one's poetic instincts,—the desolation, the solitude, the dreary expanse of sand and ocean and in the centre of this melancholy picture two solitary men performing one of the world's greatest wonders.
We were talking along these lines one afternoon when one of the correspondents reflectively asked: "I wonder if the Wrights ever feel this thing as we do?"
"No," answered another, "you may be very sure they do not. If they were addicted to poetry, rum and other common vices, the world might never have had a flying machine."
THE WORK OF THE AERIAL EXPERIMENT ASSOCIATION. As Recorded in Associated Press Dispatches; Written by Dr. Alexander Graham BelL
May 17. The Aerial Experiment Association, which has its Winter headquarters at Hammondsport, N. Y., is an association of experimenters who are working conjointly to promote the progress of aviation in America.
At present there are five members: Alexander Graham Bell, F. W. Baldwin, J. A D. McCurdy, Glenn H. Curtiss and Thomas Selfridge. Their object is the construction of a practical aerodrome, or flying machine, driven through the air by its own motive power and carrying a man.
In pursuance of this aim, the Association has already built two aerodromes:
No. 1. Selfridge's "Red Wing," upon plans approved by Lieut. Selfridge; and
No. 2. Baldwin's "White Wing," upon plans approved by F. W. Baldwin.
The tetrahedral aerodrome of Dr. A. Graham Bell will probably be No. 3 and then will follow Nos. 4 and 5, the aerodromes of Mr. Curtiss and Mr. McCurdy. (Editorial Note—It has now been decided to build the aerodrome of Mr. Curtiss next, making it No. 3). It is expected that all these aerodromes will be built within the present year.
The two aerodromes that have already been completed have been wrongfully ascribed in the public press to Dr. Bell, the Chairman of the Association. His aerodrome has not yet been completed and work will not be resumed upon it until June,
when the headquarters of the Association will be removed to Baddeck, Nova Scotia, where Dr. Bell has his Summer home.
The work on Dr. Bell's machine progressed last year at Baddeck to the point of constructing a large tetrahedral kite known as the Cygnet, which on December 6th, 1907, successfully carried Lieut. Selfridge up into the air to a height of 168 feet over the waters of the Bras d'Or Lake. (See "Aeronautics" for January.) At the conclusion of this experiment the Cygnet landed very gently upon the surface of the water and floated there, quite uninjured by its experience in the air. It was subsequently wrecked by being towed at full speed through rough water by a powerful steamboat. By that time the season had so far advanced in Baddeck that further experiments with Dr. Bell's structures had to be postponed until the opening of navigation in the present year.
In June the Baddeck experiments will be resumed by the Association by the construction of another tetrahedral structure upon the general model of the Cygnet, and the attempt will then be made to convert the kite into an aerodrome, by providing it with motive power.
The first aerodrome actually completed by the Association was Selfridge's "Red Wing." This aerodrome made a successful flight of 319 feet over the ice on Lake
Keuka, near Hammondsport, N. Y., on March 12th, 1908, in the presence of many witnesses. This experiment was somewhat remarkable, as being the first successful public flight of a flying machine in America, the earlier flights of the Wright Brothers at Dayton, Ohio, having been made in secret. The machine had been provided with sledge runners, and glided over the ice for about 100 to 150 feet before it rose into the air. It then flew very steadily at a general elevation of from 10 to 20 feet above the surface of the ice, carrying Mr. F. W. Baldwin as aviator.
The newspapers very generally reported the aviator as Captain Baldwin the balloonist, but this is a different man. Mr. F. W. Baldwin is a young engineer, a graduate of Toronto University, and a grandson of the celebrated Robert Baldwin, one of the
founders of the Dominion of Canada, and Premier of Upper Canada before the confederation. Mr. F. W. Baldwin is the same engineer who designed and constructed the tetrahedral tower of steel which stands on Dr. Bell's estate near Baddeck, Nova Scotia; and the new aerodrome now awaiting trial at Hammondsport has been designed by him. (Editorial Note—Trials of this have now been made; see later on.)
Aerodrome No. 1, Selfridge's "Red Wing," came to an untimely end on March 17th, 1908 (see "Aeronautics" for April), by an accident which completely demolished the machine, although fortunately the aviator and the engine escaped uninjured. The Association then immediately began the construction of aerodrome No. 2, Baldwin's "White Wing."
Both aerodromes have been constructed in the aerodrome shed of Mr. Glenn H. Curtiss, of Hammondsport, who acts as director of experiments for the Aerial Experiment Association. The actual work of construction has been under the charge of Mr. William F. Bedwin, superintendent of Dr. Bell's Baddeck laboratory. The engine employed was specially designed for the Association by Mr. Glenn H. Curtiss and was made by the Curtiss Manufacturing Company of Hammondsport.
May 13. An attempt was made today to fly the new areodrome, No. 2, Baldwin's "White Wing," at the race track near Hammondsport. The aerodrome had been provided with light wheels, like bicycle wheels, to enable it to run over the ground until sufficient headway had been gained to enable it to rise into the air. The race track, however, proved too narrow to enable it to be used for this purpose, as the ends of the wing-piece were not raised sufficiently from the ground to escape contact with the raised sides of the track. The attempt was therefore made to start the machine from the grass plot contained within the oval race track, but the attachment of the wheels proved to be too weak to stand the strain of running over rough ground and broke before much headway had been gained. The damage was repaired next day. The machine has been placed at a higher elevation above the wheels, so that it is hoped that the next experiment may start from the race track itself, instead of from the grass lawn, as the smoother surface of the track will give a better chance for getting up.
May 17. A preliminary trial was made this evening of the aerodrome, "White Wing," designed by F. W. Baldwin and constructed by the Aerial Experiment Association. The aviator's seat was occupied by Lieut. Thomas Selfridge, U. S. A. The
people of Hammondsport turned out in large numbers to witness the experiment. No attempt was made to rise into the air.
The machine had been provided with wheels, but steering gear was not attached to them, as it was thought that the aerial rudder would control the motion of the machine while on the ground. This proved insufficient for the purpose, however, for the machine could not be kept from running off the track to one side or the other. It was
therefore decided to make a slight change in the attachment of the front wheel, and provide it with steering gear, so as to enable the operator to steer the machine on the race track for a distance long enough to gain sufficient speed to get into the air. No attempt will be made to fly until the operators are satisfied that they have the machine under full control on the ground.
May 18. The aerodrome, "White Wing," made a short flight here today, carrying its designer, F. W. Baldwin, to a height of about 10 feet. The pressure of the air on the elastic edge of the lower aeroplane caused it to foul the propeller and the aerodrome was therefore brought down to the ground after having traversed a distance of 93 yards. The damage will be easily repaired.
The new steering gear, attached to the front wheel, worked satisfactorily, so that there is now no difficulty in keeping the machine on the race track while running on the ground. The race track has been widened by plowing up a portion of the adjoining field and smoothing it with a roller.
May 19. Lieut. Selfridge made two flights this afternoon in Baldwin's aerodrome, "White Wing." In the first experiment the machine ran 210 feet in 6l/2 seconds on the race track before leaving the ground, and made a flight of 100 feet in 2 seconds at an elevation of 3 feet, running 201 feet on rough ground after landing, without injury to the running gear. The flight was impeded by loose guy wires catching in the propeller, but no damage resulted. In the second experiment the machine made a beautiful and steady flight of 240 feet at an elevation of at least 20 feet in the air, but landed badly in a newly plowed field. The aerodrome is uninjured, but the truck carrying the front wheel plowed into the ground and the front wheel was injured. The damage can easily be repaired. The members of the Association are encouraged to believe that the engine has abundant power, and the machine is under good control in the air, so that skill alone on the part of the aviator is all that is needed to accomplish much longer flights.
May 22. Glenn H. Curtiss in the aeroplane. "White Wing," this afternoon made the longest first flight for a machine heavier than air that has ever been witnessed in this country. The "White Wing" flew 1,017 leet in 19 seconds, and with the exception of the dropping of a bolt, no damage was done to the aeroplane. Mr. Curtiss had perfect control of the machine throughout and the steering was accomplished with ease.
It was 6:20 when the test of the motor was made. It was impossible to get the machinery under way before that hour owing to a heavy wind from the southwest, but with the setting of the sun came a calm. The "White Wing" rose and soared at a height of 15 feet directly down the valley. Her first flight' Was 615 feet. Then she dipped and for a fraction of a second touched the tips of the'grass, but answering the touch of the aviator's control the "White Wing" rose again and continued her flight for 402 feet. Then Mr. Curtiss, fearing that she would touch again, made the descent and for a hundred feet the wheels of the aeroplane ran smoothly over the plowed field. So perfect was the aviator's control of the movable tips that neither of the wings touched the ground. This is the longest flight ever made in a heavier than air machine by an aviator on his first" trial. .i-'
The "White Wing" was driven by a Curtiss 8 cylinder air cooled motor weighing 145 pounds. This''engine develops 40 horsepower at 1.800 revolutions per minute and is one of the lightest engines ever built. Only 25 horsepower, or T.200 revolutions, are required to drive the machine into the air. ■ '"
May 23. In the Saturday trials, it was decided that J. A. D. McCurdy should oc-
cupy the aviator's seat. The machine was brought out at 3 o'clock in the afternoon and pushed around the half-mile track to the end of the back stretch, from which the start was made. Six men were instructed to hold the "White Wing" while the engine was being started and until Mr. Curtiss gave the word to "let her go;" when she darted forward and speeded down the stretch for about 200 feet, by which time she had gained a speed of 30 miles an hour, then rose rapidly into the air. The flight continued for 600 feet at a height of 10 to 15 feet. A large vineyard directly ahead made a landing necessary. This landing proved rather disastrous to the machine. She struck the ground at too great speed and turned completely over. Luckily, however, Mr. McCurdy was not injured in the least.
This series of flights are the only public ones ever made in America.
Mr. J. Newton Williams, who is experimenting with a helicopter at Hammonds-port, in describing the flight of Mr. Curtiss said "He operated all the controls—and made them control. I saw him successfully control the elevation and the lateral equilibrium and he steered straight at will, keeping the machine over the track till it reached sufficient elevation, then across the fields in a direction to avoid the vineyards."
Curtiss Motor Used in the Aerial Experiment Association Aerodromes.
This engine has eight air-cooled cylinders, two sets of four set at an angle of 90 degrees on an aluminum crank case with two connecting rods attached to each throw of the cranks.
The cylinders are cast of air furnace iron and after being carefully bored, the flanges are turned on the outside. The cylinders are then ground on the inside to a perfectly true and smooth surface.
The pistons are made in the same manner and the rings, after being ground on the sides in a magnetic ring grinder, are slotted and carefully re-turned.
The crank shaft is made of vanadium steel, bored out hollow, especially treated, toughened and ground to size on all of the bearings. The bearing metal is Parson's "white brass," which makes a very light and durable bearing. All of the studs and bolts are vanadium or nickel steel. The exhaust valves are made with nickel steel heads electrically welded to soft steel stems. The exhaust valves all have a 30 degree seat and are operated from a single cam shaft. The intake valves are automatic.
The engine complete, with balance wheel, commutator and distributor, weighs 145 pounds. Lubrication is effected by the splash system, the case being fed by two sight feed oilers, and the ignition is accomplished by six dry batteries and a single non-vibrating coil.
We have written letters to various ones prominent in aerostation and aviation, editors of newspapers and scientists, business men and those generally interested, asking their views as to the present state of the art, its future, criticisms or words of encouragement—just as it appears to their individual minds. The following are some of the results. We regret that lack of space prevents printing all of these in this issue.
FUTURE USES OF AERIAL NAVIGATION.
At the very threshold of the present century, i. e., during the last seven years, extraordinary advances have been made in aerial navigation and we are now in possession of two solutions: one with dirigible, balloons and one with flying machines. As we mark these great successes we also begin to perceive the limitations of the vessels, so that we may speculate upon their future uses.
Granting safety ultimately attained, the most important requisite for air craft is that of speed, to stem the winds that blow. Records show that winds attain speeds of twenty-five miles an hour or over near the ground, for about twenty per cent, of the year, and that they are much swifter aloft than near the ground.
Dirigible balloons have now been brought under fair control and have increased in speed from the seven miles an hour, attained by Giffard in 1852, to about twenty-five to thirty miles an hour with the French war dirigibles. It is claimed that thirty-five miles an hour has been obtained with the Zeppelin and this enormous balloon, over 400 feet long, must be very near the limit of possible speed and of practicability in landing. It may come to grief this year.
European nations are building aerial navies for war purposes. France now has two dirigible balloons and is building three more. Germany has three. England has a new one almost completed, while Russia, Austria, Spain, Italy and Belgium are entering upon the same course.
With flying machines a tremendous advance has been achieved. It is now generally admitted that the Wright Brothers told the absolute truth in stating that in 1905 they made successive flights of 11. 12, 15, 21 and 24 miles at speeds of about 38 miles-an hour; while Farman and Delagrange in France have since made public flights varying from one to eight miles and promise to attain still better results this summer. Enthusiastic aviators all over the civilized world are preparing to test new designs and may have some surprises in store, while the coming tests of the two flying machines contracted for by the U. S. Signal Corps with A. M. Herring and with Wright Brothers, which are to come off next August, promise to mark a new era in the development of this inchoate craft.
Therefore, the question occurs as to what is to be the probable use to man of these new modes of transit. We can already answer that they will have no commercial value for the regtdar transportation of freight or passengers, as the useful loads will be too small and the trips too uncertain and irregular. We may, however, discuss their merits for sport and for war purposes and leave it to the future to show whether new utilities are to be found beyond those of explorations of otherwise inaccesible regions.
And first we may conclude that the dirigible balloon is too costly to serve in sport save in public shows. To obtain twenty-five to thirty miles an hour the balloon must approximate in size the French Lebaudy or Patrie, and these cost $50,000 or more.
Smaller sizes affording lesser speeds would have to await still days to be played with.
For war purposes the dirigible balloon has decided uses as a reconnoitering implement, and is likely to remain the one preferred for some years, because it affords a number of advantages: in that the flotation is independent of the motor, that the vessel can carry crews of 6 to 8 men, and that it can ascend quickly beyond cannon fire by throwing out ballast. As against these merits it has the following disadvantages: Its speed is less than that of many winds which prevail during a campaign, its frailty exposes it to %vrecks in landing and its unstable vertical equipoise will make it quite unsuitable to operations close to the ground. Hence it will render little service by -dragging flaming torches among houses or by shooting or dropping explosives because of the uncertainty of aim while going at speed. Neither the balloon nor the flying machine, therefore, seem to promise to be very effective weapons.
Apparently the chief use for flying machines will be in sport. Their advantages will be that of cheapness, as the cost need not exceed $5,000; also the superiority of their speed, which is now forty miles an hour and presently will be increased to fifty miles an hour or more. Moreover, they are small and cheaply housed. Their disadvantages are that their useful loads will probably always be small, as their own weight increases faster than their total carrying capacity; just the reverse of what obtains with
balloons in which the lifting capacity, and therefore the useful load, increases faster than the necessary weight of the apparatus.* Besides that there is a certain element of danger to limit use in sport, and this will greatly restrict the use of flying machines.
For war purposes flying machines will serve almost wholly for scouting or recon-noisance and will be very efficient. For this a crew of three men seems to be required in action: one to run the motor and to steer; one to make continuous observations and one to signal the results, either by wireless telegraph or by flags. As a weapon of offense flying machines will probably be worthless because of their small carrying rapacity.
It is said that recent military experiments indicate that dirigible balloons must foe up 3,000 feet and flying machines 1,500 feet in order to be moderately safe but not immune from artillery fire. In a single combat between the two, if at the same level wheni they first see each other, the balloon would probably escape by throwing out ballast-Thus if they were a mile apart the balloon can rise 1,200 feet in the minute and a half required by the flying machine to go that distance, during which it could not rise 1,20a feet. The craft highest up will always have an advantage over the other, as shown by birds in the air. A possible plan would be to have a number of flying machines' patrolling the sky at various altitudes as do the vultures in their search for food.
For exploration, both kinds of aerial craft will be very useful, but their flights will be limited by their fuel-carrying capacity where fresh supplies cannot be obtained. It is estimated that the Zeppelin No. 4 will have a radius of action of 1,500 miles. The ֳpecifications of the U. S. Signal Corps require that the flying machine shall carry ֥nough fuel for a flight of 125 miles, but it is possible that this capacity will be doubled in future machines, although the radius of action will probably remain inferior to that ֯f the dirigible balloon. It is possible, however, that the trips of the flying machine rshall be enormously extended where winds can be utilized to soar and sail like certain species of birds.
Upon the whole, the usefulness of aerial craft will be inferior to that heretofore presaged by imaginative persons. They will not remodel civilization, they will not abolish frontiers and tariff's, nor modify architecture. They will serve in sport and in war, make many parts of the globe more accessible and abridge distance on special journeys. They may bring such new elements into war as to render it far less frequent, and they may develop such new uses of their own as to make the world better and happier.
PROFESSOR WILLIAM H. PICKERING, HARVARD COLLEGE OBSERVATORY.
THE FUTURE OE ARTIFICIAL FLIGHT.
The story has been often told of a famous scientist who died some years ago. that he had declared it impossible for a steamship to carry enough coal to take it across the Atlantic. The story, T believe, is apocryphal, but it serves its purpose as a warning quite as well as if it were true.
In spite of this warning, however, there are certain dynamical truths that we must not forget in considering our subject and which cannot be circumvented. One of the most important of these is that the weight increases as the cube, and the supporting surface as the square of any given dimension. To express this in popular language, if we have two flying machines exactly alike, except that one is on twice the scale of the other, the larger one will have four times the supporting surface of the smaller and about eight times the power, but it will also have eight times the weight. That is, per unit of supporting surface it will have double the power and double the weight. Its efficiency will, therefore, be diminished, approximately as 1V2. In other words, it will be about two-thirds as efficient.
If a flying machine can now be built which will carry a total weight of 800 pounds forty miles, is it likely that in the future one of the same size can be built which can carry 1,200 pounds the same distance? If not. it is not likely that in the future we can build machines of twice the present dimensions capable of carrying eight times as many men, or an equivalent load of supplies.
The popular mind often pictures gigantic flying machines speeding across the Atlantic and carrying innumerable passengers in a way analogous to our modern steamships. In spite of our warning, it appears safe to say that such ideas must be wholly visionary, and even if a machine could get across with one or two passengers the expense would be prohibitive to any but the capitalist, who could own his own aerial yacht.
Another popular error is to expect enormous speed to be obtained. It must be remembered that the resistance of the air increases as the square of the speed, and the
work as the cube. If with 30 horsepower we can now attain a speed of 40 miles, then in order to reach a speed of 100 miles wc must use a motor capable of furnishing 470' horsepower. This figure may be somewhat diminished by changes in the shape of the machine, and the angle of its wings, but it is clear that with our present devices there is no hope of competing for racing speed with either our locomotives or our automobiles.
Furthermore, if the speed of the flying machine does not exceed 40 miles, then the practical speed will be very uncertain on account of the action of the wind. Wind velocities in the eastern states at a short distance above the ground do not average far from 20 miles per hour. Therefore, when going in one direction we may expect a speed of 60 miles, but on the return of only twenty.
Another popular fallacy is to suppose that the flying machine could be used to drop dynamite upon an enemy in time of war. Dynamite cannot be applied in that manner. Unless it is tamped in some way, or forced into the obstruction by a projectile, its explosion would do little harm. If the air offered no resistance, the speed acquired by a projectile after dropping one mile would be 580 feet per second. With any practical projectile the resistance of the air would reduce this speed at least one-half,, or to about one-tenth of the speed of a cannon ball, and one one-hundredth of its efficiency. It is safe to say that, considering the risk and expense involved, this would not. prove to be a very economical method of attack.
In judging of the future uses of the flying machine, we cannot, perhaps, do better than to compare it with our various present means of locomotion. It will combine the-independence of routes of the balloon with the speed of the automobile, with the uncertainty of the sailboat, and unfortunately with the danger which has no present equivalent.
There would seem to be but two practical uses to which such a machine could be put. One would be for scouting purposes in time of war, the other for sporting purposes in time of peace. If the danger proves to be not too great, all of its characteristics, except its uncertainty, will prove to be advantageous for both of these uses. How great the" danger is can only be determined after several years of trial, and we shall then know if it is practically applicable to either or both of these suggested purposes.
A. M. HERRING.
I believe the aeroplane has reached the stage where it is practical as a means of transportation for human freight or to an extent equal to the average touring automobile, with possibly an extension in carrying capacity and size where it would safely transport as many as ten men on two hundred mile trips at speeds over fifty miles an hour. The prohibitive limit of speed is somewhere near 135 miles an hour. Even travelling at 60 miles an hour the power lost by an efficient screw is not over 5 to 8 per cent.
A machine can be produced in which the operator does not have to attend to the balancing and under this arrangement much heavier loads can be carried than is possible, otherwise, both per square foot of supporting surface and per horsepower.
The regulating mechanism in my machine now being built will be unlike the description printed in a St. Louis publication and in the New York Herald. It is entirely new.
A machine can be made to think and act more quickly and with more accuracy than by human control.
The trouble with the machines flying abroad are their engines' overheating, for one thing. They are not very economical of power. They take two or three times as much power as they need. Their surfaces are incorrect and not presented to the wind at the proper angle.
BRIGADIER GENERAL JAMES ALLEN, CHIEF SIGNAL OFFICER OF THE
Dirigible balloons have now reached a state of development that renders them essentially necessary to every well-equipped modern army. All first-class European powers are developing as rapidly as possible an aerial fleet. The United States, while it has done comparatively little in actual construction up to the present time, is in a position to make rapid development when the necessary means are provided.
It does not appear that any type of heavier-than-air machine has yet been developed to a point where it is of any particular value in war. The United States has contracts with two American makers who, it is believed, have developed the art to a point equal to or possibly beyond that reached in any other country.
As all other important nations are rapidly developing airships, the United States cannot well afford to be behind them. It is believed such vessels would also form a valuable military asset for purposes of coast defense.
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JOHN H. MOSS, PRESIDENT AERO CLUB OF MILWAUKEE.
Patrick Henry said that it is natural for men to indulge in the illusions of hope. From time immemorial men have yielded to the power of fancy and in their dreams have lifted the veil of futurity while that divine artist, Imagination, with her magic brush and most brilliant colors, has painted a picture sublime and beautiful in which his ambitions have been depicted as realized. So far as aerial navigation, by heavier than air apparatus, is concerned, these hopes now seem near fruition, just as they were realized with balloons over a hundred years ago.
The pages of this magazine have kept pace in recording each new step in the experiments of aerial flight and there is no object in repeating what has already been told. But let me dwell for a moment upon the obligation this age owes to the world in promoting the solution of this great scientific problem and likewise upon the economic value of successful aerial flight.
We have gradually been subordinating the material world and obtaining a directive control over the forces of nature. The elements of fire, water and air are being made pliant to our will and have reached an advanced state of utility. We have subjugated both land and water, and, using them as instruments, are enabled to travel with almost incredible speed. Traditional ideas of limitations have been lost in the oblivion of advancement.
The railways, steamboats, telegraphs, telephones, and modern postal facilities have acted as gigantic centralizers. Those inventions which abridge distances have sealed the social and business unity of the entire country and made possible the marvelous industrial developments of recent times. I predict that in a very few years we will have gained entire command of the air and then both time and space must serve our bidding. Unification will then have been brought a long ways nearer completion and we will all be neighbors.
Like all efforts in new fields, the endeavors to navigate the air have had instances of failure and even disaster, for no endeavors have subjected man's ingenuity to severer tests, but after all, attempts at aerial navigation form a wonderful story of accomplishment. To climax our attainments with the successful control of the air would certainly challenge the admiration and commendation of even the most sceptical.
This is not an age which shirks the responsibility to advance the sum of human knowledge or to progress along those lines which make for the advantage of mankind. We owe it to ourselves, to the age in which we live, and to posterity, to solve Nature's mysteries so far as possible; to learn more of the utility of her resources and to vitalize her latent energies. The experience of our predecessors has descended to us, their acquirements are our heritage and it is our obligation to build a new round to the ladder of human culture and attainment so that our children may climb stilt higher and do the like.
We have been eminently successful in defying the dangers of wind and water, of tropical suns and arctic snows; we have successfully delved into the depths of the earth and scaled the highest mountain peaks. In all these achievements we have clung closely to terra firma; now it not only seems possible but highly probable that we will soon be soaring at will to aerial heights.
It is natural for one to ask: "What advantage will accrue to mankind should aerial flight be successful?" One may safely reply that there will be advantages from many view-points.
It will gratify an eager scientific inquiry.
It will satisfy a great world desire.
It will be an additional triumph toward man's dominion over the forces of nature. It will afford an unlimited field for pleasure.
It will be a valuable aid to the study of atmospheric density, pressure and currents.
It will facilitate explorations.
It will be an invaluable help for army purposes.
It will add to the knowledge of propellor construction and adaptability if the dirigibles are operated in that manner.
There would seem no good reason why the same progress which has marked man's endeavors in other fields should not also be attained here. Theory and practice are waging a mighty contest and I confidently prophesy that the years are numbered in which theory will maintain its supremacy.
AUGUSTUS POST, SECRETARY AERO CLUB OF AMERICA.
The growth of the science and art of aeronautics in America is very interesting to trace, from the inception of the idea by a few enthusiastic members of the Automobile Club of America, to its present state of general interest and wonderful accomplishments.
We see its signs on all sides. No popular magazine is complete without a story either of scientific interest containing an accurate account of the very latest achievement, or an imaginative, dramatic, and thrilling narrative of what we may expect to happen in the future; such as aerial battles between airship navies of the great powers, or the "elopement by airships" to introduce the all-compelling love motive.
You may 'remember that at the first exhibition held by the Aero Club of America only three years ago there were exhibited only photographs and models of flying machines, heavier than air, three historic airships, and regulation balloons and equipment. These exhibits were the first real apparatus that many of us- had ever seen. It was not long, however, before we had arranged a trial for the balloons as being the first step in the subject, and professional balloonists made ascents to show us how it was done. The next thing in the regular order of progress was to have ascensions by members of the Club, and then Mr. A. N. Chandler was sportsman enough to order a balloon himself. The rapid progress of ballooning from this moment was assured and a few of the members of the Club soon became expert pilots and are now engaged in rapidly initiating all who wish to enter into the mysteries of the skies. The second step in the progress is somewhat more slow of development and it would seem that the dirigible balloon or balloon with motor was just coming into the hands of the amateur.
"Chauffing" a dirigible balloon, although one of the most fascinating of all sports, has been rendered difficult to take up on account of the almost insurmountable obstacles in the way of obtaining suitable apparatus unless you make it yourself, and the fact that heretofore the ships available in this country have been built to carry one operator only, thus making it hard to instruct the novice in handling, and steering in the air. But now thanks to Captain Baldwin, Knabenshue, and others, who are building dirigibles to carry more than one person, they will be able to impart their knowledge and train many to successfully operate this form of vessel and we will ultimately see amateur airship races with all the excitement in the air of a Vanderbilt race on the ground; and if they could be seen over New York City itself, or over the Hudson River, there would be no necessity of the spectators getting up at sun rise or travelling out into the rural districts to see the fun.
The third step, which is even a greater one than either of the others, is the step from the mere photographs and models to the full sized successful flying machine heavier than air. This has also been taken although the last to come, in fact only just now really in our grasp. The heavier than air machine opens such fields for development that there seems no limit to what another year may bring forth. This dream of the past, this idea of the crank, this chimera of the illusionist, this greatest baffler of the inventor is realized. The one element that man has hitherto been unable to harness to his own chariot and conquer by force of will and might, has at last succumbed to the genius of the 20th Century and although the success of battle has already been heralded around the world, it is now in our midst. With our own eyes have we seen the marvel and with the moving proofs of the camera may we rest assured that just as we have had first the stories and dramatic pictures, then the models and apparatus, then the demonstrations and trials, finally as we have operated balloons and dirigibles ourselves, so will we soon guide and steer the flying machine.
The Aero Club itself has grown and matured, has made a reputation for itself and for America. It has stamped public approval and appreciation upon the work done by Professor Langley with the help of the War Department, and what the Signal Crops is now doing. With other Clubs following where it leads, the Aero Club of America must be extremely careful in this new and vast field beset with vagaries of all kinds. The direction of the Club itself among the varying trend of ideas now seeking to sway it first in this way, now in that, is much like the piloting of a balloon through the many diverse air currents, and when it has to deal with the more rapid progress and the tremendous forces brought to bear by the education of men to the quickness and rapidity of thought necessitated by the training received in power flight, and its vast commercial importance, there is all the more need to stand firmly together to consider quickly, wisely, and firmly that we may give full importance to all parts of the machine and guide it equally, not losing sight of the fact that we have a new problem never before presented, and for which we have been but partially prepared by the automobile and balloon, namely, the combination of the two, and we must steer both vertically as well as horizontally, and consider whether we shall avoid obstacles by going around them or going over them or under them.
JOHNSON SHERRICK, PRESIDENT AERO CLUB OF OHIO.
I have spent nearly all of my life in the business world, working hard in the channels of trade, and have only been able to look over the fences into the fields of science, and enjoy at long range the wonderful achievements of evolution.
We should be thankful that we are privileged to live in an age in which so much has been accomplished for the benefit and glory of man. If our ancestors of only a few centuries ago were able to look ahead and see the country in which they once lived, could they realize the change, or separate the picture from a passing dream?
The commerce that then went its way on the slow wheels of ox-carts, now speeds from state to state over steel roads at from twenty-five to fifty miles an hour carrying tons where only pounds were carried then. Then on water, sail boats loaded with freight, went with the wind and struggled long and hard to cross the sea. Now great ocean liners driven by the power of the steam engines cross and recross these same deep waters guided by the hand of man with little fear of wind or wave and at a speed not dreamed of in the earlier days.
Who would have thought not longer back than the days of our revolution that a battle on water in the middle of the Atlantic could be fought, and ere the smoke cleared away, the news of the result was being read by the people of all the civilized nation? And it has come to pass that the human voice can be sent thousands of miles through wire, and the familiar words of friends recognized at either end of the line.
When we think of the wonderful progress that science has made in electricity since the days that Benjamin Franklin first started the thinkers to think along that line. When we see the trolley cars speeding from place to place carrying their passengers seated as comfortably as our ancestors sat in their drawing rooms.
When we behold the motor car gliding through the streets and over the highways of our beautiful country. When we consider all this and much more in the fields of science (that seems to have no end), may we not expect and be reasonably certain that the navigation of the air is now assured?
The energy displayed by the Wright Brothers and other courageous workers have already done much toward navigating the air.
Science is lighting up the way, the brain of the inventive genius is hard at work, the skill of the artisan is putting the machine into shape, and the daring aeronauts and aviators are already riding the wind and guiding their crafts through the atmosphere. Nature is full of wealth. The land, the sea and even the air, is full of hidden mysteries which will in time yield such wonders that we of this generation cannot now imagine. Judging the future by the past we are forced to believe that not only aerial navigation is an accomplished fact, but in the future, and not far beyond, are greater wonders in store for the human family and grander events awaiting their place in the cycle of evolution.
We cannot estimate the possibilities of the future, but we can revere and be grateful to the men whose pluck and hard work have done so much for the world.
I am not a prophet but I know the scientific world as well as the physical world moves.
LEE S. BURRIDGE.
I desire to congratulate you on the anniversary of your publication Aeronautics, having now been issued one year, and particularly for the good work it has accomplished by creating a serious interest in the art which is all the more to be commended in view of the press of the country when you began referring to aeronautics in a sarcastic strain tinged with ridicule, which is now materially changed owing in a great measure to your serious efforts in the magazine.
The progress of the art has been greater within the past year than at any time heretofore and while this may not be due to your efforts entirely I feel that you have been one of the agents through your magazine, and while some believe that practical dynamic flight is at hand, I feel there is still a great deal of work to do to bring the present experiments to some useful practical purpose, so I commend you to keep up the good work you have so ably begun as there is still great development to be accomplished and all adherents look to you for the able co-operation and assistance you have so far given in the past to continue with redoubled efforts for the future.
HART LYMAN, EDITOR NEW YORK TRIBUNE.
Recent progress in aerial navigation not merely justifies but demands intelligent discussion of the development of the art and its possible application, both by the general press and by periodicals devoted exclusively to the subject, and I wish you abundant success in your interesting enterprise.
A. C. TRIACA, PILOT AERO CLUB OF FRANCE.
The year 1908 will not see aeroplanes carrying six people and dirigibles making sixty miles an hour, as some too early enthusiasts, not figuring out the theoretical difficulties of these aerial craft, have announced, but we will have records of five hundred miles with dirigibles at a speed ranging from forty to forty-five miles an hour and aeroplanes covering distances of one hundred kilometers.
These results will be the recompense of many years of study, innumerable experiments, and at great expense of brain and money and with loss of life. Today, aerial locomotion must get on a practical commercial ground and we need experienced and scientific builders rather than inventors.
We can leave to the natural inventive faculty of the very few, who, helped by scientists and practical experimenters, will obtain progressive work, the duty of perfecting the actual primitive airships.
The other believers in the close future of aeronautics must make an active and intelligent propaganda to interest the leading men in the social and financial world; must criticize the speculators and the self-called "aerial engineers" who losing their own lives and those of their companions who unconscious of the danger, accept to divide a cheap glory, are disseminating in the public opinion the idea that aerial navigation is perilous: and must incite the people to take up the. matter with the brain and not only with feet and hands.
Your first year of work, my dear Mr. Jones, I am certain was difficult and misunderstood. T have read every page of your magazine with interest and I was pleased to see a steady progress every issue. If you cannot obtain until now a right and deserved profit, remember that your action will give you inestimable satisfaction, and that I am only one of your friends who admire the efficient help that "Aeronautics" is giving to the cause of aerial locomotion.
CHARLES W. KNAPP, EDITOR THE REPUBLIC, ST. LOUIS.
The increasing evidence that the problem of aerial navigation is at last approaching practical solution makes an occasion for a publication specially devoted to aeronautics such as has, never before existed. The accomplishments of the past year have brought aeronautical experimentation more definitely into the domain of true science than could be said to be the case in past. Not only dirigible balloons but the heavier-than-air machines which enable genuine flying have made marked progress and we have every reason to anticipate notable developments in the year 1908.
F. L. LAIRD, EDITOR NEW YORK COMMERCIAL.
If your magazine keeps abreast of its subject, it woidd be one of the most widely read organs in the country within a generation. I believe warfare to be one of the least important phases of the problem of aerial navigation. Its realization now is assured and the step will count more for progress than did that from the farm buggy to the automobile.
H. J. WRIGHT, EDITOR THE GLOBE, NEW YORK.
I'd like to say something nice about the aeronauts in response to your request, because I am sure they are fine fellows, and they are certainly performing miracles. But what can a mere land lubber, now doubly derided by these that go up to the heavens as well as by those that go down to the sea, know of the bird men? Upon the tail feathers, so to speak, of the winged word presses the winged man; and who shall set the limits of his flight? Not, Yours Truly.
A. G. BATCHELDER, EDITOR THE AUTOMOBILE.
Reliable navigation of the air is close at hand. With so many bright and capable minds centering their attention upon a subject fascinating and spectacular, its practicable solution is presaged by the enormous progress accomplished during the past year. America is in the front rank, and may be counted upon to contribute substantiallj" and successfully in bringing about aerial transportation. It must be confessed that much yet remains, but it must be likewise admitted that enormous strides have taken the science from the category of problematical things to the list of assured realities.
F. W. MAIN, SPRINGFIELD REPUBLICAN.
The Republican has for years believed in the utmost encouragement of all scientific efforts to navigate the air and has had faith that results of great importance to man-
kind would ultimately be secured. The progress made in the past five years in the several lines of aeronautics cannot be contemplated without having one's faith quickened and one's imagination stirred. While there must be much uncertainty as to the scientific limits of practical, especially commercial, dynamic flight, still the world seems to be merely on the threshold of developments whose scope we can now only vaguely discern. The world already owes a large debt to the men who have pushed experimentation with flying apparatus to its present limits, and before their pioneer work is ended the debt will be great indeed.
CALIFORNIA AIRSHIP COMES TO GRIEF.
An enormous dirigible balloon, 450 feet long and 36 feet in diameter, and 485,000
cubic feet of gas, built by the National Airship Co., (see page 37 of February-page
43 of April) with sixteen passengers, attempted a flight on May 23rd at Berkeley, Calif. Six gasolene motors generating 200 horsepower were suspended beneath the gas bag at intervals of about 50 feet. As the dirigible rose into the air to a height of about 300 feet, two of the engines were started. The front end tilted sharply downward and the rush of gas towards the rear caused the envelope to burst open. The airship dropped rather slowly but the excited occupants jumped out and all were more or less injured, though none fatally.
The prospectus issued by the company in 1907 is fearfully and wonderfully written. On the cover of this optimistic pamphlet is a supposed "reproduction" of the good ship "Ariel," stated to be "1250 feet long, 64 feet diameter, 140,000 cubic yards capacity, 128
Scientific American Photo
tons displacement, 8 independent power plants, 3280 actual horsepower, 16 propellers. Ships 40 men in the crew and will carry 500 passengers and 40 tons of mail from New York to London at an expense of $875 in 24 hours."
The officers are given as: J. A. Morrell, President and General Manager; M. Sparling, Vice-President; S. LcMaster, Assistant Manager; W. O. Backman, Secretary. The capital $10,000,000.00.
The prospectus calls for landing docks on the tops of office buildings which the ambitious company proposed to erect in all the large cities of the world.
The inventor claims to have begun "riding gas vessels with eminent meteorologists and topographers who worked under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institute, in the study of the dynamics of the atmosphere." * * * * "Since then he has built 17 so-called airships and over 6000 gas balloons by contract." * * * * "Each airship will earn over $25,000 per day. We will carry the passengers of the world, the mail of the world, we will build the navies of the world." Stock in this enterprise was offered at 75 cents a share.
The prospectus which this human prodigy Morrell lias circulated is the very wildest dream that the world's most prolific liar could by any freak of imagination produce. This little effusion of Morrell's should go down in history as the greatest impressionistic picture the world has ever known. No ordinary mortal could spur Pegasus to an}- such height in the realm of thought
And yet when it was reported in the February issue, that the Post Office Department was investigating the concern, a stockholder promptly took us to task, as per his letter in the April number.
The airship which is the subject of this gentle description is the second one which this company has perpetrated. The first was launched last Fall and promptly broke away and was partially or wholly destroyed.
In writing of the first airship, a well known gentleman of California said:
"From what I could learn, it seemed to be a 'stock' proposition based upon the visionary ideas of an enthusiast and I did not even take the trouble to go to see it, although I frequently pass near its location. I contented myself with inquiries. From one who saw it, I learned that the gas bag was extremely long and there were six propellers placed at the sides. However, as it has succeeded in at least causing a little fuss. I shall try to see the remnant's, as I intend to pass that way in the near future. * * * * * I wish to caution you aeronauts of the East not to be surprised at anything of a grand scale in California. Our earthquake and fires are big, our mountains and trees are big, our pumpkins and suckers are big, and our frauds and liars are big. * * * * Apropos to this latest venture, you will see from the clipping that 500 of us were about to hurl ourselves in 24 hours across the Continent. But this thrilling trip is deferred and the '400' of New York can breathe easy and feel secure, for a time at least, from the impetuous assaults of the 500 'wild and woolly' Californians."
xA.fter this gentleman's visit to the National Airship Co., he wrote as follows:
"In South San Francisco, on the south side of a hill, notoriously the most windy portion of the city, I found a tent 20 by 25 feet in charge of a keeper who was very reluctant to talk to me when he learned who I was. In the tent were ten fan wheels 16 feet long, containing two blades made of oiled silk, stretched on two rather heavy pieces of wood, crossed at the center. These were fastened to a shaft about 6 feet long, having a bicycle wheel at the other end intended to receive a belt. And the whole was attached to a light frame, designed to extend from the A-_ y ivorid Photo. main frame of the ship. Outside of the
tent was a strip of level ground about 400 feet long. At one side there was a triangular frame of steel tubing, 1 inch in diameter. The tubes were about 24 inches apart. There was a 6 inch gas main to deliver the city gas for inflation. This gas is usually very heavy, being made from petroleum and steam."
"The keeper referred me to the office in the city. I called on the inventor but unwittingly told him who I was and got very little information. He gave me his circular; and answering mv final question, told me his airship would travel 150 miles per hour."
"I am sending you his circular—it will certainly drive away the blues or refresh your weary mind to see the delicious pap that our artistic liars can deal out to the guileless 'suckers.' "
A. C. Triaca in his speech of condemnation at the Aero Club strongly urged that some action of the club be taken to express its disapproval of the risking of other peoples' lives by foolhardy inventors. He called it "criminal."
Certainly there ought to be some law which would protect innocent speculative Jambs from being cruelly taken into the air and then chucked overboard in addition to being fleeced. Suppose we must have a certain number of fatalities in order to get the art going in good shape but there would be no harm in limiting the height from which a stockholder can fall or demanding that he drop at only such and such a speed or specifying that he shall break but one leg.
F. A. Postnikov, late Lieut.-Col. of the Russian Army, member of the Aero Club of America, said: "I feel that the ship Mr. Morrell is building is unsafe. To take a crew of men up in this would be to jeopardize their lives. My reason for saying this is not to discourage his crew, but from a scientific standpoint I am convinced that the canvas used to envelope or confine the gas is not strong enough to hold the volume of gas that will be forced into it. The greater the volume of gas the greater the buoyancy, and likewise the greater the pressure upon the bag confining it. With half a million cubic feet of gas confined, you can readily imagine that the pressure will be enormous. The quality and texture of the material used in this great bag would do for a smaller craft but as it is increased in size the strength of the texture must be increased."
There are three theories by which those who witnessed the accident attempt to explain the reasons for the catastrophe.
When the gas cylinder began to rise and after the forward part or bow of the airship was about 100 feet from the ground it was noticed that one of the engines appeared to sag doAvn, depressing a part of the gas holder, as if the engine had been improperly placed or was not securely fastened. The first theory advanced is that this unworkmanlike arrangement caused a derangement of the equilibrium, which led to a bursting of the cloth covering, and that the collapse was inevitable.
Another story is to the effect that a guy rope had been carelessly thrown across the network of small cords that bound the gas holder, and that when drawn taut by the ascending balloon cut through the cloth and allowed the gas to escape with a rush that proved fatal to the experiment of inventor Morrell. This guy rope had not been cast off simultaneously with the others, and thus caused the accident, it is said.
A third suggestion comes from those who declare that they noticed that the forward part of the balloon was inadequately inflated, that the canvas of the bag flapped about in a flabby way, and that the tension on the guy ropes was unequal, thus leading to an improper distribution of the weight and causing the entire balloon to collapse.
A. Leo Stevens, in speaking of the accident, said: "It is no more than can be expected. Take into consideration the number of people who have conceived the idea that they can get money by getting machines together that won't fly without having had practically any experience at all and have never been into the air—what they have done is for the sole purpose of defrauding people out of their money, claiming that they have solved the problem of aerial navigation and offer stock for sale. No man should try to build a dirigible balloon under any account unless he has some experience in the air and he should be careful to select some man who holds a pilot's license, as there are several now in this country and he will be safe in their hands. The country is over-run with hot air aeronauts who have had practically no experience and do not even know what takes them into the air. Some of them claim even that birds manufacture hydrogen gas under their wings. If this building of air castles continues certainly many will be injured. There should be a law. If the Aero Club of America would devote more time to bringing this matter before the legislatures instead of reading aeronautic picture books there would be more done and it would be a great deal safer. Ballooning is a safe sport and there is no doubt but that in a few years we will cross the Atlantic Ocean in a dirigible but not by the people who have never been in the air."
Lieutenant Fonseca, who is known all over the world as a famous balloonist, was killed during a demonstration at Rio de Janeiro on May 21st.
Dispatches state: "The lieutenant came from France recently with a balloon to demonstrate its usefulness in military affairs. Before the Minister of War and a large number of officers, the initial voyage was undertaken.
"Fonseca had entered the car, making preparations for the flight, when a gust of wind swept the big gas bag free and it shot upward. At a height of 3000 feet it collapsed and pitched to the ground."
The balloon is probably the one of which we told in the March number. Louis Godard, the balloon constructor, shipped to Rio Janeiro a military captive balloon outfit equipped with an arrangement for the continual manufacture of hot air, by which ascensions lasting several hours can be made with hot air balloons.
C. A. McCormick, a hot-air-balloon-parachuter, narrowly escaped death in a jump at White City, Fort Worth, Tex. As he cut loose from the balloon in his parachute, the latter was ripped and he descended in record time, turning a complete revolution during the descent. The man hung on and landed safely, though somewhat injured. The height was estimated at 2000 feet.
Frederick L. Woods, a parachute jumper, lost his life at Hillside Park, Belleville, N. J., on May 31. The ascent was made without incident and the parachute cut loose from a height of a thousand feet. An American flag which was unfurled by Woods during his descent, became wrapped around him and on landing in the Passaic River prevented him from freeing himself from its folds. He shouted for help to the spectators but all seemed to be stunned or did not realize that he was calling for help. His life was lost through the negligence of the sightseers and the fact that he was tightly wrapped in the flag.
WHAT THE AERONAUT CAN DO FOR METEOROLOGY. Government Ascension Blanks for Aeronauts.
The balloonist can be of the greatest assistance to the Weather Bureau by making complete records of his trips and sending them to the Weather Bureau for study. Aeronauts can hardly expect the meteorologist to tell them beforehand what upper winds and temperatures to expect on a given day unless they furnish from past voyages the material that is needed for such predictions. An aeronaut is but helping himself when he sends the Bureau copies of his records, since he is sure to receive in return items of valuable knowledge generalized from numerous other corresponding reports. We beg you balloonists to read Professor Abbe's article on "What tin Aeronaut Can Do for Meteorology" in the April number of this journal.
Nearly all ascensions are now made only after receiving advice from the various stations of the Weather Bureau, but at present little can be told except the surface conditions. To forecast conditions in the upper air the Bureau must have some data upon which to base predictions, and it is only from the enthusiastic balloonist that it can obtain this data.
The matter of the Bureau co-operating with balloonists was urged by this magazine months ago, and later we suggested to the Bureau that they furnish the proper blanks free of charge to all those who will use them in recording their ascents. Within this month these forms have been printed and are for distribution from the Weather Bureau at Washington direct, or from this magazine.
Following will be found some general instructions for recording observations in the balloon and at the surface:
The observations of pressure, temperature and relative humidity should be made as nearly simultaneously as possible, at intervals of about 15 minutes if the balloon is floating at nearly the same height, and as often as possible if it is rising or falling rapidly. With the temperature and the vapor pressure along the air column from the surface to the balloon, the height can be computed at leisure.
Notes on clouds should specify whether they are of the heavy cumulus type, or of the light stratus type, also, any special changes of temperature observed in passing through the cloud layer.
Corresponding observations of pressure, temperature, relative humidity and wind should always be secured at the surface, at nearly the same moment as the observations in the balloon, these two sets of observations being always essential for any scientific discussion of meteorological data.
In one section of the form traces of the self-registering instruments can be drawn on any convenient scale, also a small chart of the country over which the balloon has traveled should be added.
If balloonists will mail copies of their observations to the U. S. Weather Bureau, to Aeronautics, and to such aero clubs as are interested, it will facilitate the discussion of their results.
The Creedmoor rifle range, which was in mind for an experimental ground, has been turned over to the State Lunacy Commission for a hospital site so that there is still some hope that we may at last locate somewhere on the grounds.
AERO CLUB OF AMERICA
12 BAST 42nd STREET NEW YORK
First Aero Club in the United States
IT is the National representative and member of the International Aeronautic Federation which consists of one representative Club from all of the leading countries of the world. The Aero Club of America has entered three balloons to represent America in the Gordon Bennett International Balloon Race at Berlin in October, 1908.
With the Aero Club of America are affiliated the leading Aero Clubs of the country, namely: Aero Clubs of St. Louis, Ohio, New England and Milwaukee.
The promotion of a social organization or club composed in whole or in part of persons owning aeronautic inventions for personal or private use. To advance the development of the science of aeronautics and kindred sciences. To encourage and organize aerial navigation and excursions, conferences, expositions, congresses and races.
President, Cortlandt Field Bishop; 1st Vice-President, J. C. McCoy; 2nd Vice-President, Colgate Hoyt; 3rd Vice-President, Alan R. Hawley ; Secretary, Augustus Post; Treasurer, Chas. Jerome Edwards; Consulting Engineer, Charles M. Manly.
I desire to become an active member of the Aero Club of America.
AERO CLUB OF AMERICA.
The regular Monday night gathering was treated right royally on the 18th.
A. Holland Forbes, one of the newer members of the club addressed the meeting, giving a resume of his experiences in his recent balloon trips in qualifying as a pilot of the Aero Club of America.
He dilated upon the pleasures of ballooning and told how he became enthused by reading a description of the delights of the sport in some magazine and immediately hunted up Leo Stevens. Beginning his talk, Mr. Forbes paid his respects to his tutor as being "without an equal."
The first trip was from Pittsfield in the late Fall of 1907. Charles J. Glidden, the international motorist, telegraphed Mr. Forbes at Pittsfield inviting him to land in Boston Common and dine with him. The Boston Herald printed in a prominent place, in "scare-head" type, "Forbes to Land on Boston Common." The crowds that gathered in expectation of seeing this improbable event had to be dispersed by the police. A storm had been brewing in the North and the balloon drove rapidly to the South. The pilot, M.'r. Stevens, went up to 15,000 feet but could find only a wind from the North. Coming down to about four or five thousand feet they ran across an eagle which followed the balloon for half an hour in which time they travelled about fifteen miles. The eagle "never flapped its wings" but just curved the tips in circling 'round. The landing was made near Orange, Conn., and the farmers stated the last mile was travelled in twenty-eight seconds. The following day the Boston Herald printed the following: "Missed Boston by 140 Miles."
Mr. Forbes continued, telling of the principal points of interest about each of his trips. In the second trip nine snowstorms were encountered and at times the balloon dropped so swiftly that the flakes seemed to be falling upward.
The fourth trip was made alone from North Adams in the "Stevens 22." A gale was blowing and the balloon bounded back and forth on the ground. At last in a lull the small army of men let go and the balloon left in a hurry, and was out of sight in two minutes. The start was at 11:25 a.m., and the Northampton railroad station was passed at 12:15, forty miles in fifty minutes. Clouds were passed through several times. Once on looking up, the huge bag could not be seen—the ropes went up and disappeared in the thick mist. One can imagine the uncanny sensation of being alone in the chilling clouds with nothing visible around, above or below, but the basket and ropes. On two trips the balloon started east but met counter currents and then returned almost in the opposite direction.
The night trip necessary to complete the pilot's course was made on April nth. If the start were made at dusk the landing would have to be made in the middle of the night in darkness, the distance to the sea being only a hundred miles or so. It was decided to start in the night and at twelve midnight the inflation was commenced, with the aid of the acetylene lights of two motor cars. By three a.m., the inflation was finished and the start made. Even at this early hour several hundred people were present.
The tenth trip necessary for a license was made on April 24th. in companv with N. H. Arnold and Dr. R. M. Randall of the North Adams Club. The balloon started toward the east but met a counter current and drifted back towards North Adams. The wind was light and the landing was made near South Williamstown, Mass. Mr. Forbes forgot to be as insistent as his preceptor in cautioning the passengers not to leave the car at the moment of landing, and just as the basket struck Randall leaped out, Arnold fell out and Forbes tumbled in the bottom of the basket and the balloon shot up to five thousand feet. As soon as Mr. Forbes recovered himself he looked to see that the two passengers were safe. The next important thing was to get down again—without ballast to lessen the shock of landing, it having already been completely used. At last the balloon began to drop but the wind drove it along so that the landing was accomplished without accident.
The attempt to win the Lahm Cup, starting from St. Louis, had been postponed till Fall when steadier winds can be expected.
The gas furnished at North Adams has been particularly light and, on one trip, was able to lift forty-eight pounds to the thousand cubic feet.
A telegram was read from the Aerial Experiment Association at Hammondsport, stating that the second aeroplane of the Association had made a flight of ninety-three yards at a height of about ten feet.
B. R. Newton, of the New York Herald, was called upon to tell of his trip the previous week to Kitty Hawk, N. C, where the Wright Brothers have been conducting their experiments. The story was one "the like of which had never before been told," and the assemblage sat spellbound while he described how he saw the machine rolled out of its shed, the propellers start and the machine leave the ground for its flights of miles at a time, over and around the enormous sand dunes of the Atlantic coast.
To attempt to report the wonderful tale with the strength imparted to it by Mr. Newton would be futile and we leave it for Mr. Newton to tell himself elsewhere in this issue.
Mr. Newton ventured to assert that he believed that the secret of the Wrights' success was to a great extent due to their training and ability to instantly balance the machine when struck by gusts, and that in the future every aviator would have to learn the same lessons. Mr. Herring took objection to this, stating that the Langley model maintained perfect automatic equilibrium and that his own gasolene driven model had flown for fifteen minutes at a time, maintaining perfect automatic stability.
Mr. Kimball, the Chairman of the Entertainment Committee, told of his recent trip to Hammondsport and asked Captain Baldwin to tell of the dirigible which he is building for the Government but Captain Baldwin facetiously declined on the ground of "Government secrets."
On Monday evening. May 25th, Augustus Post told of his trip to Hammondsport and seeing fly the White Wings of the Aerial Experiment Association.
A. C. Triaca brought up the subject of the accident in California, in which sixteen people were injured in the attempted flight of the "Ariel" and denounced the allowing of inexperienced men to make ascensions and without having the balloon or airship examined for its safety. It is to be regretted that his motion was not put to a vote and the action made a matter of record for the future.
New members elected: Thaddeus Gra>-, A. P. Warner and Edward B. Kinsila.
Resigned: Philip T. Dodge.
CLIMBING MT. WASHINGTON.
This picture was taken in the olden days, when automobiles were the vogue. Mt. Washington is near Bretton Woods, N. H., at the junction of the Seabreeze and St. Lawrence Currents, just above the mountain walled valley of the Ammonoosuc and the two great mountain hostelries, The Mount Pleasant and The Mount Washington. Back in June of 1908 the Automobile Club of America, now long extinct, had an automobile tour from New York to these two hotels and return. Perhaps the oldest inhabitant will recall the circumstances.
ARMY NEWS FOR MAY.
On the 13th inst. an ascension was made in the Signal Corps Balloon No. 10 for the purpose of making experiments in wireless telegraphy. The details are given under the list of ascensions for the month.
An ascension was made in the same balloon on the 26th for the purpose of training the personnel in the use of a free balloon. This is also reported in the list of ascensions.
During the past month a hydrogen plant was set up by the balloon detachment at Fort Myer, Va., and enough hydrogen generated to fill Signal Corps Balloon No. 9, which is now being used for the purpose of training the balloon detachment in captive balloon work.
New Captive Balloons.
The specifications for two captive balloons of 1000 and 540 cubic meters capacity, bids for which were opened on April 29th, and award made to Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin on May /th (see the May number) call for the following requirements:
The fabric must be of American manufacture made by rolling together two layers of silk having a layer of rubber between; weighing approximately 5 2-3 ounces per square yard for the smaller balloon and 7% ounces per square yard for the larger balloon.
The envelope to be constructed with panels, so arranged that the seams may be ֣ontinuous in horizontal direction but not continuous vertically. The seams will be made gas-tight by a light strip of silk covering the seams inside and out attached with rubber cement.
For the larger balloon, the gas bag will be provided with a manoeuvering valve of the clap type at the top and a wooden neck ring and sleeve at the bottom, both of which shall be easily removable from the gas bag, there being no wooden parts permanently attached to the gas bag.
For the smaller balloon, the gas bag will be provided with a manoeuvering valve-for the top, and at the bottom an adjustable emptying valve, which will release the gas at any desired pressure. Both of these valves shall be easily removable from the gas bag. there being no wooden parts permanently attached to the gas bag. There will also be provided a neck ring and sleeve with appendix ropes, so that this balloon may be used for free ascensions as well as captive.
Around the top and bottom openings the gas bag must be reinforced with an additional thickness of fabric. There must also be provided a ripping panel, the length: being one-eighth the circumference of the balloon.
The sizes of valves, length and diameter of neck, sleeve, etc., will conform to the regulations of the International Aeronautic Federation for coal gas balloons.
There will also be provided for these balloons, net and suspension of Italian: hemp, the net to be of the diamond pattern. There will be provided with the nets a suitable concentrating ring, equipped with toggles for attachment of the suspension lines.
These balloons will be inflated with hydrogen and therefore the strength of the net and suspension must be proportioned accordingly.
The manufacturer does not supply basket, anchor, anchor rope, guide rope or any car fittings. The manufacturer does supply, however, the rope for maneouvering valve and rope lor ripping panel.
Tent for Housing Dirigible.
Advertisements have been sent out for a tent to house the dirigible now being built for the Government by Captain Baldwin, the dimensions of the dirigible being 105 feet in length, 21 feet maximum width and 31 feet maximum height.
The free space inside the tent must be at least 120 feet long and 30 feet wide to a height of 31 feet. One end shall be so arranged that it can be completely opened. The ropes and guys which might chafe the balloon must be on the outside of the canvas. The material shall be about 10-ounce duck or other suitable material and shall be mildew proofed. The tent shall be arranged so that an additional section may be inserted to lengthen it. Manufacturers shall submit a detailed plan showing the dimensions, shape and construction of the tent they propose to furnish. The tenths to be delivered at the "Balloon House, Fort Myer, Va.," and will be accepted only after being set up at the place of deliver}'.
After three years of studies, the Italian staff will have its first dirigible, and it is now almost finished in the aerostatic park of the engineers at Bracciano. Its dimensions are about the same as La Patrie. The construction was supervised by Commandant Moris, Captain Ricaldoni and Lieut. Crocco. In all probability, by the first of July the dirigible will leave its shed at Bracciano and go to Rome.
AERONAUT LEO STEVENS
>fc yfc >te Tpf >K yft
* * *
THE SAFEST AND GRANDEST BALLOONS IN THIS COUNTRY, OF FINEST WORKMANSHIP, ARE USED BY THE PILOTS OF ABILITY AND PEOPLE OF GOOD JUDGMENT
NOTE THE LIST
Mr. Mr. Mr.
J. C. McCoy, New York Charles J. Glidden, Boston and Mrs. Max Fleischman,
Cincinnati Alan R. Hawley, New York Henry Whitehouse, New York Mrs. Prentice Miller, Franklin, Pa. Mr. Oscar Händler, Germany Mr. Leroy M. Taylor, New York Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, Washington Mr. R. D. Potter, Greenfield, Mass. Lieut. S. M. Butler, New York Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., Washington Dr. Rogers W. Randall, North Adams Capt. von Abercron, Berlin, Germany Aero Club of America Aero Club of Pittsfield U. S. Signal Corps Balloon No. 10 Mr. A. Holland Forbes, New York
Capt. Chas. De Forest Chandler,
Capt. Homer W. Hedge, New York Mr. A. H. Morgan, Cleveland Maj. C. J. S. Miller, Franklin, Pa. Mr. Wm. F. Whitehouse, New York Mr. N. H. Arnold, North Adams Mr. Joseph A. Blondin, Albuquerque,
Mr. Lawrence Mott, White Plains Mr. W. Hewitt, Aberdeen, Scotland Mr. Frank S. Lahm, Paris, France Mr. Edward Langley, Scranton, Pa. Mr. and Mrs. E. C. Peebles,
Hammondsport Capt. Oscar Erbslöh, Berlin, Germany Aero Club of New England Aero Club of North Adams Aero Club of Ohio
And scores of others
BE ON THE RIGHT TRACK. USE BALLOONS THAT HAVE BEEN TESTED, MADE BY EXPERTS WITH EVERY POSSIBLE SAFITY DEVICE
Dear Stevens :
I wish to show my appreciation of the " Conqueror " by saying that I do not think a better balloon could be built. It is perfect in every way.
May 27, 1908. A. HOLLAND FORBES.
EXPERT OF THE INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS
AERONAUT LEO STEVENS
THE LEADER OF BALLOON
and AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTION
ALL BALLOONS ABSOLUTE HYDROGEN
and COAL GAS PROOF
ONE TO FIFTY PASSENGERS
The keen Sportsman of wide experience uses a "STEVENS BALLOON."
Varnishing by Improved electrical Process.
also representing Carton &. laChambre, leading balloon builders of
Messrs. a. C. Triaca and a. Leo Stevens are ready to deliver aeroplanes of the farman no. 1 and delagrange types after trials of 1 mile in a circle.
two cent stamps for reply.
Box 181, Madison square, new York
MAY AEROPLANE FLIGHTS IN EUROPE.
The last part of April was windy and no flights were made.
On the first of May Farman brought out his No. 2, which is the old one refitted. A new tank of water has been added which will allow him to fly for 20 minutes. The Continental caoutchouc covering for the planes has proved most satisfactory. It gives some stiffness and is not affected by the hygrometric condition of the atmosphere. The machine has also been fitted with two seats, and the aviator has been overwhelmed with requests for "a ride."
Repairs to the Bleriot VIII. are finished, and he is to resume trials now.
On May 2d Farman and Delagrange were out for the Armengaud prize for 15 minutes in the air. After a few preliminary rolls Farman started easily, but the rear wheels would touch the ground on the turns. Later in the afternoon he tried again and succeeded in getting over 500 meters of ground, but the wheels touched again in ending a turn into the wind. In the following attempt Farman makes a circle of Issy les Moulineaux field. At the last minute allowed under the rules Delagrange made a last attempt, his flight followed by the official timers in an automobile. At a height of 3 to 4 meters from the ground he tried to turn to the left, but the wind visibly embarrassed him and in spite of the rudder he failed to fully correct his course, and passed close above the heads of the spectators massed before the sheds, but the oil tank failed with its supply, and the speed lessened. Almost hitting the people, the right wing brushed against a taxicab, and Delagrange fell forward on his hands. His flight lasted 50 seconds and the distance covered was about 1,200 meters.
The Gastambide-Mengin monoplane-aeroplane was out on the same day at Bagatelle. The body has been lengthened by 2 meters. They were satisfied with having the machine roll swiftly over the ground.
At the invitation of enthusiasts in Italy, Delagrange went to Rome, and on May 24th made several flights before the Minister of War, Major Moris, officials, and about 30,000 people gathered on the Place d'Annes. On the third trial 200 meters were covered at an altitude of 1 meter. The fourth trip was lengthened to 400 meters, the fifth to 450 meters, including a turn at 2 meters from the ground, and finally, in spite of the wind, he made a flight of 1,800 meters.
On the 25th Farman began his trials at Ghent, Belgium, where he had gone at the request of the Aero Club des Flandres and the City of Ghent. He made flights of from 100 to 300 meters at about 3 meters from the ground, but the wind was adverse to his trials.
On the 27th he flew before an enormous crowd, but made only 80 and 440 meters, respectively, at a height of 3 to 4 meters.
At Ghent the field contained 140 hectares, being 2,000 meters by 700 meters, and admirably adapted to his experiments. The trials were scheduled to occur from 2 o'clock to 7 o'clock, and, like the camp meeting, "weather permitting."
DELAGRANGE IN ROME.
Delagrange Beats All Previous Foreign Records—In the Air 9 Minutes 30 Seconds Without Touching the Ground.
On the 27th of May Delagrange made a new record for Europe and beat his own record of April n, at Issy, when he covered 3925 meters officially (see May "Aeronautics"), and stayed in the air 9 minutes 15 seconds. ..... .
The King of Italy was present and saw the flight.
The cable sent "Les Sports" from Rome read as follows: "This morning at 7:20 Delagrange effectuated a number of flights before the King, the Queen, General Bru-sati and other personages of the Court.
"The longest flight reached about 9 kilometers, the aviator remaining 9 minutes without touching the ground at a height varying between 1 and 3 meters. The second flight is estimated at 5 kilometers."
On the following day, the 28th, in the presence of about 4,000 people, Delagrange made a new success, accomplishing flights of 2 and 3 kilometers at a height of 2 to 5 meters.
Farman on the same day, at Ghent, made a flight of 1,500 meters. About 10,000 people were present.
The great steps of aviation in Europe can be summed up as follows: Oct. 23, 1906—25 meters of Santos Dumont at Bagatelle. Oct. 26, 1907—770 meters of Henry Farman at Issy.
Jan. 13, 190S—1,000 meters, Grand Prix Deutsch-Archdeacon, won by Henry Far-man at Issy. Mar. 21, 190S—2,004 meters of Farman at Issy.
Apr. 11, 190S—3,925 meters; record of distance, 6 minutes 30 seconds, Delagrange, at Issy.
May 27, 1908—9 minutes 30 seconds, record duration, Delagrange, at Rome.
THE WILLIAMS HELICOPTER.
Mr. J. Newton Williams, of Derby, Conn., with his full-sized "flyer" of the helicopter type, is at the experiment station of the G. H. Curtiss Mfg. Co., Hammonds-port, N. Y., where some interesting experiments and tests have been made.
The machine has two superposed propellers, in horizontal parallel planes, mounted on concentric hollow shafts, revolving in opposite directions, and driven by an 8-cylinder, 40-h. p., air-cooled Curtiss motor.
In private trials this machine has developed a thrust of over 500 pounds, and on one occasion it lifted a light weight man clear of the ground. This trial was abruptly ended by the springing of a shaft. The shafts and transmission have developed some weakness (having been designed for a motor of less horsepower), and are being replaced by heavier and stronger parts. It is expected that the machine will be ready for further trials soon.
Mr. Williams, who is the inventor of the Williams Typewriter and the Automatic Bank Punch, has been a student of aeronautics for many years, and some of his private laboratory work fully demonstrated to him the great possibilities of mechanical flight, and gave promise of present results, even before he commenced the construction of a helicopter of man-carrying size.
The Herring Government Aeroplane Nearing Completion.
Work is progressing on the aeroplane which A. M. Herring is building under contract for the U. S. Army Signal Corps. June 1 was the date for filing the bond, and Mr. Herring went to Washington on that day.
Details of the machine are being kept secret to a great extent, but we have reason to believe that it will be of the bl erring-Chanute bi-plane t3rpc, the planes 27 feet wide by about 3 feet from front to rear, and 4 feet between the upper and lower surfaces. There are to be eight uprights spaced variably. There will be more than two propellers, placed in front.
The two engines have been specially designed by Mr. Herring: 5-cyliudcr, 4-cycle, air-cooled, forced lubrication, make-and-break ignition, and weigh each 22 pounds, including carbureter, oilers and igniters. With a maximum of 17 horsepower for each motor, the weight per horsepower is 1.29 pounds. One motor will be situated each side of the two occupants.
Carl Hartman Model Makes Successful Flight.
At the Stevens balloon factory last week the small model aeroplane of Carl Hart-man made a flight of 400 feet at a height of 6 feet. The model weighs -)4 pound and lifted 3 ounces in addition to its own weight. The power is supplied by a rubber band. The supporting surface is 1 square foot. The two propellers are in front. The planes and motor are tilted up and down without changing the level of the frame of the model. The flight was very straight and flat. It was found that it took more power to get up than it did to keep going on a level after reaching the desired altitude.
AMERICA'S FOREMOST AND MOST FAMOUS AERONAUT, CAPTAIN
THOMAS SCOTT BALDWIN.
Captain Baldwin is today at the head of his profession, and there through hard work and constant application during the past thirty years. He has won, and rightly deserves all honors bestowed upon him.
In years gone by. when but a mere lad, he gave up everything in all lines to devote
his life to the science of aeronautics. In those days it was not like it is to-day, where one man can pick up what another has accomplished and use it, but all Captain Baldwin had to learn and work from was practical experiments and experience of his own.
When a tiny babe Captain Baldwin's parents died, leaving him to fight his own way in the world, which we all know he has accomplished with success. When he was old enough to carry papers, he became the proud possessor of a newspaper route. When a little older he advanced to a gas-lighter. From a gas-lighter to a book canvasser. From a book canvasser to a gymnast, and he remained in the profession for years; but before leaving it brought out a new attraction by going up in a hot air balloon and performing on a trapese during the ascension. This was his strong card, but he tired of that, and sought something more thrilling.
During 1S85, when on a western trip to San Francisco, he spied at the Cliff House the new feat that he was looking for; that was to stretch a wire from the Cliff House to the Seal Rocks and walk back and forth. This wire could not be properly guyed, but, nevertheless, every Sunday afternoon found Thomas Baldwin walking 011 a swaying wire ninety feet above the dashing bounding waves, half the time covered with spray. This feat captain Thomas scott Baldwin. has never been accomplished by another
though it has been tried.
From the "Cliff House act" Captain Baldwin went to captive ballooning. There being too much sameness to this, he decided to invent a parachute whereby he could jump from a balloon. Up to this time there had never been a successful parachute jump, as each attempt resulted in a death; the last accident occurring about fifty years previous to Captain Baldwin's first jump. The first parachute was tried out in the old Mechanics' Pavilion in San Francisco—first by attaching sand bags to it, and then by Captain Baldwin himself.
After several trials Baldwin was so sure it was perfect that he was willing to make a jump of a thousand feet from a balloon and, while waiting the opportunity, called on the Street Car Company terminating at Golden Gate Park and told them of the wonderful invention and great drawing card that he had, saying he would be willing to jump from three hundred and fifty to a thousand feet at a dollar a foot. That was all very well to tell about, but it was something so unheard of that it needed consideration, and he was told to "call around in a few days." He called and was told they had decided to take a thousand feet at a dollar a foot. Bills were posted and the wonderful jump was the talk of the day, as nothing like it had ever been attempted before.
Fully thirty thousand people congregated at Golden Gate Park to watch the foolish man jump to his death, and at 2.15 in the afternoon, January 30th, 1887, Captain Baldwin made the first successful parachute jump on record. For a couple of years Captain Baldwin never used the same parachute twice, though he was continually taking jumps; for after each trip he could see where some improvement was necessary, or that ropes must be tightened or loosened, or he would make a large hole, then a small one in the
top to try to stop the frightful oscillation, and he was never known to ever use a basket, or to be tied in any way to the parachute, but went up by simply holding to the bar by his hands. Heretofore parachutes had been made rigid, but Captain Baldwin's success lay in the fact that his was limp. He never jumped from a hot-air balloon, but always used gas.
Up to this time Captain Baldwin had accomplished three of the most hazardous and thrilling feats ever attempted by mortal, viz.: going up in a hot-air balloon, giving a performance on a trapeze during the ascension; walking on a wire from the Cliff House to the Seal Rocks, a distance of seven hundred feet, and ninety feet above the water—■ this was considered the most daring feat ever attempted, and it made Captain Baldwin famous; the third was leaping from a balloon at a thousand feet with the aid of a parachute, something never accomplished before in the history of the world. Captain Baldwin at that time was but 23 years of age.
Captain Baldwin immediately began to travel with his parachute, giving exhibitions in the various large cities. Here is an extract by Judge Carter from a Quincy paper after an exhibition in that city:
"Quincy, 111., July 22d, 1SS7.—The feat performed by you on July 4th in the presence of thousands of our people and their guests, has with one voice been pronounced the most daring of its kind ever attempted by any man. Its attempt was abundant evidence of your courage and devotion to the science of aeronautics. Its signal success was equal proof of your skill in your chosen field of investigation and discovery.
"The countless ships that shall sail witli electric speed throughout the trackless air in the twentieth century, laden with human and commercial freight, may owe to the discovery of Thomas Scott Baldwin the principal that shall insure their triumphant success. Their hosts of passengers may pursue their aerial voyage with the ever-present restful thought that Thomas Baldwin has provided a safe descent to Mother Earth in times of accident or peri!.-' He was then presented with several jewel-set medals.
On February 15th, 1905, Captain Baldwin with his Airship, the "California Arrow," raced the fastest automobile on the Pacific Coast, a Pope Toledo. The race was from the Chutes Park, Los Angeles, to the Raymond Hotel, Pasadena (10 miles). The aeronaut of the airship landed on the grounds of the hotel two minutes before the speedy automobile reached the hotel. The Los Angeles "Examiner" of February 15th, 1905, said: "In a race with an automobile, the fastest vehicle man has yet been able to invent, Captain Baldwin's Airship, the "California Arrow," won. The outcome of the contest is considered the most striking demonstration of the possibility of aerial navigation that has been made in any part of the world." Then Captain Baldwin sailed back to Los Angeles.
Captain Baldwin after leaving Quincy set out on an eastern tour, and was advertised for a certain day in Chicago, but so hazardous did the people consider the feat that they passed an ordinance prohibiting a man to jump from a balloon with a parachute. The same ordinance was passed in New York, and it afterwards became a state law, and is still in existence, though not enforced.
While giving exhibitions at Rockaway Beach, he would go up, out over the ocean and down into it. Well they could ask:
What were the wild waves saying,
Baldwin, that Autumn day When up through the mid air swaying
You drifted and drifted away; While thousands were breathlessly praying,
And watching with dire dismay, A white spot that hung delaying
In the ether, miles away?
What were the grand thoughts thrilling
Your soul on that Autumn day, When like an immortal fulfilling
Some behest, you soared away, With the ambient air distilling,
Elixers, whose force you obey, While the parachute slowly filling
Wafted yon miles away.
From America Captain Baldwin went to Europe, and this is what was said of him there: (From a London paper.) "One of the greatest sensations ever offered to the British public was successfully performed on Saturday last, July 29th, iSSS, at the Alexandria Palace, by Thomas Scott Baldwin, jumping from a balloon at a thousand feet by aid of a parachute."
Here is an official statement, London, England, July 30th, 1888:
"I am of the opinion that Thomas Scott Baldwin has made one of the greatest discoveries in the practical application of aeronautical science—I mean the practical application of science, so as to realize results, which previous to the invention of his parachute, seemed to be absolutely unattainable."
WM. H. LE FEVRE, C E., President, Balloon Society of Great Britain.
After Captain Baldwin's tenth jump from Alexandria Palace, where the nobility, people of renown, members of the Balloon Society of Great Britain and others were gathered, Mr. Le Fevre, President of the Balloon Society of Great Britain, presented Captain Baldwin with the first gold medal which had ever been awarded by that Society.
One afternoon the Prince and Princess of Wales, their three daughters, and many prominent and distinguished persons gathered at the Palace to witness a jump, and so well pleased were they that the Prince of Wales presented Captain Baldwin with a huge diamond set in a ring, commending him upon his daring, bravery and his aid to science.
Captain Baldwin has traveled around the world twice, giving exhibitions before the nobility and crowned heads in all the prominent cities of Australia, China, Japan, Egypt, and in fact every country.
Captain Baldwin has gone from one aeronautical venture to another, has handled all kinds of balloons, and run his captive balloons at the various expositions, carrying thousands and thousands of people up into the air.
During the San Francisco disaster Captain Baldwin lost the largest and most perfectly equipped aerostat in the world, which was the culmination of twenty years of scientific experiments, aided by accumulated knowledge gleaned from every quarter of the globe. The following is a bit of data about it: diameter, 65 ft.; circumference, 204 ft.; height over all, 105 ft.; gas capacity, 140,000 cubic ft.; lifting power, 9,100 pounds; carrying capacity, 18 persons; pongee silk used in construction, 8,640 yards; number of panels, which were double, 2,816; rope used in making net, 5 miles; weight of gas envelope, 2,000 pounds; weight of net and ropes, 2,200 pounds; weight of cable, 500 pounds; length of cable, 1,500 ft.; breaking strain tested, 22,000 pounds; combined breaking strain of net, 100,000 pounds; double reversible engine, 40 horsepower; amount of iron used in original charge, 20 tons; time required for original charge, 5 days.
This monster balloon was run captive in Los Angeles and San Francisco. Captain Baldwin took it to Denver, where he started on a long balloon voyage, but was caught in a storm, and battered and banged around Pike's Peak, up and down the canyons, buffeted here and there, with the huge gas bag covered with ice, until there seemed no possible chance for safety. This is the highest and rockiest portion of the entire Rocky Mountain Range. On this occasion he hung for 14 hours around and above the top of Pike's Peak, and all the time above 14,000 feet. He had two gentlemen with him, and Captain Baldwin believes this was the most dangerous balloon trip that has gone on record. One minute there would be a chance, the next they were again helpless.
Many years ago Captain Baldwin made an airship run by foot power, and realizing the fact that it would never work, abandoned it and spent years in trying to find a suitable motor. The next airship he built was 105 feet long, and he had to buy an automobile to get an engine, but the engine was so heavy, the envelope had to be enlarged, and again realizing he must hunt further for a motor, abandoned this airship.
One day hearing of a good motorcycle in Hammondsport, N. Y., Captain Baldwin wrote and had a motor made from his own design, and the G. H. Curtiss airship motor is the best on the market today. In the meantime work was begun on a small airship 17 X52 feet, and just six weeks after the silk was cut, August 3d, 1904, Captain Baldwin in his "California Arrow" made the first successful airship flight that had ever been made in America.
He immediately took his airship to the St. Louis Exposition, and saved the day for the Exposition, as they had advertised their aeronautic concession as their strong point, and had offered a $100,000 prize, but up until October not a flight had been attempted, and not an airship dared cut loose. The "California Arrow" made six return flights there.
The first "California Arrow" was indeed a crude affair to what it is to-day, though she is still the "California Arrow," but improved with age.
Captain Baldwin took his airship to the Portland Exposition, and it has been all over California, Nova Scotia, and the Eastern States, where he has met only with success. By the way, "success" is his motto and he has never known a failure.
During the San Francisco fire he lost all his aeronautical outfit, and had to construct everything new. This enabled him to try many new experiments. What Captain Baldwin wants is a perfect model that can be enlarged to any size, as he dreams
of a day when the air currents will be mapped out as are the currents of the water, and when aerial navigation will be a means of transportation.
What he knows he is anxious to tell, as he knows by so doing he will aid others, and will lose nothing, as he has no secrets. The airship to him is an accomplished thing, and has now long ago passed the experimental age so far as he is concerned, and there only remains the working out of each principle in detail.
He believes the gas bag will never be done away with, but that the aeroplane and gas bag will be combined to form the heavy airship that is to come.
The leading difficulty so far in airship building is to combine the minimum of weight with the maximum of strength, and at the same time have a powerful enough motor to prevent the gas bag from being swayed and buffeted in the various currents.
BALDWIN's "CALIFORNIA ARROW" at st. LOUIS, oct., 1907.
Captain Baldwin is the pioneer of airship fame, and he had no drawings and set rules to experiment with, but has worked out each point to his own satisfaction; and that coupled with his thirty years of aeronautical knowledge and experience, and over three thousand ascensions, has enabled him to overcome the major portion of the difficulties.
There is not an airship in America to-day that can make a successful flight that has varied one iota from the principles he first employed in his "California Arrow," and there is not a successful pilot that has not had his first experience in a "California Arrow" and had his schooling under Captain Baldwin. He takes the lead and they all follow as close as possible in his path.
To date the record of the "California Arrow" stands: 1904, sixteen flights, returning to the starting point nine times; 1905, twenty-five flights, twenty-three returns; 1906, fifty-three flights, fifty-one returns; in 1907 the airship made ninety-two flights, returning to the starting point niney-one times.
During the races in St. Louis, October 226, 1907, Captain Baldwin entered two airships: one a speedy double propeller airship for the race, the other his exhibition machine with which he had made some eight}' odd flights during the summer. On Tuesday he gave two exhibitions for the benefit of the large crowds that were congregated on the grounds, hi is two-propeller machine that he expected to enter in the race had been shipped to St. Louis to him, but when setting up the eight-cylinder engine, through some error, which made it necessary to sit on the rudder to get the proper balance, the machine could not be used, so there was nothing left for him but to do the best he could with the exhibition machine, and this is what he succeeded in doing.
There were five airships entered at the races, and they made thirteen starts. Of these, five of the airships did not get back to the concourse under their own power, and there were eight return flights made, of which he in his "California Arrow" made five. In other words, the "California Arrow" made nearly twice as many flights as all the others put together.
Captain Baldwin is not like other airship men and manufacturers that seem to stand still; but he is ever on the alert, and seldom goes in the air that he does not see where some improvement can be made, and he immediately makes it.
In June, 1907, Captain Baldwin brought out a new double forward propeller, turning in opposite directions on the same shaft, which heretofore had been contrary to all scientific principles, which he has proven to be the missing link in handling an airship, and which entirely docs away with the torque.
Each year before he opens his season he must have a complete new outfit—even his aerodrome must be new, and I might mention that this year he has an entirely new construction for his aerodrome. It is a large tent, 50 by 100 feet, but has not a rope on it. but is webbed in place of roped, which adds materially to the strength and appearance of same, and 1 dare say this is the first tent ever made after this method.
Captain Baldwin has never met with an accident, and had never so much as received a scratch, and has never allowed one of his assistants or pupils to receive a scratch. This carefulness on his part has saved a host of lives, and that is why he has thrown away many better balloons than the average professional uses, because of small defects, and why he is alive and in robust health, and has produced a successful airship.
The early part of January the War Department issued specifications for a dirigible balloon, which was to be made of a foreign material. The Government was to furnish the material, and the American to make the airship. Captain Baldwin did not put in a bid on these first specifications, none were accepted, and new specifications were sent out calling for the bidder to furnish his own material with a minimum breaking strain of not less than 62l/2 pounds per inch width, and must require no varnish. Captain Baldwin put in a bid on this second specification submitting samples of his vulcanized proof material. The contract was awarded him, and he expects to be able to deliver the airship in a few weeks, as it is nearly ready for the finishing touches. The War Department thought so highly of this material that they have just issued bids for two spherical balloons to be made of fabric of American manufacture, made by rolling together two layers of silk having rubber between. The contract was awarded to Captain Baldwin and is for one 540-cubic-meter balloon, and one i.ooo-cubic-meter balloon to be made of his vulcanized proof material.
Rubber proof material first originated in Germany, and it was several years before France adopted it, but it is rapidly coming to the front, and the day is not far distant, so Captain Baldwin says, when manufacturers and balloonists will have to get away from varnished material, because varnished material has not enough elasticity, and in order to be gas tight they must be revarnished from time to time, and this adds weight, as each coat weighs considerable. The chemical action of oxygen on varnished material is such that in time it becomes useless. Linseed oil varnish only drys by absorbing oxygen from the air, therefore it is constantly undergoing a change. The first cost of a varnished balloon is not the end of the expense, as after each flight it must be revarnished, and after each coat is rendered more fragile, and is subject to spontaneous combustion, which is the plague spot in varnished material. The life of a varnished balloon is about one-fifth that of a proof material balloon.
The reason why Captain Baldwin's vidcanized proof material has come to stay is that it has the following merits: the weight of the vulcanized proof material is always the same, as it does not require further treatment; heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made just as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen on the vidcanized proof material has not the same detrimental effect as it has on the varnished material. The vulcanized proof material, double wall silk, has ten times the strength of varnished material, and is more economical in weight than a varnished balloon. A man can take care of his own vulcanized proof balloon, as it needs little or no care, and is not subject to spontaneous combustion. He cannot do this with a varnished balloon. A vulcanized proof balloon is cheaper in the end, as it does not have to spend half its time in the repair shop, and will last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The clay is surely coming when, if a man wants an absolute gas holder, he must use the proof material.
The strength of Captain Baldwin's vulcanized proof material, according to weight of material used, will stand from 60 to 100 pounds pressure per inch width.
One great fault with the manufacturers of balloons in this country is that they will use the same weight material for a 20,000-cubic-foot balloon that they will for a 60,000-cubic-foot balloon. This is another thing that is rapidly nearing correction. In Germany and foreign countries it is against the law for a balloon to go into the air
that has not been thoroughly tested and inspected by an expert. Would you think of putting an unsafe vessel on the water in the hands of a man that did not understand how to handle it, but only through seeing the success of some one handling it, thought he could do the same? What would the result be? Just what it is with these inexperienced men that call themselves aeronauts, and have never been in the air.
There should surely be some limit placed on these reckless men and boys,,that not ֯nly endanger their own lives, but those of others. I guess Mr. Albert C. Triaca, who has just opened an aeronautical school, realized this fact better than any one, knows the weight and strength of materials, and sees the day not far off when these foolish disasters must come to a stop, and all balloons be inspected. If they cannot undergo the inspection then they cannot go in the air. Mr. Triaca said the other evening at the Aero Club that he considered the San Francisco accident criminal, and these things should come to a stop.
Among all the balloons entered at the St. Louis races there was one Pilot, Herr Erbsloh, with the German balloon, that dared tie up the neck of his balloon before the start, and allow it to expand through the elasticity of the material, which was proof material, and the fact of his being able to do this and save his gas probably won the race for him.
I am sure that all that are interested in the Government airship will look forward to the first flight, which is going to take place shortly, and wish Captain Baldwin success. -
Six numbers have now appeared of our British contemporary, "Aeronautics," and a fine journal it is. It was started in December, 1907, with Major Baden-Powell and John H. Ledeboer editors, as a supplement to "Knowledge and Illustrated Scientific News," but so great was the demand that, beginning with the March number, it has been issued as a separate magazine. It being the only monthly journal published in English in Great Britain it is a welcome companion to the other magazine in English, the American Aeronautics. May its shadow never grow less!
H. K. Hitchcock, of Montreal, has just returned from a short trip to England and Europe and writes of his findings as follows:
"I had a nice trip from London to Brighton in a 77,500 balloon, a party of eight of us, no particular features in the trip. Distance about 45 miles in 1 hour 5 minutes, using ripping cord on descent on account of the wind. Made height of about 6,000 feet.
"I had a talk with one of the Balloon corps, Aldershot, men. The new motor for the second dirigible is of 50 horse-power, air cooled, weight about 150 pounds, and is being tested and built by Panhard's in their London shops.
"Spencer is building a helicopter for an inventor—particulars are a secret at present.
"Clement, in Paris, is at work on models of a combined dirigible and aeroplane, shaped just like an oyster, with the motor slung below the thickest part. It certainly glides well and also has a natural parachute action in case of a direct vertical drop.
"Clement is also working up a reversible propeller for airships, etc., on motor boat lines, for varying angle and reversing if necessary.
"Mallet's shop is very busy on ordinary balloons, as also is Spencer in London.
"Spencer has just completed a new 12 horse-power, 3 cylinder, Buchet, air cooled, dirigible for show purposes this Summer, using coal gas; bamboo frame, side suspension envelope, but no really new features.
"How about Montreal as a starting point? We get lots of stray northwest winds and the gas is good and light for ballooning—cost $1 a thousand."
S. Y. Beach, of the Scientific American, and Gustave Whitehead, took out in March English patent 5312 for "improvements in aeroplanes."
A. Leo Stevens has gone to Salem, Ohio, to make an ascension or two with Dr. H. W. Thompson and Mrs. Thompson.
Mayor Sherburn M. Becker, of Milwaukee, has been in New York and visited the Stevens workshop. Within a short time Mr. Stevens will go to Milwaukee to pilot the Mayor on several trips. It is expected to make stops along the line of the various trips.
The two old balloons which the Count de la Vaulx saddled upon the Aero Club of America have at last been disposed of. The "Centaur," of 1,200 cubic meters, has been purchased by Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin, and the "Orient," of 1,000 cubic meters, has been sold through Leo Stevens to W. H. Anderson, of Philadelphia, who will use it in connection with fireworks. Still going up!
The Pittsfield club has purchased a new balloon from Leo Stevens of 35,000 cubic feet, to be called "The Heart of the Berkshires."
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ARMS AND (0) THE MAN. څ "Aښ^ZT
General James A. Drain, Editor
«j ARMS AND THE MAN serves every arm of the service in both the Army, the Navy, the Marine Cot ps and the National Guard. Its columns are open for all military aeronautical discussions, in connection with the work of the Signal Corps.
1502 h street, 3n". w. - - - "washington, I). c.
THE ADAMS-FARWELL AERO MOTOR.
A gasoline motor of exceedingly light weight per horse power developed has been brought out by The Adams Company, of Dubuque. Iowa.
The motor is the design of F. O. Farwell, patentee of the revolving cylinder motor used in the Adams-Farwell motor car, and while it is built on the same general lines as the automobile motor, by refinement it becomes an interesting example of light weight.
The two motors shown were built for a prominent eastern inventor to be used for aeronautic experiments. For this, purpose this motor possesses many interesting peculiarities. The motor has five cylinders, 414-inch bore, 3^2-inch stroke, and is run at a speed up to 1,800 r. p. m.
The motor complete in operative condition with timer, float feed carburetor, automatic force feed oil pump and oil tank, weighs <)jY\ lb. With the spider shown in the photographs, which, in this case, secures the motor to four tubes, the motor and base and all weigh 104 lb. By the A. L. A. M. rule this motor is rated 36 h. p.
Photo No. 506 shows two of these 36-h. p. motors held in the hands of two men, while one of the motors is running at full speed. The absence of vibration is shown by the clearness of the photograph of the parts not in motion.
Its weight per horsepower developed is believed to be the lightest of any motor not sacrificing strength and durability to weight. In comparing weights it is well to take into consideration the fact that the weight of the water, radiator, piping and fan used in water-cooled motors are not often given with the weight of the motor. The light weight of this motor, which is air cooled, is brought about more by the simplicity of its construction and the high grade of the material used than by reduction of strength to the minimum.
The makers say they have every reason to believe that these motors will stand as hard and continuous use as their regular automobile motors, some of which have been in use for eight years and are in fine running condition to-day.
The Adams-Farwell motor is not what is usually termed a rotary engine. The cylinders revolve around a common center—the vertical stationary crank shaft. The pistons and connecting rods revolve around another common center—the single crank pin. At one point the pistons reach the head of the cylinder: at another point the pistons approach the base of the cylinder, but no moving part ever comes to a stop while the engine is running. It spins like a top.
Each cylinder is complete with head and part of the central crank case cast in one piece of steel of high tensile strength and they weigh only 7v2 lb. each.
Five of these cylinders are bolted together and boiled to a top aluminum flange (which also forms the gas manifold), weighing 3 lb., and to a bottom steel flange which also supports the valve cam and transmission gear. These flanges have long bronze bushes and form bearings around the vertical stationary crank shaft.
In each cylinder is a cast iron piston weighing 2^2 lb. All the pistons are connected to a single crank pin by bronze connecting rods, which interlock each other around a bronze lined steel bush about the crank pin.
The cylinders revolve as one piece in perfect mechanical balance around one center. The pistons swing around another common center. It is a continuous circular motion and there is no shock, vibration or loss of power in overcoming the inertia of reciprocating parts as in other motors.
By revolving the cylinders instead of the crank shaft very desirable features for aeronautic, speed boat and automobile motors are secured.
The feature of cooling is perhaps among the most important. Without one ounce of cooling device the makers claim the best cooled of all gasoline motors. The cylinders move rapidly through the air like the arms of a centrifugal blower. Centrifugal force removes the air in contact with the cylinders, and atmospheric pressure supplies fresh air. The circulation of air is equally rapid on all sides of all cylinders and as the cylinders are of equal thickness on all sides the expansion is equal and the cylinders may be made light without fear of distortion. The result is entirely different from blowing air upon one side of a cylinder or row of cylinders.
Those who are not familiar with the results obtained by the use of the Adams-Farwell cooling system may question the advisability of making these cylinders smooth and without radiating flanges.
The Adams-Farwell automobile motors have always had longitudinal flanges cast with the cylinders. During the summer of 1907 a seven-passenger automobile was provided with a motor of 5-inch bore and 5-inch stroke, with five smooth cylinders. This machine was used to test the cooling quality of the flangeless cylinders. It seemed to cool perfectly under the most severe conditions, such as climbing long, steep hills and long runs in deep sand. As these 5-inch bore cylinders without flanges showed such good results it was deemed unnecessary to provide the 4I4-inch bore cylinders with flanges. The tests made have proven that the flanges are unnecessary. It is the enormous volume of air that does the business.
Water-cooling systems are a great handicap, especially on aeronautic motors. "Motor Print" of May, 1908, in speaking of the flying machines of Henry Farman and Leon Delagrange, says:
"The motors on both machines are of the water-cooled type, and this has been a constant source of inconvenience. In fact, the only thing that has limited the flight thus far apparently has been the necessity to stop for water."
While not an ounce of weight is added for balance or fly wheel, the revolving element that is utilized for balance wheel is over 80 per cent, of the entire weight or mass of the motor.
This heavy fly-wheel revolving rapidly around a vertical axis exerts an enormous gyroscopic force to keep the motor and that to which it is attached in a true plane. The motor spins like a top, and like a top it has a tendency to resist being tipped over while spinning. It also has a tendency to quickly right itself if forcibly thrown out of its proper running plane. This force can be utilized to maintain equilibrium in a flying machine. Gyroscopic force is the only known means of obtaining a leverage without the use of a fulcrum based upon the earth.
The heavy fly-wheel is also conducive to very steady running, and transmits a constant torque to the propeller. A gasoline motor, particularly one using high compression, transmits its power by a series of violent explosions or blows, and even though several cylinders may be used to divide up this series of blows, the arms of the propeller or fan used to propel a flying machine are subjected to destructive strains unless a fly-wheel of sufficient weight is interposed between the motor and propeller to absorb and distribute this series of blows.
A heavy fly-wheel also permits of the use of high compression which is more economical and produces more power from the same cylinder sizes than the low compression usually used in automobile and aeronautic motors.
This heavy fly-wheel, together with the variable compression system used for controlling the motor speed and power, permits of a very wide range of speeds underload.
The variable compression system referred to has been used for several years on the Adams-Farwell automobile motors, and consists in mechanically holding the inlet valve open for a part of the compression stroke and closing it after a part of the gas has been blown back and taken in by another cylinder which is at the time on the suction stroke.
The compression is relieved and the motor is easily turned when it starts and runs slowly. The compression may be gradually increased until maximum speed and power is obtained, and it may be as gradually reduced when stopping the motor. There is not that abruptness in starting or stopping which characterizes the ordinary gasoline motor, and the propeller arms are thus relieved of much strain.
After the motor is started the spark lever is set and requires no further attention. All speeds are obtained by the variable compression lever. The proper firing is cared for automatically.
The simplicity of this motor and the reason why it can be made so light without sacrificing strength will be better realized when it is understood that, in addition to saving fly-wheel and cooling system weight and complication, the following essential elements are greatly simplified:
The crank shaft in this 5-cylinder motor is just like the crank for a i-cylinder motor. It is a short single-throw crank, and, although the bearings are large and long, \Y% in. x 2^4 iH i»- x 4 in. and in. x 3% in., the shaft only weighs 4^4 lb.
All the valves, ten in number, are operated by one cam. The valves have no springs to close them; but being in the head of the cylinders, and closing outwardly, they arc closed by centrifugal force. The higher the speed of the motor the greater this force and the greater the necessity for a stiff spring or force to close the valves quickly.
The wiring for the ignition system of this 5-cyliuder motor is just as simple as it could be for a single cylinder motor. There is but one spark coil, one timer contact, one primary and one secondary wire. Photo No. 509. showing the top view of the motor, will enable us to explain the ignition system. The primary wire is attached to a fiat steel spring which is insulated from the remainder of the timer by a fiber block not shown. A hardened steel wheel is free on an eccentric or cranked end of a short
shaft which is geared to the motor and makes one revolution to each two-fifths of a revolution of the motor.
A distributor for the secondary current is formed by a strip of brass on the lower edge of a segment of fibre supported by a bracket as shown by the photos.
A short bare wire leads from the spark plug on each cylinder to a fibre insulator near the crank ease. In the top of this insulator is a screw, which, when the motor turns, passes under the distributor, but does not touch. When the cylinder which is to be fired passes under the distributor, the timer wheel makes contact with the spring, and the secondary current passes to the spark plug of that cylinder. Each alternate cylinder is on the power stroke as it passes the dead center of the crank. There being five cylinders, the power strokes are in perfect rhythm. After the motor is started the timer ease is swung around to the left, which advances the spark to its maximum. No further attention is required. The variable compression takes care of the proper firing.
The same shaft that turns the timer wheel revolves by worm gear the force feed oil pump. This is a very simple and positive device having four little cam-actuated plungers, each of which pumps a drop of oil at each revolution of the pump barrel.
The rectangular block shown at the top, which is clamped to the upper tube, not only forms a support to the upper end of the crank shaft, but forms an oil tank for ^2 pint of lubricating oil, supports the timer and oil pump, and in the right end is formed the carburetor with float feed chamber, and it supports the distributor. This complete device weighs only 2*/2 lb.
The two motors shown in the photograph are now being used by a well-known inventor, who is making secret tests of a new type of aeroplane.
If these tests result as favorably as might be expected, in consideration of the remarkable advantages possessed by the motors we may see a practical "heavicr-than-air" flying machine this summer.
A few of the innovations introduced by Farwell's new aeronautic motor:
Gyroscopic force utilized to steady airships in their flight; the entire motor revolves around a stationär}' crank shaft; the lightest motor of its power that has ever been constructed, 97l/\ lb., rated at 36 h. p.; motor has no fly-wheel, no muffler and no cooling device; valves are closed by centrifugal force instead of by springs; ten valves are actuated by a single cam; a single-throw crank shaft weighing only 4l/2 lb. is used in a 5-cylinder, 36-h. p. motor; ignition system is identically the same as used on single-cylinder motors of ordinary design; no reciprocating parts; controlled like a Corliss Steam Engine; centrifugal force puts the gas into the cylinder under pressure.
FRED. SPOONER PHONE 3472-3 COL. C. S. WELLS
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official instruments in gordon bennett race, st. louis, and other international events.
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OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHER OF " AERONAUTICS " and THE NORTH ADAMS AERO CLUB
Photographs of all Ascensions at Pittsfield and North Adams
POSTCARDS lO CENTS Box 501. North Adams, Mass. For Sale also at "Aeronautics"
An airship, shaped like a bird, which has been under construction for several months by the Baj'onne Aerial Navigation Company, is nearing completion, and its inventor. Julius Uherkovich de Uherkocz, an Austrian nobleman, said yesterday, as he exhibited a model of the ship, that he feels assured the ship will meet all expectations and will solve aerial navigation, lie is planning to test the machine in Bayonne as soon as it is completed. The ship is now being put together in a large building adjoining the Bayonne Opera House, and the work is being done secretly.
This ship is shaped as nearly like a bird as possible and from end to end will measure 27 feet. It will be 12 feet in width. The tail will measure 14 feet and will be used as a steering apparatus, being operated by ball-bearing machinery. Immense wings are attached to both sides of the ship. They will extend 27 feet out from the body and will have a spread of 54 feet.
Motive power will be furnished by a 60-h. p. gasolene engine, which is being made in France and which will weigh 128 pounds. The ship will carry three persons and will be operated from within the body.
The inventor believes he will be able to send the ship along at from 60 to 100 miles an hour. The outside of the ship will be of silk, and the wings and tail will be of silk woven on bamboo. The wings and tail ma}' be set at any angle.
Aeronautics have assumed quite a commercial position with Carl E. Myers during his 30 years' continuous exploits, both as a pioneer and veteran. He regularly manufactures a complete captive balloon outfit, consisting of balloon with car for three to four persons, with cable, windlass, motor and hydrogen gas plant, selling for $1,200, with full instructions for operating anywhere. He also builds a regular size one-man airship, with 7-h. p. motor and gas plant, for $1,300. with instructions for operating anywhere. This full-size airship condenses into a bulk of 2x3 feet for transportation by express, together with the telescoped frame 2x9 ft., weighing 36 lbs. This equipment is the lightest yet produced, efficient and reliable, and is the result of 30 years' constant, successful experience, and is fully covered by patents.
The services of either Mr. Myers himself, or of competent operatives having years of experience with him, can be procured at moderate expense for operation with free balloons, captive balloons, or motor airships, without risk of failure involved with unreliable apparatus and inexperienced beginners, experimenting at the risk and expense of the public, or credulous employers.
The new dirigible of Zeppelin, the No. 4, cost $100,000. It is 7 meters longer than the previous model, that is, 12S meters long and 11.07 meters diameter. It is propelled by 3 motors of 140 h. p. each, and great speed is expected. The total weight of the propulsive apparatus is 2 kilograms less per horsepower than the previous one. It is expected also to be capable of covering a radius of 2.300 kilometers, that is, capable of going from Lake Constance to Koenigsbcrg and return, equal to a trip across Germany at its greatest length and return—more than the trip from Paris to Casablanca, in Italy, not far from Rome.—L'Automobile.
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The Celebrated French Aviation, Water-Cooled, 8 and 16 Cylinder Motors. Many manufacturers claim in their advertisements that they are building the best aviation motors but the Antoinette claims in the air the following records:
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Hydroplanes—Santos Dumont, JUilas. j
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Note: Several records made during April are given because the reports have just been received from abroad. This magazine publishes a record of every flight made by any American aero club member anywhere in the world. The name first given is the pilot.
April 3—Ernest Barbotte and Albert Lambert (Aero Club of St. Louis) in the "Aurore 3." 900 cubic meters, from St. Cloud, France, at 11:15 A. M., landing at 2:15 P. M., at Esternay, France. Duration, 3 hours. Distance, 63.37 miles.
April 4—Frank S. Lahm (Aero Club of America), and Albert B. Lambert (A. C. of St. Louis),Nn Mr. Lalini's balloon, Katherine Hamilton, of 800 cubic meters, from St. Cloud, at 1:30 P. M., landing at Gretz. Duration, 50 minutes. Distance, 26.09 miles.
April 12—E. \V. Mix and A. B. Lambert (A. C. of St. Louis) in the "Albatross," of 800 cubic meters, from St. Cloud, at 1:10 P. M., landing at St. Cheron. Duration, 2 hours 40 minutes. Distance, 22.37 miles.
April 14:—A. B. Lambert (A. C, St. Louis), alone in the "Eole 2," of 600 cubic meters, from St. Cloud, at 10:30 A. M., landing at Limours. Duration, 1 hour 30 minutes. Distance, 16.77 miles.
April 16—A. B. Lambert (A. C. of St. Louis), in the "Eole 2," of 600 cubic meters, from St. Cloud, at 11:45 A. M.. landing at Trappes. Duration, 1 hour 30 minutes. Distance, 11.18 miles.
May 5—A. Holland Forbes, W. F. Whitehouse, A. Leo Stevens (Aero Club of America) and Henry Whitehouse, in the "Conquerer," of 2,250 cubic meters capacity, from North Adams at 10:50 A. M., landing 4 miles from Canton, Conn., at 4:25 P. M. The general direction was south. "Sun playing hide and seek." Distance, 62 miles. Elapsed time, 5 hours, 35 minutes. Average speed, 11.1 miles per hour. This was the first trip of the Conqueror, the new balloon of Mr. Forbes built by Leo Stevens. About six thousand people viewed the start. Mr. Forbes has expressed the utmost satisfaction at the hydrogen-tightness of the new balloon and the extraordinarily light gas furnished by the Xorth Adams plant.
the conqueror. Win. f. Whitehon-e. Henry Whitehouse, i,eo Stevens
and A. Holland Forbes.
In tiie making of the balloon 1700 yards of percale were used, coated with 6 layers of varnish. "When inflated it stands 95 feet higlh In the first flight, besides two passengers. 60 bags of ballast were carried averaging 40 pounds apiece.
May 10—J. C. McCoy, Charles J. Glidden (both Aero Club of America) and Mel-vin Vaniman, the engineer of the Wellman airship which did not i\y to the pole, in the "Aero Club III.." 1,200 cubic meters, from St. Cloud, France, at 3:15 P. M., landing at Vigneux at 5:34 P. M. Distance, 13.98 miles. Elapsed time, 2 hours 19 minutes. Average speed. 6.03 miles per hour. Direction, S. E. Altitude, 1,000 meters.
May 13—J. C. McCoy, Charles J. Glidden (Aero Club of America) and Melvin Vaniman, in the "Aero Club III.," 1,200 cubic meters, from St. Cloud, Paris, at 12:30 P. M., landing at Bruys 3:30 P. M). Distance, 74.56 miles. Elapsed time. 3 hours. Average speed, 24.S5 miles per hour. Highest altitude, 8,856 feet. Direction, N. E.
May 13—Lieut. Frank P. Lahm (Aero Club of America), Major Edgar Russell
and Capt. Chas. S. Wallace, the Disbursing Officer of the Signal Corps, in the Signal Corps io, from Washington, at 1:30 P. M., landing near Woodwardville P. O., Md., at 4:10 P. M. Distance, 20 miles. Elapsed time, 2 hours 40 minutes. General direction, N. E. Average speed, 7.5 miles. Experiments were made in receiving messages by wireless telegraph. Messages were sent at different times between 1:45 P. M. and 3:30 P. M. by the Washington Navy Yard and the Annapolis wireless stations. All messages were distinctly heard in the balloon. A small portable receiving set was carried in the balloon car, a 300-foot wire was suspended and a wire screen attached around the outside of the car. The trial was a complete success. The altitude varied between 300 and 4,200 feet, with no apparent effect on the receiving of the wireless-grams.
Miss Forbes: "Conqueror, i christen thee!"
May 13—J. C. McCoy, Chas. J. Glidden (both A. C. of America) and Melvin Vani-man, in the Aero Club 3, of 1,200 cubic meters from St. Cloud, at 12:30 P. M., landing at Bruys at 3:30. Duration, 3 hours. Distance, 74.56 miles. Direction, S. W. Highest altitude, 2,700 meters.
May 18—Griffith Brewer and Chas. J. Glidden (A. C. of America), in the Lotus, of 1,000 cubic meters from London (Battersea), at 5 P. M., landing at Chalk, Kent, at 7 P. M. Duration, 2 hours. Distance, 24.85 miles. Direction, E. Highest altitude, 1,650 meters.
May 19—Griffith Brewer and Chas. J. Glidden (A. C. of America), in the Satellite, of 28,000 cubic feet, from London, at 6:15 P. M., landing at Welling at 7:15 P. M. Duration, 1 hour. Distance, 13*4 miles. Direction, E. Highest altitude, 3,200 feet.
May 20—Griffith Brewer and Chas. J. Glidden (A. C. A.), in the Lotus, of 1,000 cubic meters, from Bath, at 4:22 P. M., landing at Bragdon 8 P. M. Duration, 3 hours 38 minutes. Distance, 15 miles. Direction, N. E. Altitude, 700 meters.
May 22—Griffith Brewer and Chas. J. Glidden (A. C. A.), in the Lotus, of 1,000 cubic meters from Bath, at 4:55 A. M., landing at Brackley 6:55 A. M. Duration, 2 hours. Distance, 70 miles. Direction, S. W. Altitude, 1,300 cubic meters. This is Mr. Glidden's eighth ascension and makes his total aerial mileage 345 miles.
May 23—A. Holland Forbes (Aero Club of America), Lawrence Mott, Edward Langley and A. D. Potter (North Adams Aero Club), in the Conqueror, 2,250 cubic
meters, from North Adams, at 11:55 A. AL, landing at East Andover, N. H., on the birthplace of Daniel Webster, at 5:15 P. M. Distance, 86 miles. Elapsed time, 5 hours 20 minutes. Average speed, 16.1 miles. General direction, N. E.
May 23—A. Leo Stevens (Aero Club of America), Mrs. E. C. Peebles and E. C. Peebles, superintendent of the gas works at North Adams, in the North Adams No. 1, 1,000 cubic meters capacity, from North Adams, at 2 P. AL, landing at Wilmington, Vt, at 3:30 P. M. Distance, 35 miles. Elapsed time, 1 hour 30 minutes. Average speed, 23.3 miles. Highest altitude, 5,600 feet. General direction, N. E.
May 23—Samuel King, Henry S. Gratz, Dr. T. Chalmers Fulton, Arthur T. Ather-holt (all of Aero Club of Philadelphia and Ben. Franklin Balloon Ass'n) ; Hugh L. Willoughby, Alan R. Hawley and C. B. Harmon (all of A. C. of America) in the Ben.
Washington from a Balloon at a height of 700 feet. Photograph taken by Major Rnssel.
Franklin from Point Breeze, Philadelphia. Descent was made near Belair, N. J., about 6 miles from Camden, where Messrs. Gratz, Willoughby and Hawley left the party. The remaining members of the party continued the trip. No ascension record blank has been received from the Philadelphia clubs.
May 26—Lieut. Frank P. Lahm (Aero Club of America), Capt. Chas. S. Wallace, S. C, Sergt. Ward (Balloon Det.) and Corp. Rosenberger (Balloon Det.) in the Signal Corps 10, from Washington, at 2:07 P. M., landing at Grange, Md., at 3:56 P. M. Distance, 38 miles. Elapsed time, 1 hour 49 minutes. Average speed, 21 miles. General direction, N. E. Highest altitude, 1,900 meters.
THE FIRST BALLOON TRIP MADE BY A WOMAN FROM NORTH ADAMS.
Mrs. Edwin C. Peebles.
My first balloon ascension was made in company with my husband and aeronaut Leo Stevens as pilot on the afternoon of May 23rd. The ascension was made in the "North Adams No. 1" from the grounds of the Aero Club at North Adams, Mass.
It was two o'clock when we left the ground, just two hours after the big "Conqueror" had departed. It was reported that we were to attempt to overtake the latter, but this was not true, as we were out merely for a short pleasure trip.
Our balloon rose so slowly that as Mr. Stevens dropped the 275-foot drag line, some fifty feet of it fell upon the ground. We took a northeasterly course and floated slowly over the city at a height of about twenty-six hundred feet.
I had prepared myself for any and all kinds of unusual sensations on my first flight, so was agreeably surprised to find that there were none whatever. I felt not the slightest fear at any time and had no hesitation, even at the first, in leaning over the car to watch the drag line. Neither was I troubled with a roaring in my ears which bothers a great many balloonists.
N. H. Arnold, L,eo Stevens, E. C. Peebles, Mrs. Peebles, Dr. Forester.
The weather was anything but ideal for ballooning, being hazy and sultry with sudden bursts of sunshine, followed by cold currents of air which made it impossible to maintain an equilibrium for more than a few minutes at a time. While these conditions necessarily cut short our trip, they presented an excellent opportunity to note the effects of temperature upon a balloon, and to watch Mr. Stevens grudgingly dispense each ounce of sand was to learn something of the value of ballast in ballooning.
As we approached Hartwellville, Vermont, the sun came out and sent us up to a height of fifty-six hundred feet. This was the highest altitude reached on the trip. At that time we were above most of the clouds and soon passed into a thick white haze which rhut off all sight of the earth. It was then intensely hot, like being in an "aerial Turkish bath," and Mr. Stevens hung a coat on the ropes to protect us from the sun.
In a few minutes we were clear of the haze and began to descend. We found a strong air current quite close to the ground and moved rapidly for some time, trailing our drag line over the tops of the trees.
While Vermont does not always furnish the best of landing places, its scenery is unsurpassed. The view from a balloon at an altitude of several thousand feet must be seen to be appreciated. To describe_it is impossible.
We crossed several ranges of mountains and soon came in sight of Wilmington, Vt. Our ballast was now nearly gone and after climbing the range north of the town Mr. Stevens chose a landing protected from the wind by a hill. When the anchor was dropped it buried itself nearly out of sight in the soft ground.
The car settled to earth with a scarcely perceptible jar, Mr. Stevens pulled the rip cord and the envelope collapsed without moving the car an inch. Our easy landing was quite remarkable in view of the fact that it was made without an ounce of sand, and was a strong tribute to the skill of our pilot.
We had been in the air an hour and a half, travelled about thirty-five miles and landed three and a half miles from Wilmington.
My experience has made me an ardent balloonist and both my husband and myself hope to make a long distance flight early in the Fall.
Another Aeronautic School.
A ballooning school has been established by Georges Gass. The 'first ascension was made from Colombes in the balloon "Bengali," of 630 cubic meters, M'. Gass, the director of the school, acting as pilot.
THE BALLOON AS AN AID TO A STRANDED SHIP.
Eberhardt P. Nicholson.
The sketch shows a stranded vessel connecting with the shore by the use of a balloon and an automatic device by which an anchor is dropped when the balloon is over shore. It may, of course, be said that the wind is not always inland, but that should be no reason for not having this apparatus aboard to be used when, in case of a wreck, the wind is inland.
The box containing the apparatus has hinged sides and a hinged lid, so that it can be opened as shown in the illustration. Gas is let into the balloon from the tank, the
rubber connection "a" is released, carrying the box "b" that has the releasing device, and the anchor "c," while a rope unwinds from the drum "g." The rope carries two very flexible insulated wires connected with the batter}- "c" and switch "d." The drum "g" has a commutator spring "f" at each end of its shaft. When the balloon is deemed to be over the shore a current from the battery is sent through the switch and releases the anchor.
Government Dirigible Nearing Completion.
The frame and motor, which have been building at the plant of the G. H. Curtiss Mfg. Co. at Hammondsport, are now entirely complete. The frame was described in the April number.
The Curtiss motor has been reduced in weight from the estimated figure given in the April number. This motor, which is now awaiting trial, has 4 cylinders and at 1,500 r. p. m. will develop 25 h. p. The weight is but 100 lbs., including carbureter, distributor and oiling devices, but does not include, of course, the battery or magneto, gasoline tank, etc. This is, without doubt, the lightest practical air-cooled motor in use anywhere. The cylinders are of cast iron; aluminum crank case; 4-throw Vanadium crank shaft; Parsons white brass bearings; mechanically operated concentric valves and auxiliary ports.
All sizes from smallest
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CJ 7 h. p., 2-cylinder, i-man Airship complete with patent, portable hydiogen generators, $1,300 cash.
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ship nights made at any time or place.
CARL E. MYERS,
FRANKFORT, N. Y.
THE FIRST FLIGHTS OF THE NEW DIRIGIBLE. A. Roy Knabenshue.
On Thursday, May 24th, after working like mad all day, I succeeded in getting ready and made a flight at 7:20 P. M., carrying Chas. K. Hamilton and Earl Hess with me. We made merely a short flight of about one mile all told and returned to the starting point.
The next day the wind blew between eighteen and twenty miles an hour all day.
At six o'clock in the morning of Saturday I made ready, and about the time I was in shape to balance up, the frame broke in two. I spent all the morning making repairs, and about half past two o'clock in the afternoon we made a start, sailing a mile west, then turning and sailing east until we were over the city at an elevation of five thousand feet, at which point I called attention to the view. We could see across Lake Erie and discern plainly the islands in the lake as well as Sandusky City. We released gas and came down to 2,000 feet when the carbureter flooded and the engine stopped. The distance from the grounds to Summit and Adams streets is about three
A. Roy Knabenshue leaving the ground after calling on Gov. Harris, Columbus, O.
miles. We sailed back to within one mile of the starting point before the engine stopped. Wc then settled into the ball grounds and broke up a game between Toledo and Indianapolis. I emptied the gas, rolled up the balloon and carted the apparatus out to the grounds again.
In making the landing someone had the rope and pulled down so hard that the frame came in contact with the fence and broke in two.
I had aeroplanes just back of the propeller, with thirty square feet of surface, and they were so arranged that from my position I could turn them in either direction at an angle of about forty degrees. I found no matter how I turned the planes they had the effect of keeping the nose up. As a consequence, we kept going up. I had Hess walk forward three sections beyond me, and it still kept ascending—and when we started we were heavy. So you see, the forward aeroplanes will not do.
A meeting has just been held in Brussels under the auspices of the Société Aéronautique de Belgique for the purpose of creating an "international office of aeronautical documentation." Among those present were Comte Henry de La Vaulx, M. C. van Overbergh, M. G. Lecointe, M. de La Fontaine, M. P. Otlet. M. Fernand Jacobs, M. Wouwermans, M. E. Deladrier, M. Damry, Prince Albert de Ligne, Duc d'Ursel, M. Edm. Hcirman, M. Hermans, Comte Adrien van der Burch, Comte Hadclin d'Oultremont and Captain Mathieu. The Due d'Arenberg was elected president and Comte Henry de la Vaulx and Comte H. d'Oultremont were asked to explain the aims of the new institution at the conference of the International Aeronautical Federation, which is to be held soon in London.—Paris Herald.
NEW AERO CLUBS.
Aero Club of California.
The Aero Club of California was organized at Los Angeles on May 26th. One committee was appointed to draft by-laws, another to select a location for club grounds, secure data on air currents in Southern California, etc. Several members arc now building machines and it will be the aim of the club to aid in the development of the members' apparati.
Steps are to be taken to secure affiliation with the Aero Club of America.
San Antonio Aero Club.
Dr. Fred J. Fieling, an automobilist and motor boat enthusiast, has started an aero club in San Antonio, Texas.
Aero Club of the Northwest.
An aero club has been incorporated at St. Paul, Minn., the particulars being given in another part of this issue.
PITTSFIELD AERO CLUB.
The balloon recently purchased from Leo Stevens is to be christened "The Heart of the Berkshires," and it is propostd to have Mr. Glidden the guest of honor on the initial trip. A number of carrier pigeons will be taken along to be released at intervals.
BALLOON RACING FOR MAY.
Point-to-Point Contest of Aeronautique C. de France.
In this race for a predetermined objective point, six balloons were entered. It was won by M. Ravaine in the "Favori," having landed within 2 kilometers of the chosen point, situated 45.5 kilometers from the start. The nearest competitor descended 5 kilometers from the point chosen. Each one was allowed to select his own objective point.
The start was from the park at Reuil on May 3, and under the organization of the Aeronautique Club de France.
Pursuit Race of A. C. Sud Ouest.
On the 10th the A. C. Sud-Ouest organized a pursuit race, with 12 starters. The pilot balloon landed at Cesten, situated about 50 kilometers from Bordeaux, the start. The contest was won by the Malgre-Nous which landed about 27 meters from the pilot balloon. The second nearest was distant 80 meters and the third 350 meters. This is certainly an interesting phase of balloon contests.
Pursuit Race in Sweden.
On May 15th a balloon-automobile race took place at Stockholm, Sweden. One condition was that if the pursuing automobiles reached the balloons within forty minutes of the time of their landing the automobilists had won. A second was that the balloons should descend with a radius of 50 kilometers. Three balloons took part and all escaped capture by the automobilists by sailing over the straits.
Long Distance Race of Aero C. de France.
This race took place on May 16th from St. Cloud, nine balloons starting. Many Americans were present, among them: Samuel H. Valentine, Chas. J. Glidden, J. C. McCoy and Hart O. Berg, the representative in Europe of the Brothers Wright.
The rules imposed two persons in the basket for balloons of from 630 to 945 cubic meters. There was one balloon of 330 cubic meters, with one passenger, necessitating handicapping.
The race was won by the "Inch Allah," 600 cubic meters, of Francois Peyrey. The distance made was some 550 kilometers, 341.75 miles. The duration was about 23 hours. Confirmed cable has not yet been received.
Distance Race at Barcelona.
Eight balloons started, on the 18th, in this first race of the season for the Royal Aero Club of Spain. Some of the balloons met with ill luck.
Senor Montoyo, pilot of the "Quo Vaclis," was caught in a gale over the Pyrenees mountains and the basket struck the rocks. Sr. Montoyo tried to open the valve but it would not work. Swinging about in the wind, the pilot was thrown out and the balloon ascended with his aide, Captain Cortades, who was enjoying his first ascent. After an hour's flight the balloon dropped with its occupant, who was considerably scratched and bruised. He finally crawled to a town. Sr. Montoyo was discovered in a helpless condition by a peasant.
Sr. M'agdalena in the "Alcotan" had his guide rope seized by the peasants. Ballast was thrown out and the men dropped the rope, but in the quick ascent the balloon struck a rock and Sr. Magdalena had his arm injured.
One of the balloons caught fire on the descent from some peasants smoking. Another balloon was fired upon with revolvers or rifles.
Aero Club of France Distance Race.
Eight balloons started in the distance contest of the A. C. F. on the 24th, at St. Cloud.
International Balloon Race at London.
On May 30th the Aero Club of the United Kingdom conducted an international balloon race from Hurlingham Park, the winner of which to be the pilot who landed his balloon nearest a designated objective point determined just before the start.
Thirty-one balloons were entered: twelve British, thirteen French, three German, two Belgian and one Swiss. At the last moment a valve defect prevented one from starting.
The winner was Griffith Brewer, representing the British club, in the "Lotus" of 1,000 cubic meters, lauding within 1,966 yards of the designated spot, after accomplishing a flight of miles. The "Valkyrie" of 1.69S cubic meters was second, landing 2,166 3'ards from winning point, C. F. Pollock pilot. The Belgian entry was third.
An object of art or $300 was offered as a first prize by "The Car Illustrated;" a cup of the value of $100, second prize, offered by Sir Thomas Lipton; another cup of $50 value offered by Sir Thomas Dewar as third prize. The fourth and fifth prizes were medals. The most successful foreign competitor will receive a special prize of $300 presented by th^ Royal Automobile Club.
GORDON BENNETT BALLOON RACE.
The Aero Club of France have named their representatives as follows: Jacques Faure, Henry de la Vaulx and Alfred Leblanc. Leblanc is the only one who was in the last race at St. Louis. The alternates are: Emile Carton, Louis Cappazza and Ernest Barbotte.
There were 10 contestants in the elimination race held on the 10th of May at Cologne to determine the third representative for Germany. Dr. Niemeyer was chosen after completing a trip in the Abercron from Cologne to Przibislau, in Bohemia, lasting 26 hours. The other representatives are Erbsloh, last year's winner, and Captain Abercron. All details of the preliminaries for this race have been given in "Aeronautics."
The rules have been made public by the D. L. V. Each contestant in the Gordon Bennett on Oct. 11 must deliver his balloon to the committee on the 8th. Each pilot will receive a certain number of telegraphic forms to fill out and throw overboard during the trip every half hour above the cities or villages or other accessible parts. We have already published the names of the jury and starters.
On October 10th here will be also an international contest for a fixed objective point, as well as a contest for duration. For the former balloons of all sizes will be admitted and for the endurance contest balloons must be of 500 to 2200 cubic meters capacity.
The representatives of the Aero Club of America have not been named.
Another Guaranteed Flying Machine in America.
Messrs. Triaca and Stevens have been advertising to sell a foreign aeroplane guaranteed to fly a kilometer, but now comes the announcement of the first American aeroplane to be offered for sale with a guarantee attached.
The G. H. Curtiss Mfg. Co., of Hammondsport, announce: "We are in a position to accept orders for and deliver heavier-than-air flying machines of the aeroplane type, built to carry one man, start with a 200-foot run from any reasonably smooth surface of ground and alight without damage in any open field; machine to be demonstrated in a flight of one kilometer. Deliveries can be made in 60 days. Price, $5,000."
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the owner delivers the vehicle to the morris european express
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The Seven Men in America Who Have Actually Flown in Motor Driven Aeroplanes.
Wilbur Wright Orville Wright
A. M. Herring Lt. Thos. Selfridge
F. W. Baldwin G. H. Curtiss
J. A. D. McCurdy
Air. Curtiss, so far as we can find out, has flown a greater distance—1,020 feet—on first trial than any other aviator in the world. The time was 19 seconds.
It is to be regretted that our foreign friends do not seem to realize the state of the art in America with respect to the few machines we have. From published statements they either do not realize or hesitate to admit it. How slow the}' were in admitting the reality of the Wright Brothers' flights—and just as we thought they had been brought to admit the facts, the recent flights of the Wrights in North Carolina revived the questions of doubt and the slight accident seemed proof positive to them of the untruthfulness of all we claim for our countrymen.
Not only was America the first, through Langley. to bring about a realization of the possibility of flight by means at hand, but also the first to produce a motor driven model and the first to produce a man-carrying machine that flew.
And are not all the machines flying abroad to-day duplicates of the Herring-Chanute-Wright model?
Dr. R. M. Randall, of the North Adams Aero Club, has purchased the "Stevens 22, of 22,000 cubic feet capacity.
Pittsfield Aero Club, Pittsfield, Mass. Incorporators: President, Luke J. Mina-han, ex-Mayor Daniel England and Kelton B. Miller. The club has a capital stock of $5,000.
The Aero Club of St. Louis, which had charge of the local arrangements for the 1907 Gordon Bennett, on May 18th applied for a pro forma decree of incorporation. The stated purpose of the club is to advance and develop the "science of aeronautics and aerial research, aerial excursions, aerial races, expositions, congresses and to maintain aero garages and a clubhouse."
Aero Club of the Northwest, St. Paul, Minn. Incorporators: G. Huff Dorwood, J. Alexander Sloan, George A. Barton and Bert H. Lennon. The corporation has no capital stock and is formed to "encourage ballooning and other feats of aerial navigation and the promotion of athletics of all kinds." This is a "bran" new" club in America.
American Airship Co., Chattanooga, Tenn. Incorporators: E. L. Manning. George Bennett, Sidney Ilemstreet and George E. Mattice. Stock, $10,000. Object, to manufacture airships along the lines of an invention of one of the incorporators.
Van Vranken Airship Co., of Gloversville, N. Y. Directors: Chas. Dillenbeck. Samuel Y. Stockamore and Elmer E. Van Vranken. The capital stock is $2,000. The object is to give exhibitions.
Canton Bars Ballooning.
The Canton Club, which desired to use McKinley Park for making ascensions, has been restrained by the Court from cutting down two or three trees which were in the way. Salem is anxious to have the ascensions made there and has offered a park and a sum of money as a bonus.
To the Editor:
On the first day of June, we, the Aero Supply Co. (with Chas. H. Tappmeyer as President and General Manager, and Louis F. Horn as Vice-President and Treasurer) will discontinue our business.
However, we intend to boost "Aeronautics" in Cincinnati and other cities.
The writer wishes here to say: "Of all cities to be slow in taking up something new, Cincinnati is something like the United States, following up Germany in aeronautical work."
Mr. Norman G. Kenan, President of the Union Gas & Electric Co.. and owner of a balloon which was described in this magazine, docs not intend to use the bag at all.
Let us hope that Cincinnati will wake up like the U. S. Government did before it is too late.
LOUIS F. HORN.
INDEX TO VOLUMES I AND II.
Volume I started with the first issue, July, 1907. Volume II started with January, 190S. Volume III starts with the July, 190S, number. On account of the great amount of miscellaneous data, club reports and news items, only the principal articles are given in this index.
Conditions of Success with Flying Machines, by Octave Chanute. Theory of Balloon Leakage, by A. F. Zahm, Ph.D.
The Meteorological Conditions Above St. Louis, by Professor A. Lawrence Rotch.
Progress in Aeronautics, Editorial.
Aeronautics in England, by Major B. Baden-Powell.
Wings More Efficient than Screws.
Schools of Instruction in Aeronautics Established in Germany and France.
Our Aero Club, Editorial.
Light Engines, by Harry E. Dey.
The Highest Ascent by Man, by Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch.
Balloon Voyages, by M. Montgolfier.
The Dirigible Balloon, by Israel Ludlow.
Scientific American Flying Machine Trophy.
The New Bleriot Aeroplane.
The Scientific American Trophy for Flying Machines of the Gasless Type, Editorial. That Prize, Editorial.
Dirigible Balloon and Heavier-than-Air Machine Contests at St. Louis.
Gordon Bennett Balloon Race.
Atmospheric Explorations Conducted by the Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory. The Resistance of Air to the Motion of Plane Surfaces, by Otto G. Luyties. The New Baldwin Dirigible.
The Prize—Once More, Editorial.
Gordon Bennett Balloon Race.
Aero Club of America Exhibition.
Aero Club of America Ascensions, a Table.
Preparatory School for Military Aeronauts Founded by the Aeronautique Club de
France, by M. J. Sauniere. Gammeter Orthopter, by H. C. Gammeter. Antoinette Aeroplane.
Some Considerations of the Helicopter, by M. Paul Cornu.
De la Vaulx Aeroplane.
British Military Dirigible.
Japan and America, by Rudolph Martin. The New Parseval Dirigible. Chronology.
The History of Airships. Antoinette Motor.
Aeronautic Motors, by Harry E. Dey.
Longest Balloon Voyage, Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch.
Santos-Dumont No. 16.
Last Call for That Prize, Editorial. Gordon Bennett Balloon Race, St. Louis. Story of Winner's Trip, by Oscar Erbsloh. Dirigible Competitions at St. Louis.
International Aeronautical Congress, New York, Oct. 28-29, with addresses.
Notes of a Russian Military Aeronaut on the Application of Ballooning to Land and
Naval Warfare, by Lieut.-Col. F. A. Postnikov. Aerology in Germany, by Dr. Reinhard Suring. Light Engines, by Walter L. Brock. Development of an Aeroplane, by L. J. Lcsh. Chronology of Events. School of Aeronautics in America. Aeronautic Societies of the World.
The Need for a Club Park, Editorial.
Ballooning, and How I Became Addicted to the Habit: Dirigibles, by A. Leo Stevens.
Bleriot No. 7.
Santos-Dumont No. 19.
My Voyage in the Gordon Bennett, by Rene Gasnier. The Trip of the United States, Major H. B. Hersey. The Story of the Abercron, by Paul Meckel.
The Winning of the Lahm Cup, by Capt. Chas. De F. Chandler. Chronology.
The Airship of the Navy, by Admiral C. M. Chester.
The Government Dirigible and Dynamic Flyer, Editorial.
The Air Fight Over Trieste, by Wm. Bcvicr Ashley.
Wright Brothers' Flying Machine, by Captain A. Hildebrandt.
Aeronautics in the U. S. Signal Corps, by General James Allen.
The Advantages of Aerial Craft in Military Warfare, by Major Geo. O. Squier.
Our Army and Aerial Warfare, by Lieut.-Col. Wm. A. Glassford.
Some Model Aeroplane Experiences and Details of Man-Carrying 'Avroplane," by A. V. Roe.
Note on M!r. A. V. Roe's Paper, by Octave Chanute. Specifications of Army Dirigible and Flying Machine. My Flights, by Henry Farman.
The Flight of the Bell Tetrahedral Kite, by Lieut. T. Selfridge. Dirigible Balloons with Screw in Front, by Carl E. Myers. The Acceleration of Wind Over Mountains, by S. P. Fergusson. The Lost La Patrie. Chronology.
The "California Arrow," by Carl Dienstbach. Speed of American Dirigibles at St. Louis.
The Aviation Prize Again, Editorial. Aeronautics in Great Britain. Paris Letter.
Farman Wins Grand Prix.
Under Fire in a War Balloon at Santiago, by Ivy Baldwin.
Memorandum on the Santiago Captive Balloon, by Lieut.-Col. Wm. A. Glassford.
The Military Value of Balloons, by First Lieut. Geo. A. Wieczorck.
Aerial Screw Ice Boat, by W111. Bcvicr Ashley.
Experiments with Model Flying Machine, by Edward XV. Smith.
Discussion of Mr. Smith's Paper, by Octave Chanute.
De Marcay-Kluytmann Dirigible.
On the Determination of the Speed of Flying Mlachines, by Otto G. Luyties. Bayard Airship.
Gastambidc-Mengin Monoplane, by M. Mengin. Military Dirigible for Belgian Government. Ville de Paris at Verdun. Junior Aero Club of the U. S.
The Government Dynamic Flyer, Editorial.
The Value of the Motorless Glider, by James Means.
The Hammondsport Aero Experiment Station.
On the Use of Liquid Hydrogen and Hydrogen-Producing Compounds in Long Distance Balloon Flights, by Darwin Lyon. The Williams Helicopter.
Curvature a Relative Term, by Geo. A. Spratt. Discussion of Air. Spratt's Paper, by Octave Chanute. International School of Aeronautics.
The Dihedral Angle in Kites and Aeroplanes, by James Means. Helicopter Jean Bertin.
Affiliation Agreement of French Aero Clubs with the Aero Club of France. Paris Flying. Farman II. Aeronautic Records.
An Aviation Prize in America, Editorial. Aviation Prizes, a List.
The Advantages of the Helicopter Over the Aeroplane, by Otto G. Luyties. What the Aeronaut Can Do for Meteorology, by Professor Cleveland Abbe. Our 52-Honr Balloon Trip, by Dr. Kurt Wegener.
The Kirst Successful Trial of the Aeroplane "Red Wing" of the Aerial Experiment
Association, by First Lieut. T. Selfridge. March Aeroplane Flights at Issy. Aero Club of America Banquet and Speeches. Gordon Bennett 1908.
Equilibrium and Control of Aeroplanes, by L. J. Lesh.
Construction and Equipment of Wind Tunnels, by A. F. Zahm, Ph.D.
The New Baldwin Dirigible for the Government.
Hydrogen at Low Cost to Advance Building of Dirigibles, by Albert C. Triaca. On the Use of Liquid Hydrogen and Hydrogen-Producing Compounds in Long Distance Balloon Flights, by Darwin Lyon. A Table for Finding the Ascensional Force of Gases, by Captain Chas. De F. Chandler.
The Representatives of the People and the War Department, Editorial. $25,000 American Aviation Prize Fund. Coruu Helicopter.
The Art of Flying, by Victor Silberer. With the Aviators.
Gliding, the New Coming Sport, by Albert C. Triaca. The Helicopter, by C. H. Chalmers, E. E.
A MLtary Reconnoisauce in a Balloon During the Russo-Japanese War, by Lieut.-Col. F. A. Postnikov.
On the First Observations with Sounding Balloons in America, Obtained by the Blue Hill Observatory, by Professor A. Lawrence Rotch.
Atmospheric Explorations Conducted by the Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory.
The Use of the Upper Air Data in Weather Forecasting, by Prof. Alfred J. Henry.
The Possibility of Extending Our Knowledge of the Sun and of Atmospheric Absorption, by Prof. W. J. Humphreys.
On the Use of Liquid Hydrogen and Hydrogen-Producing Compounds in Long Distance Balloon Flights, by Darwin Lyon.
What the Aeronaut Can Do for Meteorology; Government Ascension Blanks for Aeronauts, Editorial.
Statement of the Wright Brothers' Flights in North Carolina During May, by Orville
and Wilbur Wright. Watching the Wright Brothers Fly, by Byron R. Newton.
The Work of the Aerial Experiment Association, by Dr. Alexander Graham Bell. Symposium on Aeronautics, by Octave Chanute, Professor William H. Pickering, A. M.
Herring, General James Allen, John H. Moss, Augustus Post, Johnson Sherrick, Lee S.
Burridge, Hart Lyman, Charles W. Knapp, F. L. Laird, H. J. Wright, A. G. Batchelder,
F. W. Main, A. C. Triaca. California Airship Accident.
America's Famous Aeronaut, Captain Thomas Scott Baldwin, by Austin Gregory.
The First Balloon Trip Made by a Woman from North Adams, Mrs. E. C. Peebles.
The Balloon As an Aid to a Stranded Ship, by Eberhardt P. Nicholson.
Gordon Bennett Balloon Race.
The Williams Helicopter.
May Aeroplane Flights in Europe.
The Adams-Farwell Aeronautic Motor.
Issued in conjunction with or separate from "Knowledge & Illustrated Scientific News"
Devoted to aerostation, aviation, meteorology, aerology, etc. Edited by Major B. Baden-Powell and John H. L-edeboer
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